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Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an extremely important document which is used in the case when a person or an applicant is gangrene paper applying for an essay, a job, a volunteership, an gangrene research, internship, an educational course or any other thing. The resume lists down the various details about the candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is your primary representative in the career world. An Online In An. Whether you are about to kick-start your career fresh out of your grad or planning a job change, a resume is always needed when you are applying for employment. Gangrene Research. It’s the first thing that your prospective employer will see about you quote in an essay you and hence your CV has this duty to present you in paper the best possible light. 44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for $69. Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Job seekers $30. Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle. Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download.
This resume template is one of the best options which you can easily download and customize to recreate an Accountant’s resume. If you’re a job-applicant for an accountancy job position, this easily customizable resume template is your best bet! Regardless of whether you’re experienced or a fresher, this template has ample space available to let accommodate all details. It’s an edgy sample professional resume template that could be customized for any profession. The column structure helps you to separate the work related details from the contact data in a precise manner. This booklet style sample professional portfolio resume format renders a state of the art appeal that is sure to catch the fancy of of narrative, your potential employers. You will love the customizable columns. Professional Portfolio Resume Format Template Download. If you are looking for a true professional resume format, this portfolio template would be right for you with its neat clean segregation of all the major pointers of your resume.
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Example of Student Resume Format Download. You Quote. A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and gangrene research paper, combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on proofreading essays uk all the 3 formats. It’s the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in gangrene paper the reverse order- commencing with the current one to on melancholy, the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the candidate to research, showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to on melancholy and cannibalism, portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in gangrene similar trade.
The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the essays, conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about gangrene research your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. Draft Essay. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes.
Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side. Research Paper. The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. An Online In An Essay. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to gangrene paper, another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the proofreading uk, overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the gangrene, traditional chronological approach is writing my personal statement relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career. Research. If you are a person with huge or at least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you.
The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in types of narrative turn divert the gangrene research paper, focus from your absent or flawed employment record. How Do You Quote An Online Article In An. For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on research categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in essays foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to research, commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category.
Use contextual keywords relevant to on melancholy and cannibalism, your job position industry. Research. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for of narrative, headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to research paper, the relevant job opening. Essays Uk. Focus on research quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Types Essay. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at gangrene research paper handling big teams for crucial projects”.
Don’t use informal email ids in literature contact details. Gangrene Paper. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest. Types. When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at paper template.net are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for of narrative, everyone to get it right. Thus one can make use of a resume format. A resume format is research a detailed layout and format of a resume which can be used by literature, those who are confused about the format of such a formal document. Gangrene Paper. A resume format is divided into draft, sections and gangrene, categories in proofreading uk the exact same way as needed in research paper a resume. It gives the users a reference point of view and idea of on melancholy, how a professional Resume Templates must look like.
Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and paper, reference of the users. What makes a resume format the best resume format is the manner in which it is drafted or framed and article in an essay, how much convenience it offers to research, the user. It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and draft, should also be self-explanatory. Research. The following are some of the contents of on melancholy and cannibalism, a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the paper, format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of its use and the expectation of the targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for essays, a marketing company. Instead of gangrene research paper, taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in the details to types, send it out.
What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of gangrene paper, resume available. Dissertations. They are chronological, functional, combinational and research, targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the essay, data sequentially for gangrene research paper, the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and literature dissertations, study, then it is better to use a functional resume to gangrene paper, cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to spend more time preparing it. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to make a perfect resume yourself.
Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily. Uk. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and skills get the priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the gangrene research paper, required data and an essay, information about research paper you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and dissertations, start filling the details.
If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to gangrene paper, sample resume for checking out how exactly to fill the writing my personal, data and information to look impressive. Gangrene Paper. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in proofreading uk case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in gangrene research the past. There are multiple formats available in you quote an online essay these two categories and one should download freshers and gangrene paper, Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world.
In a chronological resume, everything is listed from the recent to the earliest format. For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in how do essay the end, you can have your internships. This is the gangrene paper, most preferred Writer Resumes format by essay, the employers as it is easy for them to get a snapshot of gangrene, everything very quickly in their mind. Of Narrative Essay. There are various types of chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and choose the best.
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Gas Gangrene: essays research papers fc
sales resume jargon Glossary of research Sales Definitions Author grants permission for this glossary to be republished in types, whole or part with the gangrene, condition that a permanent link from the published page or document to http://www.cycleofsales.com is displayed. Advantage: positive attributes of a feature kept in an essay on melancholy, relative terms (not in emotional or beneficial terms). Example: “An advantage to having a 4 wheel drive (feature) is that the gangrene, driver may be able to navigate through adverse weather conditions more easily than if possessing only a 2 wheel drive.” (Not to be confused with the proofreading, benefit) Appointments Set: Total number of paper appointments set (to conduct a sales presentation) during a call period, whether in-person or via the phone. One of the vital sales stats. Average Dollar Per Sale: (DPS) Your average dollar per sale. Essay! Can be derived by gangrene research paper, dividing total sales dollars for dissertations a given time period by gangrene, the number of sales (closed deals.) Click here for additional information. One of the vital sales stats. Back-out: A customer who is trying to of narrative essay or did cancel their order.
Beating Objections: (Overcoming Objections) Answering questions or addressing concerns allowing your prospect to make an intelligent purchasing decision. Benefit: The emotional enhancement provided by the advantage of a product. Example (continuing with the 4 wheel drive example above in advantage): “The 4 wheel drive my wife and research, children were driving prevented them from driving over the cliff and falling 3500 feet below during the types of narrative, horrible snowstorm.” Bounce Back Coupons Offers : Offers, discounts, or coupon “enticements” delivered with physical products or emailed with digital confirmation or receipts. The goal of a Bounce Back Coupon is to “entice” a customer to place a follow-up order or to renew their contract for the next period of time by research, offering a discount or special if the customer responds by essay, a certain date or time. Research! You can read our full article about bounce back coupon offers and watch our video here. Brag Book : A presentation binder or book featuring stories, pictures, or testimonials regarding previous projects performed for customers. Sales people often present their Brag Books to prospects to display their success providing products or services for current and an essay and cannibalism, past customers. Buy Line: A graphical, visual “line” that denotes where a prospect is: regarding emotionally and intellectually being sold.
If a prospect is “above the buy line,” he would theoretically sign the contract if asked to do so. Buyer’s Remorse: A customer feeling anxiety after making a purchase commitment that can often lead to a back-out or cancellation if not handled properly. Buying Atmosphere: Setting up your sales presentation so that your customer has a great experience, thus avoiding pressure or awkward moments. Gangrene! People, in statement, general, like to feel that they’re making a purchase decision, but, in general, don’t like to feel they’re “being sold” on gangrene research paper, a product or service. Call-back: Making repeated phone calls or contacts to attempt to uk get a prospect to gangrene research purchase or to on melancholy find out paper, if a prospect has made a decision regarding purchasing a product or service.
Call-blocks: A span of draft time, normally 2 to 4 hours, spent telemarketing to gangrene paper data-mine, prospect, or perform phone demos and follow-ups. Calls: Lead and Prospect contacts. Can be conducted in-person or via the phone, at trade shows, or any other way that you make actual attempts to contact your lead or prospect. Call-in: When a prospect contacts you or your company first expressing interest in your products or services. Cancellation Prevention: Also known as ‘solidifying your sale.’ Intended to help prevent buyer’s remorse and cancellations. Cash Collection: (also referred to as Payment Arrangements) Step six in the Sales Cycle. Draft Essay! Click here for additional information about Payment Arrangements. Setting up arrangements for payment for your products or services.
Could include credit, payment in full, or a deposit. Closing Ratio: Number of sales divided by the number of sales presentations over a period of time. Gangrene Paper! Example: if you perform 10 sales presentations and uk, close 4 sales, your closing ratio for these 10 sales presentations is 40%. Click here for more information about closing ratio. One of the vital sales stats. Cold Calling : Making contacts with possible prospects (via phone or in person) to attempt to set an appointment, conduct a phone or in research paper, person sales presentation, and ultimately close a sale. Commission: Your compensation for closing a sale.
Usually based on a percentage of the gross sale or profit margin of the sale. Conversion: The act of converting a prospect to a client or customer. Critical Questions: Asking the proofreading uk, Qualifying and Procrastination questions in the Presentation. Current Customer: A customer who has ordered in the last 12 to 18 months depending on paper, your product or service cycle. Current Customer Referrals: Attempting to my personal obtain referrals of other possible prospects from your current customer (usually while making a current customer call.) Click here for additional information on current customer referrals.)
Current Customer Upselling : Contacting your current customers and attempting to sell them additional products or services (either current product “add-ons” or entirely new products or services.) Click here for research additional information about Current Customer Upselling. Cycle Of Sales : The seven steps that must be followed to most efficiently and how do you quote an online, effectively sell your products or services. Data-mining: Researching to research paper find leads or ‘most probable customers’ in an essay on melancholy, your territory. Usually includes first and last name, title, gender, availability, and gangrene research paper, names in common. Deal-flow: Number of potential deals you have in your ‘pipe-line.’ Decision Maker: Any Prospect or Lead who is capable and authorized to make a decision to an essay purchase a Sales Person’s products or services. Definition Of Selling (simple): Persuading someone (a prospect) to purchase something from you. (click here for gangrene research paper the technical definition of selling) Demo: Slang for a sales presentation. Literature Dissertations! The act of presenting your product or service to a prospect.
Our litmus test to declare an paper, appointment an actual sales presentation (or an actual demo) is if price is discussed. Demo Goals: Number of demos (sales presentations) you wish to accomplish each week. Demo Ratio: The percentage of demos divided by contacts. How Do An Online In An! Example: If you make 100 contacts and accomplish 10 demos, your demo ratio is 10%. Direct Response Marketing: Utilizing direct marketing via mailers, emails, postcards, etc. to solicit interest from prospects.
DOA Customer: A customer who is no longer able to purchase for any reason. Dollar per gangrene research paper Customer: (DPC) Your average dollar per customer including all their orders in a regular product purchase cycle. Dollar Per Sale: (DPS) Your average dollar per on melancholy and cannibalism sale. Paper! Can be derived by dividing total sales dollars for a given time period by the number of sales (closed deals.) See also Average Dollar Per Sale. Or click her for additional information regarding “vital sales stats.” Draw: A “loan” against future commissions earned. Usually set up as a debit/credit system where any commissions you earn must first be used to “repay” the college essay, draw. Draw Cap: The max amount your draw can add up to or the most you can “go in the hole” with your draw. Drive By: “Dropping in” on a lead or prospect in gangrene paper, person, and unannounced. Emotional Sale : A Prospect emotionally “wanting” your product or service. Your Prospect is how do an online in an, excited and interested.
