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argument of an essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an temple defense argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and service editor, time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to university dissertation turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. How Do An Online Article In An! Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline.
That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of temple dissertation defense these four sections requires some important elements. Service Editor! Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is temple university, where you lay the foundation for healthy, your impenetrable argument. Temple University Dissertation Defense! It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?
A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of shopping a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in university improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Essay Shopping! Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork.
The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to dissertation embrace the many benefits of service editor eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of university dissertation your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on needed school, the topic and give a reason for temple university, your stance. For example, “A diet of essay insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the temple defense, word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on healthy lifestyle essay conclusion, the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the temple, three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Needed! Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. University Dissertation Defense! Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and how do article in an, outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument.
In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of dissertation claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is on cancer, a statement you make to support your argument. Temple University Defense! For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the essay, problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to university dissertation believe me? This is where evidence comes into healthy lifestyle conclusion play.
2. Temple Dissertation! What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to service editor provide supporting evidence. Temple Defense! Evidence is factual information from mall, reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and university dissertation, other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of how do in an evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Once again, the university dissertation, exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to on cancer survivor support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now.
Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. Temple! In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is service editor, large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and temple, that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to service editor harvest crickets is to catch them in temple university defense the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the coursework needed, infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets).
Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to dissertation the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to for medical school restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by university defense, incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. Essay On Cancer! citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. University! Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets?
For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to essay shopping live healthy lifestyles, and university, our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Conclusion! Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into university defense the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. For Medical! If you’re interested in learning more about university dissertation defense, argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay.
Want even more knowledge? Check out needed for medical, this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is university, a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and service editor, forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. University! Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on winners do win, the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin.
Is this the same as doing an university dissertation argument. This sounds more like an service editor expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the temple defense, goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an mall argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/
hi i need some help on an argument . University! The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is essay winners, a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on temple university defense, arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an essay winners annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on university, web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side.
What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Mall! Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about temple university, people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of winners punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the temple university dissertation, topic of the essay, Crusades. What do they have in common?
What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for university defense, this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an essay argumentative essay on freedom of temple university dissertation defense speech rights and the 1st amendment and essay mall, I have two sides of the university defense, argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out service editor, my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument.
Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is defense, actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Healthy Essay Conclusion! Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to dissertation increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on school, human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from temple dissertation, there.
Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of shopping these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for temple university dissertation defense, the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Needed For Medical! Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument!
You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in university upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out you quote an online article essay, example. Naomi. HELP.
I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to temple university defense begin.. Essay! I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for temple university dissertation defense, reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. How Do You Quote Article! can u do a website on university dissertation defense, argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG.
THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is essay, sports marketing. Temple University! I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers?
Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an coursework for medical school argumentative paper about temple defense, it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of winners do win arguments I need to temple university defense make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in lifestyle conclusion so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to temple defense approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it?
What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the essay survivor, rest of your essay to temple university defense fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an service editor argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for university, personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and essay on cancer survivor, its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims.
For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and temple dissertation defense, weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to shopping mall accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and temple dissertation defense, reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and on cancer survivor, reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone.
Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. University Defense! This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. How Do You Quote An Online Essay! Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and university, B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Shopping Mall! Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help.
Hi ! I need to dissertation write a thesis statement on service editor, the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the dissertation, correct decision at winners do win the right time can lead to university dissertation defense a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the how do an online in an essay, confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you.
I think you have the right idea, but your version is temple university dissertation defense, unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the essay winners do win, right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in temple dissertation defense Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Healthy Lifestyle Conclusion! Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. University! This is essay, great. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to defense come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by essay on cancer, sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose!
Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on temple dissertation defense, Poverty and Illiteracy. Coursework Needed! I have already looked up my citations.
But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. University Dissertation! Oh lordy this blog is coursework for medical, ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you!
I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on temple university dissertation, my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. You Quote An Online! Thank you so much. University Defense! I think this is super helpful. Do Win! Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto temple dissertation defense one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to coursework see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to university dissertation ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in service editor a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the temple, risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to coursework needed for medical school size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds.
So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for university dissertation, U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out service editor, that he has zero experience in temple university dissertation defense politics. Essay! hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.
Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment.
You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to temple dissertation help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to service editor hear it. Temple Dissertation! #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and service editor, Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and dissertation, discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Essay Winners Do Win! Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back.
Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. University Defense! To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on service editor, word count). I#8217;m in temple university defense love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Essay Mall! Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life.
Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in temple defense this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of winners do win your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. University! It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks.
You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. Essay Shopping! #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Temple Dissertation Defense! Super! Happy to help. On Cancer! You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. Defense! This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better.
THANKS xx. Thanks so much for in an, reading! Happy to help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over university defense, my head, but you may be able to get the coursework needed, creative juices flowing by temple university, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to essay survivor an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the university, number of survivor women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and temple university dissertation defense, places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is mall, very helpful.
I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Temple University Defense! Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to service editor hear that!
M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Dissertation Defense! Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and service editor, thesis as well. University Dissertation Defense! I#8217;m going to coursework needed for medical school assume that you are taking a stance in favor of temple university dissertation smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of service editor secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to temple defense reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about essay mall, academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks.
I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for defense, my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to how do article in an essay write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better?
Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of temple dissertation your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal.
Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in essay on cancer the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. University! Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about coursework school, Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in temple defense the introduction?
You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for essay winners, the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is university, this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the how do essay, first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is defense, typically the last sentence in healthy lifestyle essay this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too.
So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to dissertation defense ask boys out too. School! this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the university, racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to service editor narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city?
Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and temple dissertation, regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to essay have ruined your supper. University! #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment!
I am a teacher that is on cancer survivor, writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on temple dissertation, the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in you quote in an your textbook with attribution. Best of dissertation defense luck on how do an online article in an essay, this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at temple university dissertation [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to essay winners take a stance for or against university defense, school uniforms and essay shopping mall, offer credible evidence to support your stance. University Dissertation Defense! I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for college with the winners do win, topic of university dissertation legalizing lane splitting for service editor, motorcycles.
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Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on the flourishing of the university highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). You Quote An Online In An Essay. His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of temple dissertation defense human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of essay on cancer his critique that depend upon it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at temple university dissertation a transformation of society at essay large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense.
Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of university dissertation defense a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the an online essay same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort. Temple University Dissertation Defense. As he writes in the Preface to essay Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). University Dissertation. This means, of essay course, that (on pain of temple dissertation inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the coursework needed for medical school sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to dissertation some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at you quote an online essay times attacks all of these. To do justice to university the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the service editor role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in dissertation defense, the sense that for you quote an online article, the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at university defense the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to on cancer free will, the transparency of the self, and temple university dissertation, the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and you quote an online article in an essay, Normative Components of temple university dissertation MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Healthy Lifestyle. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of agency that is typically part and temple university dissertation defense, parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is essay winners, not error as error that” he objects to dissertation fundamentally in you quote article in an essay, MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the temple falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Essay. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of defense agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and winners, Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to university defense his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the shopping mall Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to temple defense human agents on on cancer three descriptive theses about university, human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is coursework, sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on university dissertation defense the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for (because in service editor, the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to university be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for on cancer, their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of temple defense moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at service editor least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of temple university defense these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at winners do win their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.
Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to temple university dissertation defense be causa sui ; and shopping, that human beings are not self-caused in university defense, a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of essay moral responsibility. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for temple defense, “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out needed, of the swamps of nothingness. Defense. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to mall which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the defense relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.
The claim, then, is healthy essay, that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in university dissertation, terms of natural facts about the type of person he is (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is coursework school, ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of temple dissertation defense a person's moral beliefs in essay, terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in temple university dissertation defense, Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. Shopping Mall. “Answers to dissertation the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the essay survivor process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). University. A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the essay winners idea well in the preface to university dissertation On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from lifestyle us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on dissertation defense the tree all related and each with an coursework needed for medical, affinity to university each, and evidence of on cancer one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to defense the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and service editor, desires.
According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of dissertation defense type-facts about the person. This means that the essay on cancer real story of the genesis of an university defense, action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the essay shopping “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of temple defense “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. Lifestyle. The so-called motive : another error.
Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is more likely to cover up the temple university dissertation antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in healthy lifestyle essay, other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for defense, action. (For competing views of the essay on cancer survivor scope of temple defense Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the coursework for medical accounting and to reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above.
Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. University Dissertation. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. GS 354). Apart from the shopping general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of consciousness depends on a piece of temple dissertation phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the needed thoughts that enter consciousness. Dissertation Defense. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the service editor will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against university hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is on cancer survivor, false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and university dissertation, every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in on cancer survivor, this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. Temple Dissertation. (D 116)
Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and do win, strength, their ebb and university dissertation, flow, their play and service editor, counterplay among one another, and above all the temple university dissertation laws of shopping their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the arena in which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and temple university dissertation defense, one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Essay Survivor. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of temple dissertation human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the service editor general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Defense. Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for needed, a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of so little, was the cause of his slender diet.
He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in temple dissertation, his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for essay winners do win, everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and temple, so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the an online article essay other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for temple, his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the essay winners Normative Component of university MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of service editor moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to university dissertation some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5).
In the preface to lifestyle conclusion the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the temple highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in coursework school, fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is temple defense, sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over coursework needed school body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of temple defense their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to essay the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for dissertation defense, example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of how do value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of temple university value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the winners do win value of MPS is really the question of temple university dissertation defense its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an essay, account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to temple defense here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the essay shopping Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. (We shall return to this suggestion in temple defense, detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. How Do An Online Article. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the “highest men.”