See also “Intellectual Sale.” Feature: Quantitative properties of gangrene research paper a product or service. Example: a 4 wheel drive. s.u.v evenly disburses the weight and traction of the vehicle, receives 15 miles/ gallon, goes 0 to and cannibalism 60 in 20 seconds, and gangrene research paper, has 7 drink holders. An Online Article In An! See also advantage benefit. Field Day: When a candidate for a sales position rides-along with an gangrene, experienced sales rep to learn more about the how do you quote in an, position she’s interviewing for. Footprint: The exact steps an research, order must go through from draft college essay acquisition to delivery. Gatekeeper: Person (usually a secretary or person answering the phones or greeting people in an office or company) who often is responsible for “screening” sales people or strangers who call the company prior to forwarding these sales people or strangers to purchasing agents, managers, or owners. Gift Of Gab : The perceived or actual skill or ability for a sales person to easily converse or communicate with a prospect or customer. Goal Card: A paper or electronic tool to track demos, calls, and sales. Goal-D Card Incentive Program : A sales incentive program developed by Cycle Of Sales.
Designed to motivate and encourage positive sales related results from a small to large sales team. Intellectual Sale : Your Prospect objectively “needing” your product or service. Your Prospect has a real need that your product or service may satisfy. See also Emotional Sale. Law of Averages: Your statistical average of research paper getting a sale from calls to demos. A person can plan his or her results with a fair amount of accuracy if he knows his statistics and thoroughly believes and follows the law of averages. Law of Compensation: If you help enough people get what they want, you in turn will get what you want. Lead: Anyone you could approach to attempt a sale or demonstration or anyone who may be a viable prospect who could become a customer. Lead Generation: Researching the “most probable customers” in your are or sales territory. This is the list of “leads” or contacts you will eventually approach.
Lead Generation is also often referred to as “prospecting,” although technically prospecting has a different definition (see prospecting.) Marketing: The act of promoting your company, products, and services in the effort to attract a primary influence to your company (normally pertains to customers). Mom Pop: Small business usually family owned. Monday Morning Meeting: A sales meeting conducted at an online in an essay, the start of each work week, usually on Monday mornings. Gangrene Research Paper! Typical topics include discussing the previous week’s sales activities and essay, accomplishments, covering the next week’s goals, and communicating other important information. Name Based Rapport: Utilizing “3rd Person Selling” or, in essence, sharing names that both you and research paper, your prospect know in an online article in an essay, common to create credibility and trust. Not to gangrene be confused with “name dropping.” Name based rapport, when utilized effectively, can create interest and draft college essay, help your prospect become “open minded” to your ideas. Click here for additional information regarding name based rapport. Name Dropping : Mentioning or “dropping names” that make no sense to your prospect. Name dropping becomes obvious and gangrene research paper, possibly annoying to your prospect if he or she feels you’re blatantly dropping names for personal gain or to you quote article essay brag.
New Customer: A customer who has never ordered before. Objections: Any question or concern voiced by a prospect that possibly could cause you to not close a sale. Off-Schedule: A sales person who is not performing the gangrene, agreed upon and cannibalism, or necessary tasks to gangrene research fulfill his/her obligation or quota. Open Accounts: Accounts that are ready to proofreading uk be re-sold, and/or accounts that need additional work or attention to close or complete to delivery. Past Customer: A customer who has not ordered in the last 12 to 18 months. Payment: Discussing and agreeing on payment terms for your sale. Pipe-line: The line of potential candidates you have who will more than likely purchase within a given amount of gangrene research paper time.
Pitch: Or, “Pitching your product”: the act of selling your goods or services. Presentation: The actual sales presentation, also known as the proofreading uk, “demo.” The goal of the research, presentation is to make the uk, emotional and research, intellectual sale. Price-build-up: Creating a relativity point to discuss the price of your product or service. Primary Influences: (to your company) Customers, Employees, Lenders, Vendors, and. Product Purchase Cycle: The time frame used to college measure a customer’s ordering habits. Research Paper! Example: Our product purchase cycle for our customers in one year is how do you quote an online article in an essay, 5.5 orders. Prospect: Any “Lead” or Decision Maker who has shown any type of gangrene interest in your product or service. Prospecting: The act of contacting leads to attempt a sale or demonstration. Profile: Researched information regarding your lead or prospect such as first and last name, best time to call, background information, possible needs, and most importantly, names in common that you can use to build rapport. Protected Territory: When your area is protected against other representatives from your company from calling on types of narrative, the same leads that you are to gangrene research paper call on.
Qualifying Your Prospect : Attempting to on melancholy and cannibalism obtain a verbal affirmation that your prospect is indeed the gangrene paper, person capable of making a purchasing decision. Click here for additional information regarding qualifying your prospect. Quota: The minimum volume a sales person must produce within a given amount of time. Rapport: Things you have in of narrative essay, common with a prospect. With our system, we usually refer only to what matters most: names in common (also known as name based rapport.) Referrals: Obtaining additional profile information about other possible prospects from a current customer, prospect, associate, or family member. Referral Appreciation Gesture: Acknowledging your appreciation for receiving a referral from a prospect or current customer by sending a thank you note or small present. Click here for more information regarding referral appreciation gestures. Retention Rate: Your client retention percentage. How many clients are you keeping as repeat customers?
Ride-Along : One sales rep “riding with” or observing another sales rep (normally in gangrene research, the rep’s territory) to how do in an help improve sales skills. Sales Bundle: The articles you need to properly submit your sale to customer service. Usually includes contract, payment arrangement, artwork or job specifications. Sales Calls : Phone or in-person contacts to find prospects, to set an appointment, or to conduct a sales presentation or phone demo. One of the vital sales stats. Sales Cycle: The beginning to end of your sales process. Starts normally with data-mining, and ends with attempting to research paper get referrals from your client. Sales Manager: Usually the individual responsible for training or motivating and managing/accounting for the results of a sales team.
Sales Presentation (or sales “demo”): The event of meeting with a client with the objective of my personal making a sale. Sales presentations normally involve a product or service demonstration. Research! One of the of narrative essay, vital sales stats. Sales Related Activities: Actions DIRECTLY related to closing a sales demo. Usually include prospecting, setting appointments, doing product “demos,” and paper, attempting to close the sale. Prospecting and literature, setting appointments can sometimes be performed through marketing systems. Sales Territory: A sales person’s “area of focus” from gangrene paper which they are to obtain sales.
Most territories are organized by zip codes or geographical boundaries.. Many territories are “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own sales reps and disallow a sales rep to sell in types of narrative, another team member’s territory. See also Territory Management. Schedules and Habits: Your regular sales schedules and habits which will dictate the amount of demos and sales you ultimately make. Selling Is A Numbers Game : The belief that results from performing sales related activities result in predictable results- based on paper, the numbers and statistics. See also Law Of Averages. Selling The Sizzle: A term used to and cannibalism refer to gangrene research selling the on melancholy, emotional part of the sale, or the “benefit” (versus the gangrene research, “feature” or “advantage.”) Example: a hot, juicy, steaming, medium-rare Porterhouse vs. a slab of protein-filled, hormone-injected steak. Side-selling: The art of essay selling an additional “complimentary product’ to a prospect who is already using a competitor for your lead product. Slump (Sales Slump): A period of time when a sales person is having problems or challenges making sales. Straight-Commission: Working on research paper, a commission ONLY basis. No base, draws, etc.
Target Market : Group of people (prospects) that a company focuses its marketing effort with the goal of converting these people into customers. Target Markets usually share important traits in common such as industry, demographics, geographic location, income, or sales revenue. Technical Definition Of Selling : Selling is the act of communicating information to a Prospect that “triggers” an emotional and intellectual desire to purchase a product or service. (Click here for the simple definition of direct selling) Temperature Questions: Questions you ask to find out where the prospect is on the buy-line such as “how am I doing so far” or “can you see why so many people are getting these?” Territory: A sales person’s “area of focus” from proofreading which they are to research paper obtain sales. Most territories are organized by zip codes or geographical boundaries..
Many territories are “protected,” meaning that companies prohibit competition among their own sales reps and disallow a sales rep to sell in another team member’s territory. See also Territory Management. Territory Management: Properly “working” a geographically defined sales area or “protected territory,” where the sales rep is the only person allowed to sell in this defined area. The goal is to maximize sales results from an essay on melancholy and cannibalism this territory while minimizing the inefficiencies relating to travel or missing potential Prospects. Click here for additional information regarding Managing Your Sales Territory. Trade-shows: A marketed event that your leads attend to research paper gain information about their occupation or industry. The trade shows are usually sponsored by vendors wishing to gain exposure in front of literature their most probable customers. Training Period: Usually refers to the amount of gangrene research paper time allocated to literature dissertations a newer sales rep before they are expected to meet quota or start producing sales results. Turn-Over Rate : How often a sales position becomes vacant. Gangrene Research Paper! For example, if the average sales person in a position lasts six month, then this position would be experiencing a 6 month turn-over rate. Sales, in general, normally has a high turn-over rate compared to an essay on melancholy and cannibalism other positions.
Up-sell: Selling additional products or services to your existing clients. Vital Sales Stats: The most important sales numbers to track and monitor including: number of gangrene sales calls, appointments set, presentations made, number of sales closed, and dollar per. Zeroed Out (Draw) : When a sales person sells enough to earn enough commission to make his draw balance equal zero.
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The Practice of Clinical Autonomy in Hospitals: 20 000 Nurses Tell Their Story. How can autonomous practice affect nurses’ professional job satisfaction? In a previous article, 1 we described how staff nurses, managers, and physicians working on units with confirmed healthy work environments judged “competent performance of nurses.” Although related to all of the essentials of a healthy work environment, 2 competent performance is a sine qua non for autonomous decision making, the research paper, essential professional work process we discuss in this article. Autonomy has long been cited as 1 of the 3 cornerstones of excellent, magnetic work environments. My Personal. 3 Progress in identifying organizational structures and best practices that enable clinical autonomy has been inhibited by widespread confusion, lack of precise definition of clinical autonomy, and gangrene research paper failure to distinguish between organizational and literature dissertations clinical autonomy. The following excerpt 4 from gangrene research groups of staff nurses illustrates this confusion: What is autonomy? I wish I knew. I’ve been trying to get an answer to that since nursing school.
I know I’m for it and am supposed to proofreading uk, want it, but truthfully I’m not sure what it is research, . . Types Essay. . not having to follow bureaucratic rules and chain of command? . . Gangrene Research Paper. . Autonomy is making decisions—not always having to ask? Autonomy must have something to do with bureaucracy and size because many nurses in this hospital said that as we merged and an essay on melancholy got bigger, we lost our autonomy. In 2001, staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals identified 8 essentials of a healthy (ie, job satisfying and professionally productive) work environment, 2 1 of which is clinical autonomy. Six studies related to the 8 essentials of magnetism have been conducted (Table 1 ? ). In both the 2001 study 2 , 4 – 7 on the dimensions of magnetism and the 3 studies 1 , 10 – 16 to research paper, identify structures, interviewees provided hundreds of an essay on melancholy, examples and descriptions in gangrene research response to how do you quote article essay, requests and questions such as the research paper, following: Overview of six research studies conducted on the essentials of magnetism. Describe a situation in which you functioned autonomously. What does the types essay, concept “autonomy” mean to you? What do you consider before making an autonomous decision?
What are the best leadership practices that enable you to function autonomously? Through constant comparative analysis, 18 we generated grounded theories from research paper which we constructed the magnet hospital staff nurses’ definition of autonomy and the items for the Clinical Autonomy subscale of the Essentials of Magnetism (EOM) tool. In the 2 psychometric studies 8 , 9 , 17 summarized in Table 1 ? , respondents from both magnet and comparison hospitals completed the EOM; the essay, construct validity of the EOM was established by gangrene research, comparing the scores of writing statement, nurses in these 2 groups of hospitals. Nurses in magnet hospitals consistently reported healthier work environments, including opportunity and support for autonomous clinical practice, than did staff nurses in comparison hospitals. Gangrene Research Paper. 8 , 17. This article is not based on a single research study. It is a synthesis of the results from draft college essay 6 studies 1 , 2 , 4 – 17 on the essentials of magnetism conducted from 2001 to 2007 as they pertain to clinical autonomy and the results of an informal survey at gangrene, the 2006 National Training Institute in Anaheim, California, of critical care nurses about their perceptions of writing statement, autonomous practice. Research. Unless noted otherwise, all excerpts are from uk interviews with staff nurses in the 2001 study 2 , 4 – 7 or in the 2004 to 2007 structure-identification studies.
1 , 10 – 16 All the speakers are staff nurses unless noted otherwise. Gangrene Research Paper. Suggestions offered are specifically addressed to clinical nurses and what these nurses might do to improve their work environment with respect to how do an online in an, autonomous practice. Status of Autonomous Practice in Hospitals. Staff nurses perceive and paper report that they feel that they should practice autonomously, that it is expected of them, but that they receive little support for doing so. 19 In the 15 years from 1974 to 1991, nurses reported only low to essays uk, moderate autonomy scores.
19 , 20 Part of the problem may be due to inadequate, faulty, inconsistent measurement. Gangrene Research. When autonomy is measured by means of items such as “Nurses need more autonomy in how do you quote an online in an essay their daily practice,” 21 it is impossible to know which of the gangrene, 34 different definitions of autonomy in proofreading essays the literature is research, being used as a referent. 12 Hence, the results cannot be interpreted accurately. However, when results from 3 different studies 19 , 22 , 23 by draft college essay, 3 different investigating teams of 3 different samples of research paper, staff nurses, some of whom were nurses in writing magnet hospitals, in which the same instrument 22 was used to measure autonomy were compared, the level of autonomy was only moderate; there was little change in level of gangrene research paper, autonomy during 20 years and an online article essay little support for autonomous practice. This moderate level and lack of support for autonomous practice were also evident in a 2001 interview study 2 , 4 of paper, 279 staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals. When we asked nurses to describe a situation in which they functioned autonomously, 39% provided examples and descriptions indicating limited, unsanctioned, unsupported, or no autonomy. 4 By 2004, more than 100 hospitals, 80% of them magnet hospitals, had been tested by using the EOM containing the Clinical Autonomy subscale.
Although autonomy scores in types of narrative essay magnet hospitals were significantly higher than those in comparison hospitals, the gangrene research paper, scores still were only moderately high. Proofreading Uk. 12 In 2003, the mean autonomy score for magnet hospitals was 78.59, 70% of the total possible score; in 2006, the mean score was 76.38, 68% of the total possible score. 8 , 17. No word engenders more misunderstanding, confusion, and differences in paper conceptualization than does the word autonomy. Writing. Six different descriptors—clinical, job/work, professional, individual, practice, and organizational—are used, and, to add to the confusion, autonomy is paper, dynamic; it changes over time. As an experienced nurse said, “In the 1980s, refusing to writing my personal, give a patient a contraindicated drug was an act of heroism; in the 1990s, it was an gangrene, example of autonomy; today, it’s standard practice.” Staff nurse interviewees had a clearer and more consistent understanding of what constitutes clinical autonomy than what is indicated by the descriptions and definitions in the literature. 4 , 12 They demonstrated this by their high similarity in examples of autonomy, descriptions of types of narrative, steps and components of the gangrene, autonomy process, and illustrations of impediments to autonomous practice. When staff nurses use the word autonomy, they mean clinical autonomy; sometimes, clinical autonomy is also termed practice or professional practice autonomy.
Staff nurses do not group clinical autonomy with control of practice and ability to types, self-govern as was done by directors of nursing in 1982 and gangrene has continued in much of the literature today. 24 Today’s magnet hospitals staff nurses and their Canadian counterparts 25 clearly distinguish the self-determination, self-regulation, control of practice characteristics of a profession from the autonomy characteristic, that is, “the freedom to make decisions about the service needs of draft college, clients” as defined by Flexner. 26. The following definition of autonomy was constructed through constant comparative and thematic analysis 18 and research paper from the grounded theory of autonomy generated from the examples and descriptions provided by staff nurses interviewed in hospitals all across the United States: Autonomy is the freedom to act on what you know in the best interests of the patient . . . to make independent clinical decisions in the nursing sphere of practice and interdependent decisions in those spheres where nursing overlaps with other disciplines. . . . It often exceeds standard practice, is facilitated through evidence-based practice, includes being held accountable in a constructive, positive manner, and nurse manager support. Autonomous practice includes both types of decision making—independent and interdependent. Understanding the concept of unique and overlapping (U/O) spheres of practice and their relationship to type of decision making (independent or interdependent) is essential for safe, effective autonomous practice. U/O spheres may also be termed separate and combined. The knowledge and activities of on melancholy, nurses and the knowledge and gangrene activities of physicians or other health professionals can be envisioned as 2 or more partly intersecting spheres (see Figure ? ). Literature. The more discrete and separate knowledge and research paper activities of each professional are indicated by on melancholy and cannibalism, the parts of the sphere that do not intersect.
Those that are shared are indicated by the overlapping areas. 27 Usually health maintenance, prevention, and caring dominate nurses’ unique sphere, whereas curative, diagnostic, and paper prescriptive functions dominate the physicians’ unique sphere. Professionals make independent, patient-centered decisions in their unique spheres of practice. Nurses may seek counsel and advice from peers, but the decision making is individual and proofreading essays independent, as is the accountability for decisions made. Decision-making responsibility and gangrene accountability are interdependent and relational in dissertations the overlapping sphere. Spheres of autonomy. The first of the following excerpts illustrates autonomous action in the nursing-unique sphere; the gangrene, second exemplifies autonomous decision making and action in the overlap sphere of practice. From previous experience and knowing this particular patient, I decide whether alternating pain meds is better than giving a single type of pain med all the time . . . deciding when to essay, get the research, patient out of bed—the patient may become tachycardiac vs possibly getting a deep vein thrombosis. An elderly patient with advanced Alzheimer’s and decreased mental status was ordered to have magnetic resonance imaging to rule out brain metastasis? Stroke? There was no reason for it.
It wasn’t going to an essay on melancholy, change his treatment one bit. Paper. And it would have been very hard on the patient because, at best, he would have had to have conscious sedation; at worst, a general anesthetic. An Essay On Melancholy. I talked to the resident about it yesterday, and he said he wanted it done because the family wanted to know. I took it to the team, and we decided not to do it. I talked with the gangrene, brother and when I explained that it would not make any difference in care, he called the rest of the family and they understood. Adoption of the essays, U/O Concept Into Practice.
Although U/O spheres of practice and gangrene research paper the corresponding types of decision making have long been heralded in the literature, 24 , 27 – 30 only recently has adoption of the concept in nurses’ professional practice become evident. In a 1980 classic book on autonomy, Mundinger 28 emphasized that autonomous practice is not a nurse providing medical care without medical supervision or a nurse practicing medicine without a license; rather it is a nurse providing nursing therapy that complements and at times overlaps medical therapy. Draft College. In the same year, the American Nurses Association and the American Medical Association combined commission on collaborative practice recognized the U/O spheres of practice and called for “the formal development of Scope of gangrene, Practice documents.” 29 In their 1980 Social Policy Statement, the proofreading essays uk, American Nurses Association emphasized that clinical autonomy and collaborative relationships between nurses and physicians are true partnerships in which power is gangrene paper, held and valued by both participants with recognition and acceptance of separate and combined spheres of activity, responsibility, and accountability. 30 In the 1983 original magnet hospital study, 31 all of the autonomy examples cited were in the nursing-unique sphere of practice, for example, preadmission programs for children, counseling for pregnant adolescents, and support services for senior citizens. The overlap sphere was alluded to when it was noted that in settings without a house staff, nurses perceive themselves as having greater autonomy and my personal statement responsibility in decision making and in management of patient care. Gangrene Research Paper. The current magnet program of the American Nurses Credentialing Center defines autonomy as “independent judgment exercised within a multidisciplinary approach to patient care.” 32 This somewhat contradictory definition does not address U/O spheres of practice or corresponding types of uk, decision making, nor are these addressed in either the Forces of Magnetism or in the suggested sources of research, evidence. Uk. 32.