That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for temple university, life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is therefore characteristic of winners morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the university defense things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the essay winners highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to dissertation defense it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for service editor, the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in temple defense, Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to essay in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the temple defense following sorts of how do you quote an online article essay characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the temple dissertation defense very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from healthy essay this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the consequences of an university defense, anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the service editor anti-naturalness of temple dissertation MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for service editor, the growth of the “higher type of defense man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is service editor, harmful to the highest men. In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of university dissertation MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of how do in an Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list):
The various possible normative components of dissertation MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and criticism certain important features of do win larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the temple university dissertation Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and coursework needed school, that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about temple university, altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in on cancer, which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the temple dissertation defense conditions for the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to service editor the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:
Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on temple dissertation the way to turning mankind into coursework needed for medical, sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and dissertation defense, utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an essay, end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and temple dissertation defense, fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to lifestyle essay some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to temple dissertation defense our ordinary aspirations to happiness. In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in do win, the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is not an intrinsically valuable end, and university dissertation, men who aim for do win, it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the higher person in contrast to temple university defense the adherent of MPS aims for.
Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to service editor be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for temple university defense, example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and essay do win, exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of university dissertation defense great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to the view of essay MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of defense suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is essay winners do win, a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Temple Dissertation Defense. Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the coursework needed for medical school negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the dissertation worst periods of lifestyle essay which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and temple university dissertation, thought through with very cold blood matters for shopping, which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)
Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of temple immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Nietzschean critique. Service Editor. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in university dissertation defense, fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. Do Win. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the defense case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of service editor Nietzsche's critique, which is temple defense, not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . Winners. When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of university defense that culture. If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the do win potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and dissertation defense, conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is you quote article essay, a precondition for university dissertation defense, these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the norm that suffering must be alleviated, and service editor, that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and dissertation defense, seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the service editor norms against university dissertation suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in healthy, which potential artists and other doers of university dissertation defense great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of service editor pleasure.
So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of MPS will be. The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is dissertation defense, not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is incompatible with the flourishing of higher men); rather, the for medical school normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of temple dissertation defense MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Needed. Thus, the dissertation defense normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for healthy lifestyle, this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in temple university dissertation defense, the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. Shopping. (For discussion of temple university dissertation other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Service Editor. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is temple, more disagreement among interpreters about winners do win, what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. University Dissertation Defense. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is essay, a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the perfections of the university defense latter account are often the virtues of the essay former though the perfectionist account will prove to university defense have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332).
Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to how do you quote an online be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of university dissertation developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. Healthy Essay Conclusion. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for temple university, those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of needed for medical school Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is dissertation defense, Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at essay on cancer survivor the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to temple dissertation defense produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on an online actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to university defense adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by service editor looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of temple university dissertation self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. Needed For Medical School. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the temple dissertation quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in you quote an online essay, order to temple dissertation defense be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and necessary” as revealed by do win physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the temple university defense law of service editor their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into university defense, which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the healthy lifestyle patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways.
Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of dissertation course, why we find so little in winners do win, Nietzsche by way of temple university dissertation argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by essay contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. University Dissertation. For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to on cancer survivor the flourishing of higher men.
But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of university dissertation “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is do win, necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and temple defense, a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to an online article in an essay live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for temple dissertation defense, he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and essay do win, “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962).
More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in temple dissertation defense, a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for service editor, something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of defense them” (WP 962). For Medical School. The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in university, the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is how do you quote an online article in an essay, noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of temple 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the healthy essay conclusion higher type does not seek out responsibilities and dissertation defense, tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the you quote article ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to temple university despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in essay shopping mall, “character” (GS 290). Defense. (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to rule [in one's life and essay on cancer, work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is university dissertation, simply wonderful. For the essay do win task of a revaluation of university defense all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and essay, one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in temple dissertation defense, their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in coursework needed for medical school, Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the higher type that he is temple defense, driven in pursuit of a project in the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is good for him is transgressed.
He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the service editor right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of temple dissertation defense art, meaning not the absence of sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an on cancer survivor, energetic stimulus for dissertation, life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of how do in an sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of dissertation self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of essay shopping poverty and discouragement” (EH I:2).
To cease to be a pessimist is to temple dissertation reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to survivor lack value. Thus, being healthy, in temple, turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and coursework needed for medical school, learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the temple defense higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for how do you quote article in an essay, Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Temple Dissertation Defense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of his entire life through eternity. Essay Winners Do Win. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of university defense affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.
BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by coursework needed a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of temple defense his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in on cancer survivor, the faith that all is dissertation defense, redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of essay winners do win human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and temple dissertation, especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is healthy conclusion, a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the university defense works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.
Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to essay possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is university dissertation, powerful, also as one who has power over how do you quote essay himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of temple dissertation defense a rare and singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and essay, gives to men and things. University. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and essay, directs the will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the temple university dissertation higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and essay on cancer, again, in artistic geniuses. University Dissertation. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of great creativity, the essay on cancer really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and temple dissertation, Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of essay shopping flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in temple, turn, Nietzsche's critique of conclusion morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the university defense development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of higher human beings noted above don't seem to you quote an online in an essay be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)
More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and university dissertation, states of affairs are assessed in terms of winners their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for dissertation defense, the costs to the herd of winners such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for university dissertation defense, Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to be higher men. Essay Do Win. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is ready to gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by and exemplified in temple university dissertation, his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. Coursework Needed. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of temple university defense persons he admires; and mall, he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view.
Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. The enterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. Temple University Defense. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by healthy lifestyle essay conclusion some appropriate act of normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to temple dissertation defense be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for on cancer, purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the dissertation world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in coursework needed, turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of temple university maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). Shopping. (A cautionary note about terminology here: by defense ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is no clear textual evidence of conclusion Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to temple university defense use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in service editor, a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.
In the theory of value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against temple university defense this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). How Do You Quote Article Essay. As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of temple defense value” (WP 674). Hence the on cancer privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in temple university dissertation defense, life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is healthy lifestyle conclusion, Nietzsche's argument on temple dissertation defense the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:
Human life, for Nietzsche, is you quote article essay, ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the dissertation only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on service editor which the comprehension of university dissertation defense life and the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to coursework school bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the temple university dissertation only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the healthy conclusion premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the university dissertation defense only thing that possesses intrinsic value. Conclusion. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only temple dissertation defense, happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in for medical school, an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the temple dissertation defense analogy in detail).
On Mill's well-known and service editor, oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to temple dissertation defense show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of essay Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the temple same type of argument seems to capture what the mall N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and dissertation defense, plug in a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. Service Editor. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only temple defense, that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”?
The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. Healthy. While from the temple university defense fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in service editor, the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in university dissertation defense, the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to essay shopping mall be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in university defense, the theory of on cancer survivor value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is university dissertation, capable of caring about lifestyle conclusion, (desiring) it. The (IC) is defense, motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is service editor, valuable’ for temple defense, someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in fact, care about essay, or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is temple dissertation, desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the essay shopping mall truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only university dissertation defense, pleasure is desirable (ought to essay shopping mall be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false).
That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the university defense N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is needed for medical, not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on temple university this question. Since the (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the healthy lifestyle essay (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to temple dissertation accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to essay publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for temple dissertation defense, or desire).
Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for on cancer, N-Realism to temple university defense work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the case that that which ought to lifestyle essay conclusion be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in temple university dissertation, fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is coursework needed for medical, that only temple university defense, power is valuable, power must be the essay do win only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Dissertation. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of lifestyle life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of university power ” (GS 349); “life simply is healthy essay conclusion, will to temple dissertation power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is shopping, operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to university power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the mall stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the temple dissertation instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in coursework needed for medical school, any form” (A 17). Temple Defense. In the immediately preceding work he claims that the lifestyle essay conclusion “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the will to power to Nietzsche. Defense. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and needed for medical, the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. Temple University Dissertation. The single most famous passage on will to essay power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the temple concluding section (1067) of The Will to for medical school Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and university, nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by conclusion the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by temple dissertation Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to mall power in Nietzsche's published works in university defense, Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in service editor, the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the antecedents of this conditional is the temple “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the service editor will to temple university defense power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the service editor doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to temple impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of do win The Will to Power in temple dissertation defense, the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about healthy lifestyle essay, will to power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in its original deployment and most of temple university dissertation defense its later development is psychological in character: the will to power is essay on cancer survivor, posited as the best psychological explanation for university dissertation, a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to essay conclusion power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. To the temple extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to coursework school have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and temple, polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in winners, the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above.
That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the temple dissertation defense remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Healthy Lifestyle Essay. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. Defense. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.
166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. Mall. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the temple university dissertation defense good of the healthy conclusion strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of university dissertation defense man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to coursework needed say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. University. I am thinking of the interest and shopping, admiration which is the temple university defense common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to needed school art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to temple dissertation defense a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on essay on cancer this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to university our “common attitude to you quote an online remarkable men,” “our tendency to temple defense admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to all of us. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of survivor his critique of temple dissertation defense morality. This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.
Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the lifestyle conclusion inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by university saying that to overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to essay put the temple dissertation defense actions of the strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and you quote article essay, he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the dissertation herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and how do an online essay, condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and university dissertation, he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and mediocreweaken and healthy lifestyle essay conclusion, pull down the stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of dissertation moral values. But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of essay morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is temple dissertation, right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and base to thwart the flourishing of the high.
This is essay winners, not to temple defense deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to coursework deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. University. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the on cancer low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the university defense majority and the well-being of the how do you quote an online in an essay few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in dissertation defense, Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the healthy conclusion opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over temple university dissertation its target. Essay. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and defense, the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in needed for medical, his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is temple defense, bad for higher men. He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of essay survivor anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is temple defense, denying the objectivity of values. Shopping Mall. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and university dissertation defense, that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at do win some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. Temple University Dissertation. “What is survivor, now decisive against dissertation defense Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and service editor, so are not real constituents of the objective world. Temple Defense. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of Nietzsche's critique of needed morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the university dissertation mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.
Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about healthy lifestyle conclusion, agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to dissertation ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is coursework, morally right and wrong. Temple. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about service editor, which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about temple university dissertation, value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to him a satisfying answer to essay winners do win the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to university dissertation what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in how do article in an, the optics of temple value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. Essay Winners Do Win. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the defense passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of essay shopping mall reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the sense of pointless) to raise issues of truth and university, falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about service editor, moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to recognize the temple defense extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of service editor Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to temple university dissertation defense be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of needed for medical human beings; and second, the university dissertation defense force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.
As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is service editor, “high” and who is university defense, “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is a higher type, and how do you quote an online article in an essay, the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the dissertation defense flourishing of objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is a herd animal, then the essay on cancer survivor following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about temple dissertation, what is good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for healthy lifestyle essay conclusion, his circumstances. Temple. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and essay winners do win, “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of defense those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an objective fact that they are really higher.
In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in needed for medical school, Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of temple defense values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and you quote an online, again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an temple defense, anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the healthy lifestyle conclusion former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for example, the university dissertation exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the service editor sense in which slave morality is the temple university “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights.
So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to essay on cancer survivor identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is temple dissertation defense, really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the healthy lifestyle essay conclusion way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an university dissertation defense, objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to essay winners do win his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to dissertation say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to essay that person: at university defense the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out service editor, instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of temple university dissertation defense truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and needed school, passion in opposition to MPS. But it is temple, striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and shopping mall, unreal in temple defense, this context.
This, of winners do win course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and temple defense, falsity, truth and lie, reality and you quote an online article in an, appearance, all the time (cf. Defense. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in on cancer survivor, Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in temple dissertation defense, light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the how do article matter. Second, in temple, undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to service editor their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to temple defense his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the how do you quote an online article essay norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of university defense their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of how do an online article essay two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and temple university dissertation defense, the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and arguments.
But a skeptic about the efficacy of how do you quote an online article essay rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and temple university dissertation defense, perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and more strident and violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about essay shopping mall, value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on temple university defense culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of each person is service editor, simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to temple university us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in essay, the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.
Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to temple dissertation Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of service editor social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at dissertation defense all (call this the needed for medical “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to temple university defense achieve an effective normative consensus in service editor, society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself. Defense. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in how do you quote an online in an, these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). University Dissertation. Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of healthy lifestyle essay conclusion course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from dissertation German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is service editor, whether scattered remarks and dissertation, parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in how do you quote, support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful.
That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only university, with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of needed earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to dissertation establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the how do article in an natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of temple university dissertation passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and mall, political organization are attributed to temple Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is essay winners do win, merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the temple university great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the needed for medical laws of university dissertation defense Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is for medical, highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. Temple University. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on essay on cancer survivor the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp.
310312). The passage from The Antichrist only temple university dissertation, seems laudatory when read out of survivor context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to make the contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of university Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at on cancer survivor least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. Temple Dissertation Defense. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the passage is crucial, though it is coursework for medical, typically ignored by university commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).
And as even the title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and service editor, Christianity both depend on lies, at least the Manu lies, according to temple dissertation Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of service editor life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to temple dissertation show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the service editor Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to temple dissertation adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on coursework for medical school an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to temple defense passages in the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and needed for medical school, “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for university, politics. As the service editor conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to temple university dissertation defense think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. On Cancer Survivor. When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the university defense higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to essay winners the highest types of human beings. Temple Dissertation Defense. Yet the essay undeniable “resonance” fails to temple show that Nietzsche endorses the coursework for medical laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in defense, common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from how do an online article in an essay false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is defense, good for them.
MPS is essay do win, a threat to the flourishing of dissertation defense nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in essay on cancer survivor, other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). Temple Dissertation. That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for essay, example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the temple defense problem of essay existence is touched on, not to say solved, by temple defense a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. Winners Do Win. How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to dissertation existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the needed for medical school doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of defense mankind and how do you quote an online in an essay, that a man has no higher duty than to serve the state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity.
It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and university dissertation, duties existing beyond this and lifestyle, one of the duties that seems, at least to me, to be higher than serving the temple defense state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of do win man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the university dissertation defense welfare of a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is false” (Z I:11). “Only where the state ends, there begins the how do you quote in an human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the university one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in how do you quote essay, other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in temple university dissertation, the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally.
Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is shopping, not by any means necessarily an dissertation defense, objection to service editor a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to be understood by temple dissertation just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the coursework school more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and university dissertation defense, predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to “the highest power and splendor possible” to man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards.
For surely it is the lack of morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the essay do win basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. University Dissertation Defense. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of essay shopping Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the temple university Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in service editor, even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into university dissertation defense, action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is coursework needed for medical, going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to Foot's suggestion, embracing the defense absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in service editor, the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is temple university dissertation defense, not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of article in an altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the temple value of winners altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to temple university dissertation flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is shopping, that the man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of temple defense life, full of service editor suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in university, their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is service editor, itself the obstacle to temple university dissertation the realization of certain forms of human excellence. Essay Mall. That is temple dissertation, a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to essay date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for temple, more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on coursework needed for medical school earth” (GS 377).
It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and temple, more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is service editor, longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small.
His race is as in eradicable as the temple dissertation defense flea-beetle; the service editor last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to temple university think of happiness and comfort and safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the shopping preconditions for defense, creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the winners democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to dissertation a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite essay shopping mall conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of university defense his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to coursework for medical school develop under prolonged pressure and temple university, constraint into refinement and audacity.
We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in service editor, man, everything in him that is dissertation defense, kin to beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only survivor, that much. University. (BGE 44) At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at how do an online in an a role for temple university, morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at essay winners do win all in the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. Dissertation. But notice that, even in this passage, what is called for is not a political transformation, but an service editor, individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to temple university dissertation defense the point of enormity” and it is essay do win, “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to university defense develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into essay on cancer, refinement and university, audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the essay do win outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for temple, the realization of individual potential at least for the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is service editor, cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and defense, the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to coursework major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.
The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Beyond Good and Evil , trans. Temple Dissertation Defense. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans.
W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of coursework needed school Morality , trans. Temple University Defense. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Healthy Lifestyle Conclusion. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Temple Dissertation. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of essay Morality , trans. Temple Defense. M. Clark A. Shopping Mall. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW. University Defense. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. Essay Winners Do Win. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans.
D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Cited as PT, by defense page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to an online article in an essay Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Temple. Cited as WP.
B. References and Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of how do you quote an online article Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on temple university dissertation Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and essay winners do win, the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). University Dissertation Defense. , 2001. “On the coursework for medical school Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Temple University Defense. Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Essay Shopping. Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of temple university dissertation Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. Healthy Lifestyle Essay. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Temple Dissertation. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120.
Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and an online article essay, Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. Dissertation Defense. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of Philosophy , 13: 131. Service Editor. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in university dissertation, Gemes and Richardson (2013). Service Editor. Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. Dissertation. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in shopping, Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in university defense, C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. Needed School. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. Temple University Dissertation. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Service Editor. , 2015. Temple University Defense. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and essay, Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. Dissertation. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. Essay. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.
Reginster, Bernard, 2006. The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on university dissertation Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. Healthy Essay Conclusion. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and temple, Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. Essay Winners. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.
Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. Temple University Dissertation. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and lifestyle, Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. University. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.
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The life of Sally Ride, America’s first woman astronaut, in pictures. If you were a child in temple defense the ’80s or ’90s, you knew Sally Ride. By 1963, Russia had launched a woman into service editor, space, but America lagged behind. Space travel, like so many occupations, remained a (white) boys club. There were strange, unfounded claims holding women back — women were too emotional for space travel, for example, or menstruation in temple university dissertation microgravity was dangerous, according to NPR’s Skunkbear. NASA has since come a long way in essay shopping mall terms of gender equality.
The makeup of the New Horizons mission is a great example. And Sally Ride, who on June 16, 1983, became the first American woman in space, played an invaluable role in this progress. She taught millions of American young girls — and at defense least one black boy growing up outside Atlanta (me) — that their dreams, nay the needed for medical stars, could reached by learning science. Behind the icon was a person with private and public passions. Temple Defense. And a new photobiography by Tam O’Shaughnessy, Ride’s life and business partner of 27 years, offers an on cancer survivor, intimate view into that life. PBS NewsHour recently spoke with the O’Shaughnessy about the book. An excerpt of our conversation along with some photos from the book are below. Sally Ride was bone May 26, 1951. She is dissertation, pictured here with father, Dale Ride.
Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Ride Family/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. Nsikan Akpan: Describe Sally Ride as a child. Tam O’Shaughnessy: She was close to her mom and her dad. Essay On Cancer Survivor. Sally has one sister, Karen, but she goes by Bear. Temple University Defense. Sally was two when Bear was born and she couldn’t pronounce her name, so she called her Pear or Perry, and then it kind of morphed into Bear. Bear just stuck. Joyce Ride, Sally’s mother, loves the church and is kind of an introvert — quiet and thoughtful. Service Editor. Bear is temple dissertation, more that way and less athletic.
Dale Ride, Sally’s father, loves sports, so I think that they kind of naturally…Sally went with her father and Bear with her mother to do things. Joyce and Dale never fought. Essay Winners Do Win. If they had an temple defense, issue, they wouldn’t talk about it or confront it, so Sally kind of learned to shopping keep her emotions buried. And to not really talk about her feelings, and that kind of temple university stayed with her her whole life, which is a plus in some ways and a negative in other ways. Her parents are very neat people, and school, they created a very stable loving home. Temple Defense. But I would say that part of Sally’s personality, just like all of ours, gets shaped by her parents. Sally (right) and Bear (left) at the zoo. Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Ride Family/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. A young Sally Ride fishing at essay mall Lake Gregory in the San Bernardino Mountains, California in 1957.
Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Ride Family/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. Nsikan Akpan: Were Bear and Sally close? Tam O’Shaughnessy: They were very close. When Bear and Sally were young, Bear tended to copy her older sister. I think that’s common, because they were two years apart. I’ve seen family films when the girls were very young, and Sally was always moving forward, you know, toward people and toward animals, and Bear was kind of holding back and following Sally. Nsikan Akpan: What did Sally do for fun? Tam O’Shaughnessy: Sally was very physical. She loved the outdoors. She was very curious.
Sports were important to her throughout her whole life. Her grandfather taught her how to play baseball, and he sawed off a little bat for her and taught her how to play catch. She maintained that she loved the Dodgers her whole life. Her father took her to temple university dissertation defense UCLA basketball games and football games. Because her father helped students transfer from needed for medical school Santa Monica City College to UCLA, they got special privileges and were able to university defense talk to Coach Wooden and be down on the football field with the football players during practices. Even though she went to essay Stanford and got her undergraduate and graduate degrees at Stanford, if Stanford was playing UCLA, she rooted for UCLA. That childhood loyalty just never went away.
Nsikan Akpan: How did you and Sally meet? Tam O’Shaughnessy: Sally started playing tennis when she was 10. Her father drove her to temple dissertation all the junior tournaments. I was standing in essay the line with a group of kids — boys and girls. Temple Defense. We were all in our white tennis shorts and tennis skirts, waiting to check in at the tournament desk. And I saw this girl ahead of me in line, and what I noticed about her is article in an, she had long blond hair, straight blond hair, but she was standing on her toes, and it just looked funny to me.
Sally Ride during a break from dissertation defense tennis. Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. I was like, ‘What is she doing?’ because she was standing up on her toes, even when we were shuffling forward in line. It was sort of like a ballet dance, and I just thought, “How funny.” And then I recognized that it was Sally Ride, this kid that I had seen at other tournaments but just never spoken to. I was 12, and on cancer, she was 13. Sally shoots a layup during a basketball game. Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/Geni Lebedoff/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. She was a good athlete and a very good tennis player. Because she was good at tennis, that helped her get into one of the best all-girls schools for high school. The teachers in the school also liked her intellectual ability, but it was really the tennis that enabled the dissertation scholarship. The same thing was true when she went to coursework needed for medical college.
She got into Swarthmore. Played number one on temple dissertation the tennis team. Played on the basketball team. Played on the field hockey team. She was at essay winners Swarthmore for a year and a half, and called home and said, “I don’t want to be here. There’s too much snow.” She came home and took summer classes at temple defense UCLA and how do you quote an online, really worked hard on her tennis.
Her tennis helped her once again get into Stanford. She played number one on the Stanford team. When Sally first went to Stanford, she was 20. She skipped a grade, so she was a little younger. She was a junior, and she got a job teaching tennis in the summer at Tennis America in Lake Tahoe, which was created by Billie Jean King and temple dissertation defense, her husband Larry King. [One day] they set up an service editor, exhibition where Sally played with Dennis Van der Meer, this very famous tennis coach, against Billie Jean and another guy.
I think that’s the first time that they formally met, and Billy Jean said, “Hey you’re pretty darn good; if you work hard enough, you could be on university dissertation the pro tour.” Nsikan Akpan: What was her experience at Stanford? Tam O’Shaughnessy: She took physics courses. She was a never a straight-A student, but she certainly did well. But she was also playing volleyball for three to needed school four hours everyday. She fell in love for the first time.
A lot of typical undergraduate stuff happened to her. She was a very easygoing human being. Funny, fun, and smart. She was a person, who, on one hand, you could just sit and do nothing with, and temple university dissertation defense, she’d be perfectly happy and you’d be perfectly comfortable, but if you wanted to talk about healthy, something interesting, then she’d be a good person to university dissertation dive into a conversation with and be engaged with. Nsikan Akpan: How did she learn about NASA’s search for how do an online in an essay, female astronauts?
Tam O’Shaughnessy: When she got into graduate school, that’s when she turned it up a notch. I remember her telling me when she was taking very high-level math classes that it was so dry and dead, until she started applying it. In science, we all have that experience where you finally get why you learn this stuff and how cool it is and how important it is. Then she just loved it. She was imagining becoming a physics professor, and getting a job somewhere in California and living out her life doing research and writing and temple university defense, teaching students. When she was a year away from finishing her doctorate, she saw an ad in the student paper about NASA recruiting women for the first time in history. Something happened inside her. It was one of those moments. This was another part of Sally being easygoing. She always left room in her life to how do you quote essay change direction and to follow her heart. She was accepted into the astronaut corps at the end of 1977, and she started after she turned in her dissertation.
NASA’s first six female astronauts (left to right): Sally Ride, Shannon Lucid, Kathy Sullivan, Rhea Seddon, Anna Fisher and Judy Resnick. Temple University Defense. Courtesy of NASA/Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. She started in lifestyle essay the summer of 1978. Her class had 35 new rookies. And six of temple university dissertation defense them were the how do you quote article first women in history to be astronauts at temple defense NASA. They had to learn about healthy lifestyle, every system, every part of the space shuttle.
They also learned a lot about temple university dissertation, geology, because when you’re in space, it’s a great opportunity to look back at Earth, and then you need to needed for medical school know what you’re looking at temple and recognize little wiggles in the ocean. Nsikan Akpan: What was Sally’s favorite part of essay survivor becoming an astronaut? Tam O’Shaughnessy: Sally loved flying in T-38 jets. They’re little two-seaters. They’re like little mosquitoes and they go really fast. She and her then husband Steve Hawley, who was also an astronaut, leased with their friends a small Cessna. They liked flying on the weekends. In fact, Sally flew Steve to their wedding. She loved flying. Sally Ride recovers from ride in university dissertation a giant centrifuge, which simulates the massive g-forces experienced during a shuttle launch. Courtesy of NASA/Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group.
They did jumping out of airplanes in parachutes and learning how to essay shopping mall safely land and roll. They did water survival. They did the dissertation defense giant centrifuges. That was pure fun — they got to just really be kids again. Nsikan Akpan: Did she ever talk about her time in space?
Tam O’Shaughnessy: I’ve heard her talk about it a million times. She loved the whole adventure. She said launch is terrifying because you have … you’re out of control. Coursework Needed. It either works or it doesn’t. You have tons of rocket fuel literally exploding beneath you, and you’re just going up. It’s just eight minutes of terror, but also exhilarating. Once she hit outer space 50 miles up, suddenly her necklace would float up in front of dissertation defense her face and all the service editor G-forces would suddenly stop, and she was floating. She loved weightlessness. Sally Ride looking at university Earth from space. Courtesy of service editor NASA/Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. The other thing that happened was looking out the little shuttle windows back at temple university dissertation Earth.
It really changed Sally. It made her appreciate that we really do live on a planet; it’s very fragile. Coursework School. It made her an environmentalist. Nsikan Akpan: What was life like when she landed? She had a tough time with the attention, right? Tam O’Shaughnessy: When she came back, she was basically kind of a quiet introvert. She had a hard time with people recognizing her. She couldn’t go anywhere. In Houston, going to the grocery store, going for a run around the neighborhood, people were pointing at her, stopping her and wanting to university defense touch her, wanting to take photographs, and you quote an online article in an essay, she just didn’t like it. For the first time in her life — it was amazing that Sally thought of this because of how she was as a human being — she realized that she needed help, so she saw a psychologist back in Palo Alto just to university dissertation figure out shopping, how to university dissertation help herself. The psychologist helped her [by saying], “You need to take more time after giving talks and going to banquets.
You need to do fewer of them, and just take better care of yourself, so you can recover.” People Magazine, June 20, 1983. Courtesy of Tam O’Shaughnessy/MacMillan Children’s Publishing Group. [The fame] was hard for Sally but at essay conclusion the same time, she was happy to temple defense be the one chosen to on cancer be the temple dissertation first American [woman in space], and healthy, she totally appreciated that it would make her life, that it would give her opportunities that even the temple university dissertation other female astronauts wouldn’t have. Nsikan Akpan: Eventually Sally retired from NASA and service editor, became a physics professor. Temple University Dissertation Defense. You were a psychology professor, but as a side profession together, you began writing children’s science books.
Why? Tam O’Shaughnessy: It came about because we both loved books. No matter where we were in the country, we’d go to bookstores. We’d always go to essay winners the science sections, mystery sections, but usually we’d end up in the children’s section. We noticed that the kids departments had huge fiction sections, and dissertation, just this little dinky non-fiction section with very few science books.
And when we looked at the science books, there were errors. Sally had written a book about essay on cancer survivor, going into space — To Space and university, Back — with her high school friend Sue Okie in 1986. We just decided, let’s try to lifestyle conclusion make books that are really fun, engaging and scientifically accurate. We just kind of got started and kept doing it. Sally Ride signing books at a Sally Ride Science Festival at NASA Ames, 2007. Sally and Tam co-founded Sally Ride Science in 2001. Photo by Karen Hom/Sally Ride Science. Our world has become much more sophisticated with technology in science and math. Now, math and temple, technology are part of all the sciences, and you really need to for medical school be pretty savvy about all of this stuff. Our whole society has become much more science-, math- and technology-based, so to dissertation get almost any decent job, you have to have a decent background.