Despite the overt approval by national professional nursing and medical organizations, no evidence of widespread, consistent use of the concept of U/O spheres of practice was reported until 2001, when staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals were interviewed. 4 When asked to paper, describe a situation in which they practiced autonomously, many nurses inquired, “Do you want me to describe a patient care or a nursing care decision?” Interviewees’ descriptions indicated that autonomous patient care actions were decisions that “extend beyond the usual parameters of nursing to an essay on melancholy, other disciplines,” 2 , 4 essentially the same as decisions made in the overlapping sphere of practice. Nursing care decisions were independent actions focused in the nursing arena only, the same as the nursing-unique sphere of practice. Scope of practice emerged as 1 of the 3 dominant themes when the gangrene paper, examples and descriptions of autonomy were categorically analyzed; frequency of action and organizational sanction for autonomous practice were the other 2. A total of 43% (n=117) of the nurses cited autonomous patient care actions; 17% (n=47) cited nursing care actions. 2. Tracking the an essay, performance of several research samples (Table 1 ? ) on the U/O item of the Autonomy sub-scale of the EOM provides further evidence of the gangrene, power and use of this U/O spheres concept as a critical element in draft essay autonomous practice in magnet work environments. The Autonomy subscale of the EOM II contains this item: “On this unit, nurses make independent decisions within the practice sphere of nursing and interdependent decisions in those spheres of practice where nursing overlaps with other disciplines such as medicine and research paper respiratory therapy.” Not only do nurses in magnet hospitals consistently score significantly higher on the total Autonomy scale than do their counterparts in nonmagnet hospitals, 8 , 17 but the essays, percentage of staff nurses in magnet hospitals who responded affirmatively to the U/O item increased from 83% of 279 nurses in 2001 33 to 90.2% of 3602 nurses in the 2003 study 8 to 94% of 3510 nurses in the 2006 autonomy structure-identification study. Research. 12 , 13 The percentage of positive responses in comparison hospitals has remained low, decreasing from literature dissertations 38% in 2003 to 29% in 2006. 8 , 17.
Understanding the concept of unique and overlapping spheres of practice and corresponding types of decision making is essential to autonomous practice. Health maintenance, prevention, and caring predominate in nursing’s unique sphere; curative, diagnostic, and gangrene prescriptive functions dominate in the medical sphere of practice. Safe, quality patient care, professional job satisfaction, and nurse retention demand autonomous decision making from all professional practitioners. Writing My Personal. Nurses want to gangrene paper, make decisions that promote quality patient care. The results of the autonomy structure-identification study 12 , 13 provide additional evidence of increased recognition and use of the literature, concept of U/O spheres of practice. When presented with 8 of the 34 definitions of paper, autonomy found in the literature, 60% of the 267 staff nurses, nurse managers, and physicians interviewed selected 1 of the following 2 definitions as representative of their understanding of the concept of autonomy. 12 Both definitions recognize the concept of U/O spheres of practice. Autonomy is the freedom to act on what you know; to make responsible, independent decisions in the nursing sphere, and interdependent decisions in that sphere of practice where nursing overlaps with other disciplines. Autonomy is responsible, discretionary decision making, collegial interdependence, proactive advocacy for on melancholy, patients and affiliative relationships with clients.
A total of 31% of the 267 interviewees selected 1 of the 2 following literature definitions to represent their understanding of autonomy. Both of these definitions acknowledge mainly or only the overlap sphere. Autonomy is an environment in which nurses are given command of their expert knowledge and allowed authority and accountability in decision making; it is independent judgment within a multidisciplinary context. Autonomy is the gangrene paper, power, authority, and accountability to perform actions and skills in the practice arena where nursing and medicine overlap. It includes skills such as administering narcotics in an emergency without a medication order, altering a patient’s mechanical ventilation after arterial blood gas results, and pulling back a pulmonary catheter after interpretation of a chest radiograph.
Reasons for Differential Use of the types of narrative essay, U/O Concept and High Autonomy Scores. The U/O concept and corresponding different types of decision making are not included in the American Nursing Credentialing Center definition of autonomy for magnet designation. 32 Not all magnet hospitals score at the level noted in the previous samples, nor do all nonmagnet hospitals score low. Paper. The percentage of nurses in magnet hospitals who respond affirmatively to the item on an essay U/O spheres of practice is sometimes as low as 37%, and in some comparison hospitals, as many as 85% of nurses respond affirmatively to this item. The differences in scores occur because in some hospitals, approval and sanction from the leadership create the interest, excitement, and security for clinical nurses to practice autonomously. One staff nurse remarked as follows: We’re caught between a rock and hard place. The state board, regulatory agencies, and the hospital keep our decision making in a straitjacket.
Yet we know, and the doctors know and urge us to make the decisions we need to, to gangrene research paper, save patients, to reassess, to prevent complications, to provide quality care, and to advocate for the patient. Several nurses from proofreading essays a single unit who came to the 2006 interviews as a group had this to say: Autonomous practice can be scary. You might make a mistake; of course, you may also save the patient’s life or avert harm. But face it; it’s a risk. It’s safer for you not to take the chance, but not so good for the patient. One time I persisted in getting something that I thought my patient needed only to be embarrassed when it was pointed out that I had neglected to consider some fact.
But my nurse manager told me to “never doubt” myself. “Think it through and then act. Together we’ll deal with the consequences.” You’ve got to have that kind of support or else functioning autonomously is just too risky. Executive-level nurses, managers, and gangrene research paper staff nurses in statement the 8 magnet hospitals that participated in the autonomy structure-identification study 13 provided considerable evidence of the support present in their hospitals for gangrene research, autonomous practice. The following are examples: Nurses from draft 2 of these hospitals presented papers on autonomy at the 2006 National Magnet Hospital Conference.
Four hospitals had hosted a national speaker or workshops on research clinical autonomy for their staff within the preceding 2 years. Many of these 8 hospitals had active evidence-based practice teams, often interdisciplinary, that focused on knowledge and best practices that formed the basis for autonomous decisions in both the draft college, U/O spheres of research, practice. Literature Dissertations. In 1 hospital, an research, evidence-based practice team of my personal statement, management and research paper staff nurses was examining management practices for and cannibalism, communicating organizational sanction of autonomy to staff nurses. In 1 hospital, all new hires completed a computerized critical thinking course. Although autonomy is more than critical thinking, such thinking is an important and essential aspect. Most of the hospitals promoted collaborative nurse-physician and interdisciplinary relationships necessary for safe and effective autonomous practice, particularly in the overlap sphere of practice. Several hospitals used the SBAR (situation-background-assessment-recommendation) situational briefing model 1 ; 2 had longstanding, well-functioning collaborative practice programs 11 with collaborative practice orders that allowed staff nurses’ considerable autonomy in gangrene decision making. Why Should Nurses Practice Autonomously? If the risk involved is so great, why should staff nurses make autonomous decisions? Such decisions are essential for patients’ safety, nurses’ job satisfaction, and nurse retention.
2 , 3 , 12 , 19 , 28 , 33 Nurses want to proofreading essays uk, make decisions that promote quality patient care. They perceive autonomy as an, if not the, essential component of professional practice. 12 , 15 Physicians rated autonomous decision making as the highest indication of research, competent performance of staff nurses. 1 Most recently, the my personal statement, Institute of Medicine 34 recommended that a higher level of clinical autonomy be given to research paper, staff nurses and that they be trusted and supported in using the outcomes of evidence-based practice initiatives to literature, make decisions about patients’ care. When Are Autonomous Decisions Needed?
Unmet patient needs and rapidly changing conditions are the stimuli for gangrene, autonomous actions. In the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 we inquired, “What situations or patient needs most frequently motivate you (or staff nurses) to autonomous action?” Interviewees described examples that fit into 6 domains. Table 2 ? presents each of these domains with its primary motivating factor or patient need. Proofreading Uk. Examples of the emergency domain were often in gangrene the overlap or combined sphere of practice. Need to rescue and patient advocacy tied for highest frequency, with physicians citing more need to draft, rescue and research nurses more patient advocacy examples. 12 , 13.
Autonomy domains, patient needs and motivating factors. We probably comment more often on the first example I gave you. . Literature. . Paper. . I suspect the nurses think we see only their swift and proper decision making in emergency situations. I wonder if they know how much we appreciate their autonomous decisions in preventing harm and writing my personal complications and in the coordination and teaching they do. (Physician) Triage decisions varied by unit and tended to be unit specific; these included referrals to gangrene, the proper place and dissertations person for research, care and the adequacy of preparation for treatments, procedures, or surgery. Patients with multiple comorbid conditions who had several physicians ordering multiple and sometimes conflicting treatments gave rise to the coordination and integration domain.
12 , 13. These autonomy domains are not pure; overlap occurs. Although all domains can be present on any clinical unit, patients’ needs tend to vary by units. The emergency and need to rescue domains are far more common in on melancholy and cannibalism critical care units than in other units. Coordination and gangrene paper integration are predominate needs of patients in geriatric and rehabilitation units but are also needed, perhaps to a lesser degree, in critical care. Each domain requires different knowledge, assessment, competencies, and decision-making skills. 12 , 13 Most likely autonomous practice would increase, along with improved quality of patient care and nurses’ job satisfaction, if unit orientations and meetings included discussions of the frequently made autonomous decisions on the unit and the knowledge and competencies needed to make those kinds of decisions. Clinical Units Reporting the Most Autonomy.
On which clinical units do nurses report the most autonomous practice? In the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 we selected our interviewees from and cannibalism those clinical units in the 8 magnet hospitals in which staff nurses had previously confirmed that they could and did function autonomously. Every oncology unit (n=18) in the 8 hospitals scored high enough on the Autonomy subscale of the EOM to be selected for individual interviews with staff nurses, managers, and physicians. Paper. All of the orthopedic units had similarly high scores, but only 7 of the 8 hospitals had such units and then usually only 1 unit. Procedural outpatient clinics had the next highest scores. Intensive care units (ICUs) were markedly underrepresented in the high-scoring unit sample; only 8 of 34 units in the 8 hospitals reported extensive autonomous practice as measured by the Autonomy score on my personal the EOM. 12 , 13. Data from the gangrene research paper, autonomy structure-identification study 12 is essay, not the only evidence for this ordering of units with respect to degree of gangrene research paper, reported autonomous practice. Almost the same unit lineup was found in the 2006 six essentials structure-identification study 1 , 14 – 16 on 101 units in 8 other magnet hospitals. Oncology units reported the highest scores for writing my personal, autonomous practice; next, in order, were procedural out-patient departments and orthopedic units; combined ICUs were third from the bottom.
35. The placement of ICUs in the unit lineup is puzzling and counterintuitive, particularly because ICU nurses usually report a greater need for and score higher in autonomy than do nurses in other specialty areas. 36 Why did nurses in some ICUs (8 of 34) report appreciably more autonomy than did nurses in other ICUs? To explore this question, we conducted informal inquiries of individual and groups of ICU nurses during the 2006 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses National Training Institute in Anaheim. We explained the counterintuitive finding and asked the nurses for their ideas, insights, and explanations as to paper, why this finding might have occurred. A dominant explanation was that the increased use of intensivists and on melancholy having physicians present almost all the time preclude the need for autonomous decision making in the overlap area. Another popular explanation was that autonomy in the nursing-unique sphere was so much a part of everyday practice in the ICU that ICU nurses did not consider it or report it as autonomy. In a completely different study, Canadian nurses reported a similar explanation for why ICU nurses may have low autonomy scores. Research Paper. 25 The following incident related to an essay on melancholy and cannibalism, us by gangrene research, an experienced ICU nurse, describes what one nurse learned from a colleague about the importance of autonomous, “caring” decisions and actions in the nursing-unique sphere of dissertations, practice. I was working in an ICU some 8 to 10 years into my career.
This unit had not only very high acuity and research intensity but many elderly patients. The nursing and medical staff (and I among them) were really committed to doing what was needed to treat these patients’ illnesses and failing bodies. One night I was caring for an elderly lady who had been in the ICU for over a week. I don’t recall her diagnosis. She had severe anasarca and was barely responsive. She looked miserable, and I’m sure that in addition to the myriad of drips and tubes, I managed her pain. We were performing a procedure that involved injecting iced saline into (probably) a Swan-Ganz line to, somehow through temperature measurements, calculate cardiac outputs. All this is really just staging for the most amazing autonomous act of writing statement, “caring” that I have ever seen . . . one that changed me as a nurse. A fellow nurse asked if I needed any help as there was a break in his workload (I don’t recall how or why . . Research Paper. . perhaps his patient had coded and essays uk died). I felt that although I was busy, I had things under control and so I declined his kind offer. He stood there for a moment, didn’t say anything to gangrene research, me but then proceeded to dissertations, “nurse this lady.” He went to the foot of the bed, spoke kindly to her, something like “I bet your feet are really cold and uncomfortable,” and research began to gently rub and massage her feet.
He did this on and off for a couple of hours, stood there gently rubbing her feet, talking to her, while I continued to regulate drips, monitor physiological parameters, etc, etc, etc. And you wouldn’t believe the look of peace, of comfort, that came over this lady’s face. I’ve remembered this incident for more than 20 years. Who was the nurse who cared for this patient? Who made the really important autonomous decisions for college essay, this lady at this time? What was the nursing action that the patient really benefitted from? If I recall correctly, the lady died between this night and when I was next scheduled to work.
And neither my actions nor those of my colleague’s rubbing would have saved her life but who provided her comfort and gangrene caring when she needed it most? It was amazing to me what I had missed. I’m forever grateful to my colleague for providing this lady what was truly an autonomous nursing action and for showing me much more about the profession that I had chosen. What Can Clinical Nurses Do to Secure Autonomy-Friendly Environments? The 267 staff nurses, nurse managers, and essay physicians working on gangrene the 74 units in how do an online 8 magnet hospitals who had high scores in autonomy in the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 described structures and best practices that enabled staff nurses to research paper, make autonomous decisions. Types Of Narrative. Three structures and gangrene research paper best practices that have particular relevance for clinical nurses are discussed in the following sections. Define What Clinical Autonomy Means. Autonomy cannot be safely and effectively pursued with appropriate accountability without an understanding of the U/O spheres of practice by staff nurses, management, administration, and other disciplines. This pursuit of autonomy cannot be done without agreement about what clinical autonomy is and essays uk how it is to research paper, be interpreted, at least on each unit and in each hospital. Staff nurses can exert leadership in this endeavor.
They can bring the issue to a staff meeting. They can ask their colleagues to describe their understanding of the concept of autonomy. They can discuss the risks and benefits involved. The 4 definitions provided earlier may be a good place to start. Proofreading. Staff nurses can discuss the differences between independent decision making and interdependent decision making that involves input from other disciplines. What can and should nurses do if their assessments and gangrene paper observations indicate that patients’ needs are not covered by draft essay, current orders or require action outside nurses’ current scope of practice? As a physician said, “Pretending that risks and impediments to autonomous practice don’t exist will not make them go away.”
As professionals, clinical nurses, particularly those in magnet hospitals, have the obligation and responsibility “to do something about the autonomy mess” not only in the places where they work but also with their school alumni and faculty, with the American Nurses Credentialing Center, and with professional nursing specialty organizations. Nurses can ask themselves, what were they taught about clinical autonomy in their nursing programs? What have they learned since beginning professional practice, and what would they like to see incorporated into the curriculum in the schools of nursing they attended? The original Forces of Magnetism originated from interviews with staff nurses and directors of research paper, nursing in the original 41 magnet hospitals. Of Narrative. Who better than professional nurses in currently designated magnet hospitals to advise the gangrene research paper, American Nurses Credentialing Center about the proofreading uk, current practice of clinical autonomy and evidence to support that practice? 32 The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses is the gangrene, only professional specialty organization that recognizes U/O spheres of in an essay, practice as essential for autonomous practice.
37 If more impediments to gangrene research paper, autonomous practice are perceived by critical care nurses than by nurses on draft essay other units, critical care nurses need to initiate discussion of this issue, not only in ICUs and in the employing hospitals but also in meetings of gangrene, their specialty organization. Participate in statement Periodic Renegotiation of the gangrene research paper, Scope of how do essay, Practice. Since the 1970s, scope of practice has been termed redefining domain boundaries, shifting limits on gangrene paper action, knowledge and an essay responsibility to meet patient needs, performance of paper, skills beyond professional jurisdiction, role enlargement or expansion, and situational credentialing. Draft. 13 Negotiation relative to scope of practice is particularly necessary in the overlapping sphere of practice. Interviewees in the autonomy structure-identification study 12 , 13 identified 3 levels or patterns of autonomous decision making and action.
The first, do and inform later, is based on gangrene a history and mutual trust between physicians and nurses and is probably the uk, most frequent autonomous action in gangrene research the overlapping sphere of practice. I had a patient go into respiratory distress. I assessed the patient—rapid respirations, anxiety, color, etc—gave him more oxygen, ordered a chest x-ray because I thought it was fluid overload. Then I called the doctor and gave him a complete report. You Quote An Online Article In An Essay. It was fluid overload and we got him out of that fast. The second level of autonomous action, persist until the patient gets what he or she needs, involves repeatedly contacting the research paper, same physician, contacting other physicians, going “up the chain of command,” or electing not to follow an order or a protocol that the nurse judges to be inappropriate for this patient in this situation. An Essay On Melancholy. The second excerpt about the research paper, elderly patient with Alzheimer’s disease in the section “Crucial Components” is an example of this type of autonomous action.
The following is another. The patient is on a monitor and strips are OK, but she just wasn’t herself. I could see by her body language that something just wasn’t right. I bugged the residents till they came. They left without even talking to me, so I called the attending directly. He came right away and just as he was asking me: “Diane, put into words what you’re seeing that tells you something isn’t right,” the patient blew. We would have lost that baby if the doc hadn’t been right there. True interdependent decision making characterizes the third level of autonomous practice. The following excerpt from an ICU nurse in an autonomy workshop illustrates this level.
The patient was in for a brain bleed, and I’d been caring for him for several days. He had many comorbidities and had to be suctioned frequently. I tried to of narrative essay, keep these to a minimum because of the gangrene, increased intracranial pressure, but I still had to do it quite often to keep him from draft college essay choking on his secretions. The doctor came in while I was to lunch and gangrene research ordered that the patient not be suctioned oftener than once an hour. Well, I knew that was a “no go.” I contacted Dr ___, but he was tied up; I contacted Janie, the essays uk, respiratory therapist, and Dr Allan, the clinical pharmacist, and explained the gangrene, situation, and gave them a chance to think about what they might recommend and then got back to the office nurse and we set up a conference call between Dr ___ and the 3 of us to see how we could take care of my personal, this problem, not increase the research paper, pressure, but yet keep the statement, patient breathing and comfortable. Renegotiation of scope of practice also takes place in research paper unit operations meetings or as a part of interdisciplinary rounds, such as are frequent in medical ICUs, neonatal ICUs, stroke units, and trauma units, or in regularly scheduled interdisciplinary meetings to develop, assess, and evaluate nurse order sets, collaborative practice orders, critical pathways, protocols, and rapid response team directives.
It is through the process of my personal statement, developing, assessing, and evaluating the effectiveness of orders and protocols that renegotiation of what decisions and activities are best for quality patient care takes place. Interviewees, both nurses and physicians, were concerned about “one size fits all” protocols with required implementation, such as restraints or electrolyte replacement, for all patients in a specific group. These protocols were strongly criticized as constrictive, restrictive, and of little value in research autonomous decision making because they provided little room for judgment and appropriateness for individual patients. Sometimes a protocol does not fit this particular patient, at this particular time, in this particular context. The role of clinical nurses in all of this negotiation is to writing, participate, lobby for paper, clarification, and types essay identify what is needed. In the nursing-unique sphere of practice, renegotiating scope of practice is dictated by best practices, new developments in the field, or new technologies and is largely a matter of intra professional dialogue. The overlap sphere requires inter professional dialogue and negotiation. Obtain the Administrative Sanction and Support Needed. In the 2006 autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 interviewees identified administrative sanction, approval, and support as a best practice enabling staff nurses to make autonomous decisions.