We just kind of recognized that it’s an equity issue. Essay Winners Do Win. All kids deserve to know math and science. Nsikan Akpan: Finally, Sally was internationally renowned, but as your book portrays in lovely detail, she was just a regular person with hobbies and a deep passion for science. With that in mind, what did Sally mean to temple dissertation defense you, and what did Sally mean for essay, a generation of young scientists? What lessons can young scientists take away from her life? Tam O’Shaughnessy: I hope what young people realize who read not just my book, but learn about dissertation defense, Sally or hear about Sally from their teachers or parents or whomever, is that science and essay shopping mall, learning is something that’s fun and dissertation, fulfilling and mall, can take you places, but also that your life doesn’t just need to be one note.
Sally had many things that she enjoyed and that she was good at, and they all helped make her who she was and kind of a content, happy human being. Just follow your heart and do what you enjoy. Sally was a perfect role model for that. Editor’s note: This transcript has been lightly edited for clarity. 1996 - 2017 NewsHour Productions LLC.
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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over time, why hasn’t the task of resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in the opposite direction—every month, we learn about a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and don’ts, from the temple defense, traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure it’s recruiter-ready. For Medical? 1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and temple university accomplishments necessary to do the job—not just a set. Service Editor? Make it easy for the hiring manager to temple university defense, see why you’re the right fit. On Cancer? 2. Temple? Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience.
Whether you’re fresh out of college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework. Read more about how to do this here. How Do An Online In An Essay? 3. Do Optimize for dissertation, Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. Shopping? The systems scan your resume for university dissertation defense, contextual keywords and phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review. As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. Healthy Lifestyle Essay? To ensure your resume makes it past the dissertation, ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Don’t Steal the healthy essay, Job Description’s Exact Wording. That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the dissertation, job description.
If a company says it’s looking for candidates who “learn rapidly” and “have a diverse knowledge of programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and “has a diverse knowledge of programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of how do article, saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in two weeks, or list the seven different programming languages you’re familiar with. You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in defense Northern region by 300%.” And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time. When deciding whether to essay mall, leave something on your resume, use the New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to university dissertation, your name on the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out.
The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is looking for, then use facts and figures to show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to do win, alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in temple dissertation the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in service editor staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to use Microsoft Word. And the internet. Use your valuable resume space to temple dissertation, highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. Lifestyle Essay? Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience.
Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to dissertation defense, the job you’re applying for, think about putting it on shopping your resume. Side projects, pro university dissertation defense bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills. 10. Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the coursework school, phone at temple university dissertation defense a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume.
11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If you’ve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in healthy essay conclusion a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to challenge yourself. Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and good with numbers. Dissertation? Learn more here on how to include these in mall the right way. 12. University Dissertation Defense? Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies.
That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in do win your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and university dissertation defense Dragons group. Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to essay winners, work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. Do Think of dissertation defense, New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here. Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15.
Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to transition your role. School? Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. 16. Don’t Use an temple dissertation defense, Objective Statement.
There’s only one situation in which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change. Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and essay mall have the university, necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and essay shopping mall experience, is the temple defense, most ideal if you have years of experience you need to shopping, tie together with a common theme. Temple Defense? They’re also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and coursework want to make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on when you need one and how to put it together.
While it’s okay to glaze over gaps a little (for example, by just using years to university defense, show dates of coursework for medical school, employments instead of months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which you’re applying. Dissertation? So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of essay, seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes.
You should also be careful about temple dissertation defense any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to you quote article in an, land on the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only temple university dissertation, are hiring managers totally aware of what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience. So, instead of essay survivor, “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from 1,000 to 3,000.” You should also be careful of using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in temple university dissertation defense a positive light. Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you. Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and service editor all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and dissertation defense “managed,” and winners do win go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word.
24. Temple? Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to find me” info. This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Essay Do Win? Because that’s a recipe for dissertation defense, disaster. 26. Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against.
While it’s illegal to winners, discriminate against a job candidate because of his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the chance, and just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of resumes, so they don’t want to dissertation defense, have to spend a ton of do win, time looking over yours. Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of defense, resume for every 10 years of healthy lifestyle essay conclusion, work experience as a good rule of temple dissertation defense, thumb. That being said, don’t try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page. If you manage to pack in more information—but in a size 8 font and with no white space on healthy the page—you might as well have not added that information at all. Cut it down to an amount of information you can comfortably fit on the page, in a readable font and with enough white space to make it easy on temple the eyes. 29.
Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out service editor, from the crowd. If you think this might be the temple defense, right route for you, check out some great options here. Service Editor? (Note: This is university dissertation generally a better option when you’re applying to smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field). Essay On Cancer? Focus on the content, make sure the right information is highlighted, and temple university dissertation just make sure it looks nice enough to make the information easy to digest. Want your resume to look well designed—without the extra time? We’ve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. They’ll make formatting a breeze.
And really, it’s best to stick to shopping, one basic font. Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about typography, it’s easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out. Temple University? Of course, you want to coursework needed school, make sure the most important information stands out and temple dissertation defense is easy to skim.
Instead of using a different font to healthy lifestyle, do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is findable. 34. Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at university dissertation defense best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying. Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and essay do win Locations to the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on university defense the eyes. Essay? You should be able to make a “column” of dates and university locations for each job by winners do win, creating a right tab. 36.
Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to skim (which is temple university dissertation good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Again, cut it down to the most important information. Survivor? Because 4 and temple university dissertation defense 22% take less time to read than “four” and “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space. 38. Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the coursework needed for medical, recruiter opens the file. University Dissertation? Save your final version as a PDF to make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues.
Look at how they describe their duties and the company. Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for your own descriptions. Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is an online essay always beneficial. Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an temple dissertation defense, impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to edit. And proofread. Multiple times. For help, check out this editor’s guide to needed for medical, perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on defense tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker.
You’ll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is. Just write out each and every job experience you’ve ever had. Essay On Cancer? With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to defense, a job, you can copy and paste the relevant sections of your master resume into a new document. Want to make sure you’re spending enough time on the right things in your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd.
This will create an image representing the essay winners, most frequent words, with the university dissertation, most common ones showing up larger and darker. With a quick glance, you’ll be able to see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to do some adjusting to have the right message shine through. Photo of needed for medical, typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Check out temple dissertation, her website or say hi on Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Do coursework summative assessments predict clinical performance? A systematic review. © The Author(s). University? 2017. Published: 16 February 2017. Two goals of how do an online article in an essay, summative assessment in health profession education programs are to university dissertation defense ensure the essay survivor, robustness of university, high stakes decisions such as progression and licensing, and winners predict future performance. This systematic and critical review aims to temple university dissertation investigate the ability of specific modes of summative assessment to predict the clinical performance of health profession education students. PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and EMBASE databases were searched using key terms with articles collected subjected to dedicated inclusion criteria. Rigorous exclusion criteria were applied to ensure a consistent interpretation of ‘summative assessment’ and ‘clinical performance’.
Data were extracted using a pre-determined format and papers were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using a modified Downs and coursework school Black checklist with level of agreement between reviewers determined through a Kappa analysis. Of the temple university dissertation, 4783 studies retrieved from the search strategy, 18 studies were included in the final review. Twelve were from the medical profession and there was one from each of physiotherapy, pharmacy, dietetics, speech pathology, dentistry and dental hygiene. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations featured in essay winners, 15 papers, written assessments in temple dissertation defense, four and problem based learning evaluations, case based learning evaluations and student portfolios each featured in one paper. Sixteen different measures of clinical performance were used. Two papers were identified as ‘poor’ quality and the remainder categorised as ‘fair’ with an almost perfect (k = 0.852) level of healthy lifestyle conclusion, agreement between raters. Objective Structured Clinical Examination scores accounted for 1.4–39.7% of the variance in student performance; multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer written examinations accounted for 3.2–29.2%; problem based or case based learning evaluations accounted for 4.4–16.6%; and student portfolios accounted for 12.1%. Objective structured clinical examinations and written examinations consisting of multiple choice/extended matching questions and short answer questions do have significant relationships with the clinical performance of temple university dissertation, health professional students. However, caution should be applied if using these assessments as predictive measures for clinical performance due to service editor a small body of evidence and large variations in the predictive strength of the temple university dissertation defense, relationships identified.
Based on the current evidence, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination may be the most appropriate summative assessment for educators to use to identify students that may be at risk of poor performance in needed school, a clinical workplace environment. Further research on this topic is needed to improve the strength of the predictive relationship. Health profession education programs require students to develop and demonstrate competence across diverse and complex domains of practice. The curriculums delivered across the medical, nursing and allied health professions vary in the attitudes, knowledge and skills required of their graduates. However, there are many similarities in the domains of competence required by the registration bodies of dissertation, these professions. To be a licenced medical, nursing or allied health professional, graduates must demonstrate competence across domains of practice such as: professional and ethical behaviour, communication and interpersonal skills, knowledge, safety and quality, leadership and management, and collaborative practice [ 1 – 3 ]. Educators must ensure that only students meeting the required standards of competence become eligible for licensing [ 4 ].
As the domains of practice required by coursework needed for medical the different health professions share similarities, so to do the assessment frameworks used by their education programs [ 5 ]. No single mode of university defense, assessment can adequately measure performance across all domains of practice, but a well-considered program of assessment may [ 4 ]. How Do Article In An? Formative assessment plays an temple dissertation important role in the promotion of learning, but it is summative assessment that provides a final measure of student performance [ 6 , 7 ]. Coursework Needed For Medical? Summative assessment in health profession education has three main goals: (i) the promotion of future learning, (ii) to ensure that high-stakes decisions such as progression, graduation and temple licensing are robust so the public is protected from essay incompetent practitioners, (iii) and to provide a basis for temple dissertation defense choosing applicants for advanced training [ 8 ]. You Quote An Online Article? To achieve the defense, goals of providing robust evidence of competence, and the identification of appropriateness for advance training, summative assessments scores must necessarily be predictive of student’s future performance. However, there is limited evidence to support this assumption. A systematic review by Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] of predictors of future clinical performance in medical students found OSCEs and pre-clinical grade point average (GPA) to be significant predictor variables for clinical performance, however the predictive relationships were limited. Additionally, a compilation and service editor review of correlative studies by temple university defense Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked to answer whether performance in medical school could predict performance in essay, residency. In their review, medical student pre-clinical GPA scores were one of the dissertation defense, indicators that correlated most strongly with performance on examinations in residency. While the reviews by Hamdy [ 9 ] and Harfmann and Zirwas [ 10 ] looked at a range of predictor variables, the survivor, only specific mode of summative assessment common to all health professions evaluated was the temple university, Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and this was limited only to medical education programs. The reviews did not comment on lifestyle essay, other modes of summative assessment, nor did they explore beyond the medical profession. Temple Dissertation Defense? On this basis, the ability of essay shopping, a variety of modes of assessment to predict future clinical performance has yet to be investigated in detail.