This finding is not new. This same best practice was 1 of the 3 themes that emerged from the analysis of the hundreds of examples and descriptions of gangrene paper, autonomous practice provided by the 279 staff nurses interviewed in 2001. 2 “I can not and will not practice autonomously if I don’t have at least the support and approval of my nurse manager.” Interviewees noted that if a nurse did not have this support, the only alternative was do it “back stage,” or as their Canadian counterparts said, “You’ve got to go in the ‘back door’ 25 and live with the types, risk that you may get jumped on for trying to do the gangrene, best you can for your patient.” Several interviewees remarked that the only support they got for autonomous decision making was from their peers or from physicians. 13. Additional autonomy-enabling structures and best practices were identified by essays uk, interviewees or through an in-depth analysis of operational and evaluation data collected from each of the 8 hospitals as part of the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 The most extensively cited structures were evidence-based practice teams, activities, and initiatives. 13 To practice autonomously, a nurse must know, must have up-to-date knowledge backed by research, research and evidence: “Our evidence-based practice teams generate the knowledge upon an essay on melancholy and cannibalism, which protocols and critical pathways are based.” The most effective teams were interdisciplinary evidence-based practice teams of nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and therapists organized around patient care problems. 13. A second autonomy-enabling practice signifying administrative sanction was the inclusion of autonomy-related concepts in the criteria for career ladder programs or in the criteria for a similar bonus value-added program. 13 All 8 hospitals in the autonomy structure-identification study 12 , 13 had some type of professional advancement program. Often, the criteria for advancement centered on participation or leadership in educational or research activities or on research paper council or practice improvement agendas. Of the 8 hospitals that had the highest autonomy scores of more 100 hospitals tested with the EOM, 2 based all or a large part of their career ladder criteria on the steps and of narrative components of autonomy, specifically designating the type of decision making, sphere of research paper, practice, and risk taking as advancement criteria.
13 In 6 of the 8 hospitals, spheres of practice and related decision making were spelled out in documents entitled Scope of literature dissertations, Practice, Definitions of Nursing, and Models of paper, Professional Practice. 13. A third structure that communicates administrative/organizational sanction and support for autonomy is performance appraisal documents. Four of the 8 hospitals cited this type of sanction. 13 In 3 of the 4 hospitals, identification of practice spheres and an essay on melancholy types of decision making were listed as subbehaviors and competencies; in gangrene 2, “negotiating scope of practice with physicians and types of narrative essay other disciplines” was cited as an advanced staff nurse competency; in all 4, independent and interdependent decision making were defined and listed as major competencies of gangrene research, a professional nurse. Draft Essay. The fact that only paper, 4 of proofreading uk, these 8 magnet hospitals cited sphere of practice and gangrene type of decision making in their performance appraisals, and that in none of the 8 hospitals were these competencies expected of entry-level nurses, supports staff nurses’ contentions that autonomous decision making is exceptional rather than beginning or standard nursing practice. 13. Staff nurses can take action to obtain the administrative support needed for autonomous practice. Nurses must ask for the support; they have an obligation to make their expectations known. Of Narrative. 14 , 15 If a nurse wants to practice autonomously and feel that patients need and deserve the best that the nurse can give, he or she must ask that clinical autonomy be defined, discussed, and included in performance appraisals and in paper clinical advancement criteria. Nurses must bring the issue to practice councils.
Sometimes nurses are made to feel that they do not have the support of leadership and/or management in making autonomous decisions in the best interests of patients. An experienced nurse related the uk, following: My patient’s BP suddenly dropped, and I gave her a bolus of fluid, which, for this patient at gangrene paper, this time, was the types essay, right thing to do, but I didn’t have a specific order. As soon as the blood pressure came back up, I put in a call, but it was a while before the doctor got back to me. The patient’s BP would have bottomed out if I had not done that, but my nurse manager made me feel like I was a criminal or at the very least, walking on eggs. The doctor was pleased; I got great thanks and support from him. Unless these issues are openly discussed and research paper brought to the attention of management and leadership, clinical nurses will never really find out if they are or are not expected to function autonomously. Staff nurses in types of narrative essay magnet hospitals describe autonomy as the freedom to act in the best interests of patients, to make independent decisions in the nursing sphere of gangrene, practice and interdependent decisions in those spheres in which other disciplines overlap with nursing. Literature Dissertations. Autonomous practice is essential for safe and quality patient care and for nurses’ job satisfaction. Nurses on oncology, procedural outpatient, and gangrene orthopedic units report more autonomous practice than do nurses on other units. Six domains of autonomy based on patients’ needs were described; many of proofreading, these are unit specific.
Improving the work environment so that nurses can function autonomously is a responsibility of both leadership and clinical nurses. Gangrene Research. Clinical nurses can exert leadership by defining autonomy, at least for their unit or service. Periodically renegotiating the scope of practice and obtaining administrative support and sanction will do much to secure autonomy-friendly work environments. How can autonomous practice affect nurses’ professional job satisfaction? How do nurses define autonomy in the workplace? How do we improve the work environment so that nurses can function autonomously? To purchase electronic or print reprints, contact The InnoVision Group, 101 Columbia, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656. Draft. Phone, (800) 809-2273 or (949) 362-2050 (ext 532); fax, (949) 362-2049; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org . To learn more about clinical autonomy, read “Decisions Made by Critical Care Nurses During Mechanical Ventilation and Weaning in gangrene research paper an Australian Intensive Care Unit” by college, Louise Rose et al in gangrene research the American Journal of Critical Care, 2007;16:434-443. Available online at www.ajcconline.org. Now that you’ve read the article, create or contribute to an online discussion about this topic using eLetters. Just visit ccn.aacnjournals.org and click “Respond to This Article” in either the full-text or PDF view of the article.
This research was funded in part by a grant from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
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coursework inf Introduction to Identity Management. Restricted to students enrolled in gangrene research the Master of Science in Identity Management and proofreading uk, Security program. identity management, security, and privacy across different market sectors. Identity in Society Community. Restricted to students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program. Identity Public Policy. Restricted to students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program. identity policy areas including privacy, surveillance, identity theft, health information, business-to-business relationships, and the co-evolution of identity and information technologies. Identity Business Practices Governance. Restricted to students in the Master of Science in research paper Identity Management and Security.
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option. The equivalent of three lecture hours a week for one semester. Gangrene Research! Offered on the credit/no credit basis only. Individual Studies - RESTRICTED (1 hour credit) In-depth study of a problem or topic related to information studies, usually culminating in an examination or a scholarly written report. With consent of the graduate advisor, may be repeated for credit. Creation of a website that displays the student's professional aims, interests, and pursuits, including resume and work samples. Designed to be taken during the final semester of the an essay Master of Science in Information Studies degree program. Internship in Libraries Other Information Agencies - RESTRICTED. Individual Studies - RESTRICTED (2 hours credit)
In-depth study of a problem or topic related to information studies, usually culminating in an examination or a scholarly written report. With consent of the graduate advisor, may be repeated for credit. Internship in Libraries Other Information Agencies - RESTRICTED. Academic Success in the Digital University. Exposure to a wide variety of information and academic resources, tools, and skills. Gangrene Research! Focus is on the digital landscape of higher education. Subjects include features of the primary learning management system used; communication and organizational tools; library resources; basic online research resources; and types of narrative, ethical and safety concerns. Introduction to Information Studies. Overview of the information field as it relates to the technology-based world culture. Topics may include the idea of information, information in relation to.
technology and culture, human-computer interaction, information technology in education, information literacy and the digital divide, information and communication technology, information and gender, public information policy, and information organization and preservation. Introduction to Information Studies (HCI/UX Emphasis) Overview of the information field as it relates to the technology-based world culture. Topics may include the idea of information, information in relation to. technology and culture, human-computer interaction, information technology in education, information literacy and the digital divide, information and communication technology, information and gangrene research, gender, public information policy, and information organization and preservation. Topics In Human-Computer Interaction. Fundamental concepts, techniques, and dissertations, questions in human-computer interaction. Topics. covered may include user research, interaction design, user interface design, and usability.
Information and Culture. Examines information as a cultural phenomenon. Topics may include e-commerce, privacy and secrecy, censorship, information as a commodity, Internet culture, access to cultural heritage, and control of the cultural record. Evaluation, selection, and proper and creative use of books and other media with children. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Studies 322T and 322W may not both be counted. Information and People. Study of how individuals and groups create meaning. Explores research topics concerning people and communication, including information literacy, organizations and innovation, knowledge management, and identifying information needs. A general introduction to information searching and evaluating information in digital, print, visual, and aural formats. Information In Cyberspace (HCI/UX Emphasis)
An overview of the history and social impact of Internet, Web, and other network technologies. Students will learn methods and tools of media creation with an research paper emphasis on technological self-sufficiency. Information in writing my personal Cyberspace. An overview of the history and social impact of Internet, Web, and other network technologies. Students will learn methods and tools of media creation with an emphasis on technological self-sufficiency.
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Study of a problem or topic related to information studies. Understanding and Serving Users. Overview of human-computer interaction, understanding client groups, information filters, information literacy and information-seeking behavior, as well as user studies and usability testing. Introduction to Information Resources and how do an online, Services. Major reference resources and strategies useful in providing information services in libraries and gangrene research paper, other information agencies. Materials for Children. A survey of children's literature; materials in various formats suitable for use by and with children. An Essay! Evaluation tools, application of selection and evaluation criteria, and planning for the use of materials.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Materials for Young Adults. Evaluation, selection and gangrene research paper, use of books and other media to meet the needs of young adults of middle-school and essay, high-school age. Information Resources and Services for gangrene research Children and Young Adults. Examines the evaluation, selection, and use of books and other media for young adults of junior and senior high school age. Briefly surveys the reading experience, psychology of adolescence, and reading interests of young adults. Includes extensive reading and viewing. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Legal Information Resources.
Identification of relevant legal information resources, efficient retrieval of legal information, and the role of technology in college essay legal information access. Information Resources in the Health Sciences. Evaluation of conventional and online health information resources used by consumers and health care professionals for health promotion and disease and disorder prevention, diagnosis, treatment, ad management. Includes traditional and gangrene, alternative approaches, genetic clinical information approaches, and an essay, evidence-based approaches to the use of resources. Information Resources and Services. Evaluation and use of printed online information resources and services in specialized areas, with emphasis on new information technologies. Information-seeking behavior of users, document delivery, new roles of the gangrene research information specialist in on melancholy and cannibalism user support, and paper, information needs of a variety of clients. Information Resources in Business. Communication patterns, bibliographic organization and information resources in my personal business and industry. Competitive Intelligence Resources and Strategies. Resources and strategies for market and competitive analysis.
Research and analysis of market trends and financial, technical, and cultural strengths and weaknesses of companies. Online, print, and primary research and analytical techniques. Ethics, process, and research, presentation are emphasized. Introduction to Scientific Data Informatics. Introduction to the characteristics of scientific data and the emerging practices applied. toward their management and preservation. Library Instruction and Information Literacy. History of instruction in information service settings; learning theory, including learning styles; professional organizations involved in supporting instruction; instructional delivery modes and my personal, materials; and evaluation. Information Services: Theory, Techniques, and Subject Areas.
Exploration of reference services; and evaluation and use of printed and online information resources and gangrene, services, with emphases on interpersonal communication and new information technologies. Information needs and information-seeking behavior or users; and new roles of the information specialist in user services. Includes information resources an services in the humanities and social sciences. Electronic Resources for Children and Youth Seminar. Exploration of digital information resources available for draft college essay children and youth, including the range of paper, content and availability, how information resources are conceived and created, and the implications of these resources for school and public libraries. Visual Resources for Youth Seminar. The history and selection criteria of the Caldecott Award; the history of picture books and publishing; academic and professional literature about children's materials; and selection criteria for picture books, including evaluating children's literature and developing the tools to analyze picture books for narrative, artistic, and compositional elements. Illustrative techniques and their effectiveness in relation to particular texts. Mathematical Foundations of Information Studies.
Introduction to traditional finite mathematical concepts, including probability distributions and models, linear equations, matrix algebra, linear statistical models, basic information theory, and the use of mathematical and statistical software for modeling and types, data analysis. Interpreting Implicit Information on the Web. Theories and research paper, methods of literature dissertations, Internet language and image interpretation. Research Paper! Examines persuasion, group and individual identity projection, and group-value demonstration. Types! Focuses on how discourse is shaped by ideology, social forces, and the knowledge and beliefs of its producers within several information contexts, such as online communities, education, science, and healthcare. Introduction to Digital Humanities. A hands-on introduction to guiding infrastructural and research, institutional developments involved in digital scholarship. Areas of focus include archives, collection, and scholarly editions; data curation; funding; text encoding; tool building; scholarly publishing; and visualization. Library Information Science, Espionage, and Intelligence Gathering.
Examines the historical and conceptual linkages between the field of library information science and the practices of intelligence gathering and espionage. Explores the role and structure of the intelligence community, the similarities and contrasts between intelligence practitioners and other information professionals, and historical case studies that illuminate areas of overlap and cooperation between the disciplines. Introduction to the concepts of information organization, representation, and classification. Consideration of different traditions of dissertations, practice and user concerns. Philosophical and social context, objectives and methodology of gangrene paper, evaluating and selecting library materials. Seminar in Information Organization. Critical, in-depth examination of significant concepts in information organization.
Concepts of Information Retrieval. Foundations and emerging areas of research in information retrieval and filtering, including system evaluation, major underlying models in the field, empirical methods of document classification, and applications of data mining techniques (such as clustering and dimensionality reduction) for information management. Topics In Description and Metadata. Principles and practices for describing information resources. Introduction to issues in selecting, managing, and how do an online article essay, using digital repositories in diverse institutional settings. Covers repository models, collections, metadata, interoperability, preservation, policies, work flows, interfaces, visualization, applications, and services. Includes working with different repository software. Examines the impact of repositories on research institutional culture, work practices, and publication models. Three lecture hours a week for proofreading one semester.
Descriptive Cataloging and Metadata. Descriptive Cataloging and Metadata. Standards, rules, and metadata formats for representing information entities in library catalogs and other bibliographic systems. Emphasis on the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and the MARC metadata format. Web-based instruction; no class meetings. Information Studies 384E and research paper, 384W may not both be counted. Human Computer Interaction. The history and importance of human-computer interaction (HCI), theories of HCI design, modeling of computer users and interfaces, empirical techniques for analyzing systems and interfaces, interface design, and styles of my personal statement, interaction.
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Designed to build upon the skills covered in Information Studies 385P. Individual project evaluating a Web site or other software user interface. Dissertations! Students devise a plan for testing, secure IRB approval to paper, test human subjects, conduct study, analyze date, write a report, and present the results and conclusions. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Digital Media Design. Design and production of graphic, audio, video, and proofreading, multimedia materials, with emphasis on research aesthetics and usability.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Projects in Human-Computer Interaction. Projects based on theories of human-computer interaction design, modeling of computer users and interfaces, empirical techniques for analyzing systems and interfaces, interface design, and styles of interaction. Literature! Three lecture hours a week for one semester. History, design, and research, use of digital information networks.
Emphasis on origins of the Internet in the United States, varied technical models for networked information services, and social analysis of networked communication from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Includes close review of classic papers in networked communication as well as current works. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Principles and practices of database management and draft college, database design. Discussion and implementation of a database.
Application life cycle, data dictionaries, relational database design, SQL queries, reports and other interfaces to database data, and documentation. Students work on individual and group projects. Investigation of informatics movements around the world and in various disciplines and professions, such as biomedicine, nursing, public health, education, business, law, and public affairs. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. The basics of gangrene research, user-centered design through the lifecycle of a software product. Includes perceptual, psychological, and other scientific underpinnings of usability and the justification for the application of usability engineering in software development. Three lecture hours a week for types essay one semester.
Knowledge Management Systems. Survey of knowledge management systems that enable the access and coordination of knowledge management systems that enable the access and coordination of knowledge assets, including intranets, groupware, Weblogs, instant messaging, content management systems, and e-mail in both individual and organizational contexts. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Survey of Digitization. Introduction to the issues and trends in digitization initiatives and management, including project planning and management, asset delivery and gangrene, management systems, interoperability and draft essay, the importance of standards, copyright and other legal issues, metadata basics digital preservation, and specific digitization processes for documents, images, video, and sound. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Research, development, and evaluation issues in digital libraries, including collection development and digitization; provision of access to multimedia materials; access strategies and interfaces; metadata and interoperability; and the implications of digital libraries with respect to policy and gangrene research paper, social issues. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Special Topics in Information Science. Study of the properties and behavior of information. Technology for information processing and management. Visual, numerical, textual, and verbal presentation of how do you quote article in an essay, information based on fundamental theories of human information perception and communication. Examples may include tables, graphs, dashboards, infographics, and reports.
Concepts, principles, strategies, techniques, and tools for the visual presentation of large, high-density, or complex information resources from a variety of gangrene paper, disciplines such as the proofreading essays uk sciences, humanities, law, arts, and gangrene research paper, business. Human Computation Crowdsourcing. Introduction to the theory, methods, and applications of human computation and crowdsourcing; covering a breadth of key concepts as well as more specialized depth in one or more key sub-areas. Mobile Interaction Design. Introduction to the design of essays, mobile interactions with emphasis on research and analysis, conceptual design, mobile interface prototyping, and the basics of research paper, interface evaluation and usability testing. A hands-on introductory overview of the applications, methods, tools, and technologies that constitute data science and data mining. Fundamentals of Python and R programming languages and relevant libraries. A semester project applying the learned methods and technologies to a specific dataset. An introduction to fundamental information modeling methods such as relational database design, conceptual modeling, markup systems, and ontologies. Information Science in the Intelligence Community.
Introduction to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) and the world of espionage from a Library and essays, Information Science perspective: how intelligence agencies collect, manage, and analyze data and information to produce actionable insights for research paper policymakers. Digital Media Collections. Collection design, resource selection, description and organization, development of user access mechanisms. May include collection considerations in regards to various media, workflow and types essay, project management, audience analysis, and notions of authorship in the collection context. Gangrene Research Paper! Three lecture hours a week for college essay one semester. Information Studies 385T (Topic: Creating and Using Digital Media Collections) and 385U may not both be counted. Introduction to health informatics; includes fundamentals of information in biomedicine, nursing, public health, bioinformatics and genomics, electronic records, and integrated systems.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Explores information, computer, and network security in several contexts. Examines business impacts of security, societal implications of the gangrene protection of information resources, and technical aspects of securing information technology systems and data. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. History of an essay on melancholy, Information and Society. Topics on the histories of information; libraries; archives; information science, technology, and businesses; conservation; and museums. Archives, Records, and Preservation in the Modern World. Progress of archival enterprise, records management, and preservation administration from the Renaissance to the present. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information and Culture. Examines information as a cultural phenomenon; may include e-commerce, privacy and secrecy, censorship, information as a commodity, Internet culture, access to research, cultural heritage, and writing my personal statement, control of the cultural record.
Gender, Technology, and Information. Definitions of and metaphors for technologies; in-depth analysis of feminism and science and technologies studies, masculinities and technologies, woman's underrepresentation in technology, reproductive and sexual technologies, domestic technologies, design and architecture, book clubs and reading, and gender and gangrene research paper, (information) articulation work. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the how do in an following may be counted: Graduate School 390J (Topic: Gender, Technology, and Information), Information Studies 386G, Women's and research, Gender Studies 393 (Topic: Gender, Technology, and Information). Theory and Methods of Oral History. Theories of oral history; practical methods for producing, recording, annotating, and searching oral and video histories; archival issues related to documentation of oral histories; use of oral histories in various scholarly fields.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Theory and practice in the design, behavior, evaluation, and administration of how do in an, libraries and other information agencies and systems. Marketing of information organizations and gangrene research paper, resources. Administrative applications of technology. Managing Information Organizations. Management theory, concepts, processes, and practices as applied to draft, information agencies and systems. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Information Studies 387C and 387W may not both be counted. Evaluating Information Programs. Use of evaluation in support of decision making, setting priorities, allocating scarce resources, and improving programs. Students study how to conceptualize, design, implement, and report on evaluation in the context of working with a local client. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Marketing of information agencies, systems, services, publications, and software and hardware products to gangrene research paper, consumer clientele. You Quote An Online Article Essay! Includes marketing research, planning, user studies, product development, communication, pricing and distribution for profit and nonprofit organizations. Study of the information brokerage function. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Technology and Work. Examines the role information technology plays in modern work.
Case studies of historical and modern examples of research, technology implementation and work transformation. Includes qualitative techniques, such as interviewing and observing, for data collection; data analysis; and presentation of data. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. School Library Management. Philosophy, objectives, and management of the school library; emphasis on facilities, staff resources, administrative procedures, and programs and literature, services. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Information Studies 388C and research, 388W may not both be counted. Planning and Management of Programs for Children and Young Adults. Designing and planning effective services and programs for children and young adults: technologies, information need analysis, and trends. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Historical Museums: Context and Practice. The process of exhibit creation in historical museums, from planning through development to opening and maintenance, as a negotiation among stakeholders for influence on essay the story that is told. Students visit local historical museums and examine how presentations are influenced by the institutional position of the museum, including its history and resources; the concerns of museum employees; the influence of the research paper audience and of those who are directly affected or represented by an exhibit; and the role of contractual professionals. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Mission, goals, and objectives of specific information settings. History, missions, values, governance, funding, services, user communities, architecture, leadership, and issues in public librarianship.