The aim of this review was to critically appraise and discuss the findings of existing research investigating modes of summative assessment, and temple dissertation defense their ability to healthy lifestyle essay conclusion predict future clinical performance. The review will encompass the breadth of health professional education programs and university defense focus on modes of assessment eligible for use across all health profession programs. Systematic review databases and search terms. clinical performance OR. clinical practice OR. work* performance OR. summative assess* OR. objective structured clinical examination OR. practical exam* OR. practical assess* OR. written exam* OR.
written assess* OR. theory assess* OR. oral presentation OR. clinical exam* OR. clinical assess* OR. The paper reported on the relationship between assessment results and the future clinical performance of students in essay, health professional programs; and. The paper was published in the English language; and. The paper was published after 1996. The year 1996 was chosen as a lower publishing limit in university defense, recognition of the progression of essay survivor, educational theory over time. This date allows for the capture of 20 years of literature following on from the seminal papers by Harden [ 11 ] regarding the temple university, development of the OSCE and Miller’s framework for the assessment of clinical competence [ 12 ].
The independent variable was a formative assessment; Individual modes of summative assessment were not specified (e.g. used overall GPA); The independent variable was a standardised assessment limited to use by a single health profession (e.g. National Board of Medical Examiners subject examinations); The independent variables were health profession education program admission criteria, applicant screening measures or entry measures; Clinical performance was not measured in either a clinical workplace setting or in a clinical examination conducted externally to the education program utilizing authentic or standardized patients; or. The paper was an an online in an essay abstract, review, dissertation or discussion. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) Critical appraisal of methodological quality.
Studies included in this review were critically appraised using a modified Downs and Black checklist [ 13 ]. The Downs and Black checklist consists of temple defense, 27 items used to appraise methodological quality. The checklist was originally devised to assess the how do an online in an essay, methodological quality of temple university dissertation, health care interventions, however it was appropriate to use in you quote an online in an, this review as it provided a structured format for critically appraising the papers selected for review. The protocol contains five major categories for temple dissertation defense appraisal: reporting quality, external validity, internal validity - bias and service editor confounding and university defense statistical power. The original Downs and Black checklist is scored out of 32. All items excepting Items 5 and 27 are scored on a two-point scale. A classification as ‘yes’ is scored as ‘1’ point and healthy a classification of ‘no’ or ‘unable to determine’ is university dissertation defense scored as ‘0’ points. Item 5, which appraises the description of needed, confounders is scored out of ‘2’ points, with ‘yes’ scoring ‘2’ points, a ‘partial description’ scoring ‘1’ point and ‘no’ scoring ‘0’ points. Dissertation? Item 27 concerning the statistical power of the sample size was originally scored out of essay on cancer survivor, ‘5’ points. For the purposes of this review Item 27 was adjusted to be scored out of either ‘1’ point where power is university defense reported and how do you quote article ‘0’ points where power was not reported.
As a result of these adjustments, the modified total possible score was 28. This modification has been previously applied and reported in the literature [ 14 ]. To allow for a quality grading of the defense, studies, the total score for each study was converted into a percentage by dividing the study’s raw score by 28 and multiplying by 100. The total critical appraisal percentage was then categorised as either of ‘good’, ‘fair’ or ‘poor’ quality using the ranking described by J Kennelly [ 15 ]. When applied to essay winners do win the modified Downs and temple Black scoring Kennelly’s model categorises papers with critcal appraisal scores of 71% or greater as good quality, 54-70% as fair quality and 53% or less as poor quality. Each paper was individually rated by two assessors (RT and healthy lifestyle NM) with the level of agreement determined by temple defense a Kappa analysis conducted by a third person (RO). Service Editor? Following the Kappa analysis any discrepancies in scores between the two scoring authors (RT and NM) was settled by consensus. Temple Defense? Where consensus could not be reached, the service editor, raw scores were adjudicated by a third person (RO) to finalise the Critical Appraisal Score (CAS). Data from temple university defense each paper included in the review were extracted by a single author (RT) and confirmed by the fellow authors. Data were assessed using a pre-determined format as follows: clinical education program, number of students, student year of study, summative assessments used, clinical setting in which performance was measured and statistics used to establish relationships. An Online Article Essay? Where clinical performance measures were referenced, the references were retrieved and university reviewed for evidence of validity or reliability. In the case of externally developed clinical performance measures the available literature was searched to determine if psychometric data had been published.
To allow for comparison across data, the square ( r 2 ) of each correlation (r) was calculated. Squaring the correlation gives the you quote an online article essay, variance which measures the proportion of temple university, variability in one variable that is explained by the relationship with the other variable [ 16 ]. In this review, the how do an online article essay, variance describes the university, proportion of variability in student’s clinical performance explained by summative assessment scores. The results of the search are reported in Fig. Service Editor? 1 . After the application of temple university defense, inclusion and exclusion criteria 18 papers were retained for final analysis. Excluded papers and winners the reasons for temple their exclusion are listed in service editor, Additional file 1 . Summary of temple dissertation, critical review papers. Author and Population.
Clinical Performance Measure ( CPM ) Evidence CPM has Validity or Reliability. • Year 3 OSCE - Data Gathering , Documentation and coursework needed Communication / Interpersonal Skills subsets. USMLE Step 2 CS - Data Gathering , Documentation Communication / Interpersonal skills subsets. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency director ratings. • Year 5 Written Examination – 5 Essay and 5 SAQ. • Year 6 Written Examination – 100 EMQ and 10 SAQ.
Junior Doctor Assessment Tool ( JDAT ) Clinical rotations – environment not specified. Clinical Education Grade Form. USMLE Step 2 CS – Integrated Clinical Encounter ( ICE ) and Communication and Interpersonal Skills ( CIS ) component. • Year 2 MCQ Examination. • Second semester case based learning evaluations. Third year clerkships. Clinical evaluation form. Central Region Dental Testing Service ( CRTDS ) CRTDS clinical licensure examination.
Third year clinical training – environment not specified. Clinical productivity value – combined score for successfully completed clinical procedures. • Clinical Performance Examination. Internship – Chonnam National University Hospital. Intern performance scores – 5 - pt Likert scale.
7 week clinical placements – environment not specified. Clinical teacher assessments with standardised rubric. 0 Tutorial process assessments. Year 3 – Hospitals and community rehabilitation centers. Hong Kong University Clinical Forms. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Residency program director overall evaluations – 5 - pt Likert Scale. • Written examinations – ? 2 MCQ and defense ?1 cumulative essay. First year of residency training – environment not specified. Program director evaluation form ( PGY - 1 PD ) Year 4 Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Online evaluation form.
Hospitals 1 year after graduation. Senior doctor assessments – 5 - pt Likert scale. 6 - week clinical practicum – environment not specified. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument ( PT CPI ) Trainee internship year. Global rating instrument.
COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPM Clinical performance measure, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, OSCE Objective Structured Clinical Examination, SAQ short answer question, MCQ multiple choice question, EMQ extended matching question, PBL problem based learning, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. The mode of coursework summative assessment investigated most commonly was the shopping, OSCE, with only three papers not featuring an OSCE as a summative assessment [ 17 – 19 ]. Written examinations featured in four papers [ 19 – 22 ] and temple problem-based learning (PBL) evaluations [ 17 ], case-based learning evaluations [ 19 ] and student portfolios [ 18 ] each featured in one paper. Measures of clinical performance used in you quote article in an, the medical programs were: the temple university, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills (USMLE Step 2 CS) [ 23 , 24 ]; the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) [ 25 ]; a Clinical Education Grade Form [ 26 ]; a standardised Clinical Evaluation Form [ 19 ]; intern performance scores [ 27 ]; senior doctor assessments [ 28 ]; the survivor, Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) [ 20 ]; a global rating instrument [ 21 ]; program director evaluations [ 22 ] and residency program director assessments [ 29 , 30 ]. A variety of clinical performance measures were used amongst the allied health programs: the Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI) [ 31 ]; the National Dental Hygiene Examination (NDHE) [ 18 ]; the Hong Kong University (HKU) speech pathology clinical evaluation form and temple university defense COMPASS®: Competency Based Assessment in essay do win, Speech Pathology [ 17 ]; a standardized dietetics clinical teacher evaluation rubric [ 32 ]; an online evaluation form of pharmacy student performance [ 33 ] and a dental clinical productivity value [ 34 ]. Critical appraisal of methodological quality. Percentage scores based on the modified Downs and Black [ 13 ] checklist ranged from 29% [ 19 ] to 68% [ 21 ] with a mean percentage of temple university, 56.15% (±8.29%). The level of agreement between raters was considered as ‘almost perfect’ [ 35 ] (k = 0.852). When graded against the criteria established by Kennelly [ 15 ], two papers were categorised as ‘poor’ quality with a critical percentage scores of 29% [ 19 ] and 50% [ 29 ], the remainder were categorized as ‘fair’ quality (54–68%). All of the coursework needed for medical, studies included in the review were descriptive cohort studies. Analysis of the mean and standard deviations of the categories of the modified Downs and Black checklist were conducted and showed the mean score achieved in the ‘ reporting ’ category to be 5.94 points (±1.35 points) out of a possible 11 points.
Most of the studies appraised had good ‘ external validity ’ with a mean score in this category of defense, 2.5/3 points. Healthy Essay? The mean score in the ‘ internal validity – bias ’ category was 4.33 points (±0.69 points) out of a possible 7 points. Similarly, the mean score for the ‘ internal validity – confounding ’ category was 2.94 points (±0.85 points) out of a possible 6 points. Critical Review Findings. Author and Population. • Point biseral correlations. Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlation between pass / failure of COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE and OSCE : • Physical examination subscore r = 0.40.
Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlations between the defense, same subsets across tests . Significant ( p 0.01 ) correlations between residency director ratings and OSCE : • Linear regression with Bonferroni adjustment. Significant correlations between the do win, overall JDAT Score and the : Linear regression model found individual summative assessments did not demonstrate a significant influence on overall JDAT score ( p - values of 0.141 – 0.859 ). Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between subscores of the Clinical Evaluation Grade Form and OSCE measures : Significant correlations between USMLE Step 2 CS components and OSCEs . Year 2 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.25. Year 2 OSCE and Communication and Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.26. Year 3 OSCE and Integrated Clinical Encounter Component r = 0.16. Year 3 OSCE and Communication and temple defense Interpersonal Skills Component r = 0.27. Significant correlations between clinical evaluation form and : Case based learning reports. Significant ( p 0.05 ) correlation between Portfolio total score and essay survivor CRDTS score. A prediction model using two factors predicted 13.9 % of the variance in Central Region Dental Service Testing scores. Significant ( p 0.001 ) correlation between OSCE and university defense clinical productivity value.
Significant correlation between mean intern performance scores and OSCE. Significant correlation between mean intern performance and CPX subsets. Identified a ? coefficient of 0.66 ( p 0.0001 ) between individual OSCE scores and placement scores. treatment skills and interpersonal skill subsets of the HKU clinical form and. COMPASS ® generic competencies and tutorial process r = 0.315 – 0.407 **
COMPASS ® overall occupational competency scores and. No significant correlations between OSCE and program director overall evaluations . • Multiple linear regression. The OSCE was a significant predictor of PGY1 - PD Medical Expertise scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.134 , p = 0.013 ). The written examination were not significant predictors of PGY1 - PD scores , although approached statistical significance (? = 0.266 , p = 0.07 ). The OSCE was the only significant predictor of PGYI - PD Professionalism scores in a model containing multiple independent variables (? = 0.124 , p 0.026 ) Significant ( p 0.05 *; p 0.01 **) correlations between OSCEs and winners specific APPEs : acute care , ambulatory care , clinical specialty and community. Year 2 Fall OSCE and all four APPEs r = 0.13 *– 0.14 * Year 2 Spring OSCE and acute care APPE r = 0.12 * Year 3 Fall OSCE and : clinical specialty APPE r = 0.13 * No statistically significant results . OSCE showed trend of positive association with senior doctor assessments . No significant correlations between OSCE average score and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument average score . APPE Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences, CAP Critical appraisal percentage, COMLEX ?USA Level 2-PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX clinical performance examination, HKU Hong Kong University, JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, OSCE objective structured clinical examination, PGY - 1 PD program director evaluation form, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Proportion of variability accounted for by the temple university, relationship between summative assessment and clinical performance. OSCE measures and COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Pass or Failure. OSCE Physical Examination subscore. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS Data Gathering.
OSCE and essay shopping USMLE Step 2 CS Documentation. OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS and Communication / Personal. OSCE total score and residency director ratings. Year 5 Written exam ( 5 modified essay questions + 5 SAQ ) and university dissertation defense JDAT overall score. Year 6 Written exam ( 100 EMQ + 10 SAQ ) and JDAT overall score. Year 4 OSCE and JDAT overall score.
Year 5 OSCE and healthy JDAT overall score. OSCE measures and university Clinical Evaluation Grade Form subscores. OSCE Total and Subscore 2. OSCE - Physical Examination score and Subscores 1 , 3 , 5. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and Subscore 1 , 3. OSCE - SOAP Note Form score and winners do win Subscores 2 , 5. Year 2 OSCE and university USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 2 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component.
Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS ICE Component. Year 3 OSCE and USMLE Step 2 CS CIS Component. MCQ Written Examination and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning measures and Clinical Evaluation Form. Case based learning group participation. Case based learning written reports. Portfolio and CRDTS clinical licensure examination. OSCE and Clinical Productivity Value. OSCE and Intern performance score. CPX clinical skills subset and intern performance score.
CPX patient - physician interaction subset and intern performance score. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and on cancer HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and temple university dissertation defense HKU clinical form. - Treatment skill subset. - Interpersonal skill subset. PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ® generic competencies. PBL Evaluation Reflective Journal and COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score.
PBL Evaluation Tutorial Process and COMPASS ® Occupational competencies overall score. OSCE and Program director evaluations. McLaughlin et al. Essay Survivor? [ 33 ] Year 2 Fall OSCE and APPE online evaluations. Year 2 Spring OSCE and Acute Care APPE. - ambulatory care APPE. - clinical specialty APPE. OSCE and Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument. Reported as not significant.
OSCE and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 1 ( 3 ? 3 h short and university defense long essay questions ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. Written 2 ( 1 ? 3 h short essay and 2 ? 3 h EMQ ) and Global rating instrument. - clinical skills subscale. APPE advanced pharmacy practice experiences, CIS communication and Interpersonal Skills, COMLEX - USA Level 2 - PE Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2-Performance Evaluation, CPX Clinical Performance examination, CRDTS Central Region Dental Testing Service, EMQ Extended Matching Question, HKU Hong Kong University, ICE integrated clinical encounter; JDAT Junior Doctor Assessment Tool, MCQ multiple choice question, OSCE objective Structured Clinical Examination, PBL problem based learning, PT CPI physiotherapy clinical performance instrument, SAQ short answer question, USMLE Step 2 CS United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. Objective structured clinical examination. Three of the studies (20%) investigating the coursework needed, predictive ability of the OSCE found no significant relationship [ 28 , 29 , 31 ]. OSCE did not predict physiotherapy student clinical performance on the PT CPI [ 31 ], or medical student performance measured by temple university defense either program director evaluations [ 29 ] or senior doctor evaluations [ 28 ]. Nine of twelve studies in lifestyle conclusion, the medical profession (75%) identified a significant positive relationship between medical student OSCE scores and clinical performance [ 19 – 27 , 30 ], with OSCE scores explaining between 1.9 and 39.7% of the variability in medical student clinical performance.
The OSCE had a significant correlation with pharmacy students’ clinical performance with variances of 1.4–6.3% [ 33 ]. OSCEs were also found to be a significant predictor of dental students’ clinical performance explaining 29.2–37.7% of the variability in clinical productivity values [ 34 ]. A significant relationship was reported between pre-clinical OSCE scores and the clinical performance of dietetic students (? = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46–0.86; P 0.0001) [ 32 ]. Four of the temple, studies evaluating medical student performance reported on the predictive ability of written examinations [ 19 – 22 ]. Two papers reported on for medical, written examinations containing long essay questions and in both cases they did not predict student clinical performance [ 21 , 22 ]. In all three relevant papers significant predictive relationships were found between written assessments consisting of multiple choice questions (MCQs), extended matching questions (EMQs) and short answer questions (SAQs), with variances of 3.2, 7.3 and 29.2% [ 19 – 21 ]. One paper [ 18 ] reported on defense, the use of a portfolio assessment and found it predicted 7.3% of the variability in dental hygiene student clinical performance. A PBL evaluation consisting of three assessment items predicted 5.9–16.6% of speech pathology student clinical performance on treatment skill and interpersonal skill subsets [ 17 ]. Service Editor? Case-based learning assessments in a medical program that measured group participation and quality of temple dissertation defense, written reports explained 7.3 and 4.8% of the variance students clinical performance respectively [ 19 ]. A prediction model for medical student clinical performance incorporating Year 4 and service editor 5 OSCEs, Year 5 and temple university defense 6 written examinations, scores from do win Year 6 clinical attachments and overall GPA identified that no individual summative assessment significantly influenced the clinical performance score; the best overall predictor of clinical performance measured by the JDAT was overall GPA [ 20 ]. A second paper [ 21 ] combined the OSCE and written examination results of medical students in a multiple regression model and found that the OSCE added significantly to university defense the correlation with clinical performance scores. The written examination did not have a significant independent contribution.
The aim of this review was to how do an online article in an essay critically appraise and defense discuss the findings of existing research investigating the ability of summative assessments used within the non-clinical components of an academic curriculum to predict clinical performance across the essay mall, breadth of health profession education. Eighteen studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were critically reviewed. The overall methodological quality of the literature that was investigated to inform this review was considered to be ‘fair’. None of the dissertation, studies included in the review were found to report on: (i) the principle confounders, (ii) the coursework needed for medical school, power of the university dissertation defense, research and (iii) attempts to blind either participants or those measuring clinical performance. The studies that scored more highly clearly described the summative assessment being investigated and the main findings, as well as reported actual probability values and coursework school the characteristics of students lost to follow up. The OSCE is well established in health education programs worldwide.
It is temple university dissertation a mode of assessment specifically designed to provide a valid and reliable measure of students’ clinical competence in a simulated environment [ 11 ]. Essay On Cancer? Twelve of the temple university defense, 15 papers reviewed that reported on the relationships between OSCE scores and clinical performance demonstrated a significant positive relationship. In these instances, a significant relationship was present regardless of whether psychometric data was available for the clinical performance measure or not. Coursework Needed For Medical School? Of note, the three studies [ 28 , 29 , 31 ] that did not identify a significant relationship had the smallest sample sizes of all the papers in the review. This may have affected the power of the studies and their ability to achieve statistical significance. This is university supported by two [ 28 , 29 ] of the three papers which identified that there was a positive trend towards the OSCE predicting student performance and that statistical significance may have been reached with a larger sample size. The clinical performance measures used by studies included in this review assessed similar domains of how do you quote an online in an, competency to temple university dissertation defense OSCEs, although in more complex and often less structured environments. OSCEs assess student performance at the ‘shows how’ level of Miller’s pyramid [ 36 ]; it is likely that the clinical performance measures also evaluate students at in an the ‘shows how’ level as there is a strong argument that ‘does’ can only be measured when the candidate is temple university defense unaware of being observed or assessed [ 37 ]. The similarities between both the domains of how do an online in an, competence and the levels of performance measured provides some explanation for the consistent positive relationship reported between students OSCE scores and their future clinical performance. While this review suggests that a significant relationship exists between OSCE scores and clinical performance, there is wide variation in the strength of the temple dissertation, relationship. With the lifestyle, OSCE explaining between 1.9% [ 20 ] and 39.7% [ 21 ] of the variation in student clinical performance, the strength of the relationships may have been influenced by other factors that in temple dissertation, turn may vary between programs. Healthy Essay Conclusion? One such factor is the university, structure of the OSCE itself. The wide variations in OSCE structure pose a challenge when comparing this measure between studies.
For example, the dietetic OSCE had only 3 stations [ 32 ] whereas the dentistry OSCE had 35 stations [ 34 ]. The OSCEs described in studies on medical students ranged from coursework needed for medical 5 [ 24 ] to temple dissertation defense 18 [ 21 ] stations. The papers with the service editor, two strongest predictive relationships between OSCE and student clinical performance described OSCEs with 18 ? 5 min stations [ 21 ] and 35 ? 2 min stations [ 34 ] which suggests that longer OSCE assessments may be better predictors of performance. This finding is supported by a systematic review [ 38 ] of the reliability of the OSCE in medical education programs which identified that while scores on OSCEs are not always very reliable, better reliability was associated with a greater number of stations. This is attributed to dissertation defense a wider sampling of cases across the service editor, increased number of stations. Unfortunately, not all papers meeting the criteria for review in this study reported on station structure and evaluation methodologies used within the OSCEs. This limited the ability to further discuss the impact of OSCE structure on the predictive ability of the dissertation defense, assessment but may explain the winners do win, large differences in variance. The differences in the strength of the predictive relationships may also be explained by temple university dissertation the difference in essay on cancer survivor, measures of clinical performance. This concern has been previously reported in the literature with Hamdy et al. [ 9 ] noting that a limitation of their systematic review was the lack of temple dissertation defense, a widely-used measure of clinical performance. Shopping Mall? The findings of the present review also need to be considered in defense, light of the limitations imposed by the variety of clinical performance measures used. A variance of 1.9% is of extremely limited predictive value given that OSCE performance would then explain less than 2% of student’s performance in do win, the clinical workplace setting. Temple University Dissertation Defense? However, a variance of on cancer, 37.7% indicates a strong predictive relationship.
A predictive relationship of this strength would be valuable for assisting to identify students at risk of poor performance in the clinical setting. On this basis, the predictive relationship between OSCE scores and student clinical performance must be viewed with caution. However, these scores could be used by educators as a method of identifying students that may be at risk of low performance in a clinical practice setting until a more robust measure is university dissertation available. As only one paper was identified for each of the essay on cancer survivor, portfolio, case-based and problem-based learning assessments there is inadequate data to draw conclusions about these modes of assessment. Four papers in temple defense, the review did investigate written assessments. Both papers investigating written assessment batteries containing long essay questions [ 21 , 22 ] found no significant correlation with clinical performance scores, however all four papers investigating written assessments consisting of EMQ, MCQ and SAQs did identify a significant positive relationship.
This supports literature advocating the use of EMQs or MCQs in do win, written examinations rather than essay questions [ 39 ]. Like the findings for the OSCE, there was a large difference in temple university dissertation, the strength of the relationship between papers reviewed. An EMQ/MCQ written assessment explained 29.2% [ 21 ] of the variation in students overall clinical performance measured by a global rating instrument, but only 3.2% [ 20 ] when clinical performance was measured by survivor the JDAT. Temple Dissertation Defense? While other program factors other than the choice of clinical performance measure may also influence these relationships, there is a large difference in essay shopping mall, the ability of the university, MCE/EMQ written assessments to predict clinical performance. This highlights the need for research to occur where a standard measure of clinical performance is service editor used to university dissertation allow for comparison between studies. The findings of shopping mall, this review suggest that there is limited evidence to university dissertation defense support the use of SMQ, MCQ and EMQ written assessments to essay predict student’s clinical performance and that the written examinations should be used as a predictive measure with caution.
In traditional curricula, summative assessments may have a gate-keeping role for progression on temple dissertation defense, to clinical placement. Essay Conclusion? However, even in curricula where students commence learning in the clinical environment early in their program there is still great merit in predicting future clinical performance. The early identification of students at risk of temple university dissertation, poor performance allows for essay targeted remediation prior to clinical experiences, as well as the temple, implementation of how do you quote an online essay, focused support whilst the temple dissertation defense, student is embedded in the clinical environment. However, until further research adds to the body of service editor, evidence, the use of summative assessments to predict student clinical performance should be approached with caution. If educators choose to use summative assessment results to attempt to predict clinical performance then this review suggests that the OSCE, which has a weak predictive value, may be the most appropriate choice. This review also implies that individual modes of summative assessment should not be the gatekeepers into the clinical practice environment as there is insufficient evidence to base high-stakes decisions (such as a student’s ability to progress on to clinical placement) on the predictive ability of these assessments.
In addition to the differences in the structure of temple university dissertation, summative assessments investigated and clinical performance measures used that this review has already discussed, a potential limitation of the research reviewed is that only students who completed their program of winners, study were included. Students who did not complete their program were typically excluded from data analysis. The resulting datasets would therefore not include students that had failed to meet minimum assessment standards in either the non-clinical curriculum or in clinical placements and thus been prevented from progressing. Temple Dissertation Defense? This creates a floor effect which could potentially skew the lifestyle, reported correlations and reduce data sensitivity. Limitations of the present review include the use of the Downs and Black as a critical appraisal tool. This tool was originally designed to appraise health intervention studies.
While it has enabled a standardised critique of the dissertation, studies in healthy, this review, it may be that the papers have been appraised more harshly when applied to defense the same critique as an interventional study. Considering this, all studies were appraised by the same tool and as such the methodological quality of papers could be appropriately compared. There was also a language bias in this review, as papers were limited to you quote in an essay those published in the English language. There may be papers on this topic published in languages other than English that have not been captured in this review. Future research on this topic should aim to recruit larger sample sizes to increase statistical power.
There should also be an emphasis on research within allied health student populations using measures of temple dissertation defense, clinical performance that have been shown to be valid, reliable and shopping are widely used. This approach would allow for defense a more rigorous comparison between programs and even professions to be conducted, aiding in survivor, the generalisation of findings across the dissertation defense, allied health professions. The findings of this review suggest that assessments used within an do win academic curriculum do have significant positive relationships with the clinical performance of temple university dissertation defense, health professional students. To use these assessments as predictive measures caution is coursework for medical required due to temple defense a small body of evidence and large variations in service editor, the predictive strength of the relationships identified. The OSCE may be the temple dissertation, most appropriate choice at this time for educators planning to essay shopping mall use summative assessment scores to temple dissertation defense identify students that may be at risk of essay shopping, poor performance in a clinical workplace environment. Further research, with larger sample sizes, is temple required to winners do win determine the ability of summative assessments to predict the future clinical performance of temple university, health profession students particularly in mall, allied health student populations. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States Level 2 Performance Evaluation. Clinical performance examination.
Central Region Dental Testing Service. Extended matching question. Grade point average. Hong Kong University. Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. Multiple choice question. National Dental Hygiene Examination. Objective structured clinical examination. Physiotherapy Clinical Performance Instrument.
Short answer questions. Competency Based Assessment in Speech Pathology. USMLE Step 2 CS: United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills. No funding was received. Availability of university defense, data and how do you quote an online in an essay materials. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article (and its Additional file 1 ).
All authors contributed to the conceptualisation and dissertation planning of the review and to the development of the search strategy. Essay Winners? RT carried out the systematic search, study selection, data extraction, critical appraisal and drafted the manuscript. NM carried out the critical appraisal and contributed to the drafting of the temple dissertation defense, manuscript. RO performed the kappa analysis and contributed to the drafting the manuscript. Service Editor? WH settled any disagreements in critical appraisal and contributed to drafting the temple university, manuscript. All authors read and do win approved the final manuscript. The authors declare they have no competing interests. Ethics approval and university dissertation consent to needed for medical participate. Open Access This article is temple dissertation defense distributed under the terms of the needed school, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to temple university the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to service editor the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Physiotherapy Board of Australia Physiotherapy Board of New Zealand. Physiotherapy practice thresholds in temple university dissertation defense, Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand. Physiotherapy Board of essay mall, Australia. 2015. University? http://www.physiotherapyboard.gov.au/Accreditation.aspx . Accessed 19 Dec 2016 Nursing Midwifery Council. Service Editor? Standards for competence for registered nurses. Dissertation? Nursing Midwifery Council. 2010. https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/standards/nmc-standards-for-competence-for-registered-nurses.pdf . Accessed 19 Dec 2016 General Medical Counil. Good medical practice.
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