The relationship of academic library management to trends in postsecondary education, to the institution the library serves, and to the research community at large. Development and management of special libraries and information centers. Rare Book and Special Collections. Administration of rare book and manuscript collections. Introduction to analytical bibliography. Overview of law librarianship, the discipline of law, and the culture of the legal environment, including the essays context in which law librarians, legal publishers, and gangrene paper, other legal information professionals work. Professional Experience and Project. Study of a practical problem, current phenomenon, or professional issue in an institutional setting. Students prepare a final project intended for publication. Practicum in School Libraries.
Fieldwork in varied school library settings under the supervision of. Internship in Libraries and Other Information Agencies - RESTRICTED. Archival and Records Enterprise. Theory and practice of archival administration and records management. Problems in acquiring, organizing, and providing for essay use of archives and office records; issues in deterioration and care of paper, paper, books, photographic material, magnetic records, and other media through preservation programs for libraries and archives. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. May be repeated for credit. Introduction to Records Management. Systems for controlling recorded information in an organizational setting. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Introduction to how do you quote an online, Electronic and Digital Records.
Examines personal recordkeeping and information management to explore the creation, management, and preservation of digital information. Includes current developments in digital technology that affect recordkeeping. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Appraisal and Selection of Records. Investigates the paper history, theory, and practice of selecting and appraising records information for permanent or quasi-permanent retention in an archival environment. Explores influences of how do article in an essay, other stakeholders on the selection and appraising process. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Life Cycle Metadata for Digital Objects. Constructing the metadata continuum in order to understand how metadata may function as an authenticating wrapper for gangrene an electronic record. Analysis of the elements of the continuum, including records surveys and inventories, creation metadata, active management metadata, records schedules, accession records, cataloging and description metadata, maintenance records, and usage records. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Introduction to Issues in Records Information. Exploration of the fundamentals of an online article, records information and gangrene research paper, their role in society. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Seminar in Archival Enterprise. Theory and practice of archival administration and records management.
Problems in acquiring, organizing, preserving, and providing for use of administrative and collected archives. Introduction to Archival Enterprise I. Introduction to the records aspect of literature, archival enterprise, from paper, acquisition to use, with emphasis on arrangement and description. Three lecture hours a week for how do an online in an one semester. INF 389D and gangrene, INF 389R may not both be counted. Introduction to Archival Enterprise II. Administrative and professional issues, including organizing the work of a repository, management issues, marketing, space, law, and ethics. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Studies 389D and 389S may not both be counted. Copyright: Legal and Cultural Perspectives. Digital and other important communication technologies; how copyright in the U.S. developed and has evolved; and copyright seen from how do you quote an online in an, a number of disciplinary points of gangrene paper, view, such as legal studies, cultural history, and public policy.
Other subjects may include the culural commons; natural rights arguments for copyright versus social bargain and and cannibalism, statutory arguments; identifying and paper, protecting th epublic interest in information; the writing my personal statement law of copyright and cultural categories such as the author, the work, intellectual property, and creation; and important federal court cases. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Studies 390C and 390N (Topic: Copyright: Legal and Cultural Perspectives) may not both be counted. Critical examination of conflicts and trends in information policy in private organizations and in federal, state, and research, international public-sector organizations. Federal Information Policy. Exploration of types essay, major information-policy conflicts around topics such as privacy, surveillance, and freedom of information; in-depth analysis of the implications of research, digital technologies in the post-9/11 United States. Essay! Designed to help students develop skill in policy analysis as a research method and familiarity with many kinds of gangrene paper, sources of information about federal information policy. Seminar in Information Policy. Analysis of essays, issues and trends in information policy in various environments.
Topics in Privacy. Policy, value systems, and critical theory regarding privacy, studied from research paper, historical, sociological, feminist, or other perspectives. Doctoral Inquiry in Information Studies. Topics in the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of information studies. Directed Readings - RESTRICTED. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the article in an faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for gangrene research paper registration. Directed Research - RESTRICTED. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the literature dissertations faculty member's name to the Graduate Coordinator for registration.
Introduction to Doctoral Research and Theory I - RESTRICTED. Foundations of inquiry in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, and review of theories and methods of inquiry in Information Studies in particular. Introduction to paper, Doctoral Research and draft essay, Theory II - RESTRICTED. Epistemological concepts and processes of theory generation and testing in Information Studies, with special attention to explicit problems of research paper, interest to writing, the student. Survey of Information Studies - RESTRICTED. An overview of the major ideas, concepts, and theories of Information Studies. The Research Enterprise - RESTRICTED. An overview of the nature and purposes of research, and common methods and methodologies in information studies. Disciplinary Foundations For Information Studies - RESTRICTED.
An overview of concepts, results, and gangrene research paper, perspectives from philosophical, social science, humanistic, design, and technological disciplines that provide important underpinnings for Information Studies. Advanced Topics in Information Studies - RESTRICTED. Advanced study of specific topics in Information Studies. Intended primarily for doctoral students in the School of Information. Advanced Topics in Research Methods, Methodologies, and Design. The equivalent of three lecture hours a week for one semester.
May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Doctoral Writing Seminar. Intensive writing, critique, and rewriting to essay, assist senior doctoral students with refining their research writing in research paper preparation for proofreading essays uk qualifying papers, dissertation proposals, and gangrene paper, formal publications. Preservation Administration and Services. Theory and how do you quote article in an essay, practice of preservation administration and research paper, services. Problems in planning, organizing, and implementing preservation work in libraries, archives, and museums.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. May be repeated for credit. Fundamental issues and problem solving in the preservation of types of narrative, cultural heritage collections in libraries and archives. Topics include the development and ethics of preservation and conservation, types and causes of deterioration, preventive care and stabilization, monitoring and gangrene research paper, controlling interior environments, reformatting, and performing preservation-needs assessments. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Materials in proofreading essays Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Underlying factors in the physical nature of materials; concepts of permanence, durability, and deterioration; challenges of both traditional and modern collections; emphasis on print and photographic collections. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Risk Assessment and Collections Management. Agents of deterioration, including physical forces, security, disaster, and environmental conditions; risk assessment, strategies to reduce risk, and personal safety. Research Paper! Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Management of Preservation Programs. Management of specific preservation strategies for cultural record; preservation policy; the selection process for preservation; minor mending and repair operations; library binding and conservation treatment; preservation assessments; emergency preparedness; contracting for services; and budgeting, grant writing, and fundraising for preservation. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Creating Sustainable Digital Collections. Hands-on activities that focus on building sustainable collections of types, digitized resources.
Designed to paper, help students gain curatorial understanding of the media to be digitized and knowledge of and experience with the technical and managerial aspects of the digitization process. Includes creation of metadata and proofreading, digital preservation strategies for research long-term access. Proofreading Essays! Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Digital Archiving and Preservation. Examines the permanent archiving of digital information.
Covers media refreshment, emulation, migration, and electronic records repository construction and administration. Case study projects involving campus repositories and off-campus institutions. Students use legacy hardware and software and digital forensics tools to preprocess digital collections for repository storage. Also explores issues in long-term electronic records preservation. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Introduction to Audio Preservation and Reformatting. Study of audio recording through a chronological examination of the development of recording; basic care and gangrene paper, preservation of recordings; economics of audio preservation; and stability concerns of modern media.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Advanced Audio Preservation and Reformatting. Exploration of changing concepts in the nature of an essay on melancholy, audio information in different formats, issues of access within the context of preservation, criteria for prioritization of materials to be reformatted, considerations in invasive versus minimal restoration, and study of rare formats. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. The Politics of Preservation. Introduction to the components of the media industries, using the available literature as well as the University's film and video resources. The course employs both a theoretical and a practical approach to the archival media product.
Debate over defining historical media material as artifact complements discussion of the realities of digitization and physical deterioration. Conservation Laboratory Techniques. Analysis, housing, and treatment of physical objects. Conservation Science I. Introduction to physical and chemical properties of materials used in fabrication, identification and gangrene, repair of books, photographs, manuscripts and related objects. Conservation Science II. Advanced exploration of the physical and chemical properties of writing, materials used in fabrication; and research paper, identification and repair of books, photographs, manuscripts, and related objects. Includes a research investigation of a typical conservation problem. Treatment Techniques for essay Flat Paper. Basic techniques for care and handling of paper materials including but not limited to paper, mending; dry cleaning; humidification and flattening; exhibit design and installation; enclosures; documentation. Treatment Techniques for Bound Materials.
Basic techniques for care and handling of bound materials including but not limited to sewing structure, minor mends, and enclosures. Research in Information Studies. Methods and subjects of research in my personal statement information studies. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Bibliography and Methods in paper Historical Research.
Sources of information for, and techniques of conducting, investigations in history. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Practicum in Research - RESTRICTED. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Draft College Essay! Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Offered on the credit/no credit basis only. Digital Libraries Research. Exploration of theoretical and practical research on creating digital collections and paper, making them available. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Seeking Funding for Information Studies. Designed to help students gain an understanding of, and hands-on experience with, the pursuit of funding for information studies. Students will spend some time considering their five-year plan, will investigate a wide variety of possible funding sources, and then submit at least one grant or contract application. Survey of the goals, methods, processes, and products of systematic inquiry. Designed to prepare students to critically evaluate information studies research.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Bibliography and Methods in Historical Research. Sources of information for and techniques of conducting investigations in history. Master's Report - RESTRICTED. Preparation of a report to fulfill the requirement for the master's degree under the report option. Supervised Teaching in Information Studies - RESTRICTED. History and present status of education for draft essay librarianship and information studies.
Curriculum design, systematic course design and management, teaching methodologies and evaluation of learning. May be repeated for credit as a teaching practicum. Research for the dissertation. Gangrene Research! The individual student works under supervision of proofreading essays uk, a member of the graduate faculty. Research! Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Writing of the dissertation. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the an online essay faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty.
Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Gangrene Research Paper! Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Research for the dissertation. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Writing of the dissertation. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Research for the dissertation. Proofreading Essays! The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty.
Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Writing of the dissertation. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration.