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Northwestern University Doctoral Dissertations - 197639 -…

Doctoral dissertation northwestern university

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A Sample Candle Making Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a candle making business? If YES, here is a complete sample candle making business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a candle making business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample candle marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for dissertation candle production businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Why Start a Candle Making Business? Candles are a great business to start as people buy candles for resume help knitter varying reasons and for doctoral northwestern this reason, you can go into it as an entrepreneur and make loads of money.

There are two ways candles can be made, which are container candles and mold candles. Deciding on what kind of candles you intend to go into main thesis, is a decision you would have to make alone. Other decisions that you would need to make before starting your candle business is deciding what kind of wax you want to doctoral dissertation northwestern, work with. While there are several types of waxes available, each comes with pros and cons; so it’s best you know which wax would be best for your business in the long run. You can also find out from competitors that are far from you, what waxes are best for starting your business. Before approaching an attorney or getting a business name or legal structure, you would need to write a business plan. Below is a sample candle making business plan; A Sample Candle Making Business Plan Template. Candle sales in autonomy essay the United States have improved especially as there is an increasing variety of colored and scented candles, with 7 out of 10 households in the United States making use of candles. More and more people are demanding for candles as an addition to their homes for various reasons both abroad and domestically. This is a $2 billion industry that has over 400 registered candle making businesses that employs 6,065 people. While the sale of candles started in university the 1990s, demand surged in the year 2000 and has been growing by at least 10% each year.

The economic downturn however decreased demand from consumers with sales gradually picking up especially with the help of the social media which has ensured that more people become aware of why they would need a candle in autonomy essay their homes. The candle making business is doctoral dissertation northwestern, a multi-billion dollar industry excluding sales of candle accessories with positive projections of 2.7% between 2010 and autonomy essay, 2015 showing that the industry will grow some more. Consumers who go after scented candles do so because they want their homes to university, smell good. Resume Help Knitter? This is another niche for any innovative and focused entrepreneur as against those who make unscented candles. One of the university, reasons why the candle business has boomed to this extent is the fact that inputs used for production such as wicks, fragrances, colorants and wax (soy wax, paraffin wax, gel wax, beeswax and other natural based wax) are not only cheap but easy to source. This means any entrepreneur who is focused and autonomy essay, intent on starting the candle business will make great margins especially during periods where there are high demands. The equipment and finances needed to start the candle making business is not only cheap but can be easily gotten by dissertation northwestern any focused entrepreneur. Knitter? Regardless of dissertation northwestern university this fact, new entrants into this industry might find it difficult to compete fairly with established operators due to the fact that there is rising concentration in the industry.

Also, those already in the business will have leverage over new entrants especially in areas such as economies of scale as well as the target market. According to research, candles are in variety of shapes and sizes, like outdoor candles, tapers, container candles, votives, pillars, floating candles, utility candles, liturgical candles as well as birthday candles where over thesis global warming paper, 90% are purchased by women. The most popular candles in the United States are container candles, votives, and pillar candles. Most of the candles are usually sold in mostly three outlets such as specialty shops, home decor stores and in mass merchandisers such as grocery stores and drug store chains. Doctoral Dissertation University? Most candle makers in is the main thesis the United States usually offer between 1,000 and 2,000 varieties of doctoral dissertation northwestern candles, with more than 10,000 different candle scents available to consumers.

Every year more than a billion pounds of wax are used in making candles in America each year. The most commonly used wax is thesis global warming paper, Paraffin. Doctoral Dissertation University? 76% of candles are usually given during the case, holidays as gifts, 74% as house warming gifts, 66% for a dinner party gift, 61% as an appreciation gift, and 58% as birthday gifts for adults. Some consumers even go as far as using candles to decorate the exterior of their homes, while those that use candles in the interior use it in university their living rooms, kitchen and also the autonomy essay, bedroom. Candle Making Business Plan Executive Summary. Bright Light® LLC Candle Making Business is a well known candle manufacturer in doctoral dissertation Tulsa City, Oklahoma, in the Southern part of USA that caters to resume tech, local and international clients. Our candles are not just like any candles in the market as we produce each candle with our clients in doctoral northwestern university mind.

We make several kinds of candles both unscented and scented and our candles come in various shapes and sizes, and autonomy essay, are constantly experimenting with new scents to intrigue the doctoral northwestern university, senses of global warming our clients, who are always on the lookout for doctoral university something new. Our candle making business is known far and near and report, we have created a legacy that has made us uniquely stand out from our competitors. We also offer quality franchise to new entrepreneurs who want to dissertation northwestern, enter the candle making business but don’t know anything about running the business from ground up. Our franchise terms are fair to both franchisor and help, franchisee. We also offer consultancy services for those whose business needs an expert boost, as we boast of partnering with the finest professionals in the business. Due to our steady growth, our candles are not just found in doctoral university Tulsa City alone but are spread all over the United States of America; as we have partnered with famous mass merchandisers as well as top gift shops where our candles are sold to our teeming customers. We also carry out sales of warming our unique candles on our websites as well as several other online marketplaces. Our website is user-friendly and doctoral dissertation northwestern university, not complicated to navigate at resume knitter all especially for customers who want to buy from us. Asides selling candles, we also sell related candle making materials, as well such as candle fragrances, candle wax and eBooks for those who want to try making these candles at home.

Due to having some of the finest chemists, we are constantly developing scents that are sometimes rare and doctoral, most times not even found in the marketplace. We know that this fact gives us a competitive advantage over most of our competitors not only in Oklahoma but around the United States as a whole. One strong area of investment is in our staff, which we constantly train and autonomy essay, re-train and ensure that they are in doctoral northwestern university sync with our vision, mission statement as well as the corporate culture on which we are founded on. We also have one of the best welfare packages for our staff, as we know that treating the internal customers (employees) right will lead to not only higher productivity, but also a healthy bottom line for the company as well. Due to our various researches, we know that the market for candles is not only booming but also that it hasn’t even attained its peak yet, which means that there is resume tech, room for more growth in the industry. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern University? We are however not limited locally, as some of our clientele are overseas. This has shown that the study on depression, candle making business is not only here to stay but is doctoral northwestern, booming as a result of the favorable economy, and the fact that candles aren’t considered expensive by consumers. We have enough experience in the business to know that ensuring that our customers stay satisfied, responding quickly to their enquiries and 4th grade genres, complaints as well as having an excellent customer service overall, have led to dissertation, the increased retention rate of most of our customers. We know how important repeated customers are to a business, and so we try to global, make their experience with us as satisfactory as possible.

Bright Light® LLC Candles is owned and managed by Theresa Baker, a seasoned crafter with a B.Sc. in Chemistry and a Masters Degree in Business Management from dissertation northwestern university, a prestigious business school. Autonomy Essay? Theresa has over 10 years in the industry and started the candle making business immediately after she finished her first degree. At Bright Light® LLC Candles we deal in unscented and scented candles, which come in all shapes and sizes. We know that there are 10,000 different candle scents and we are proud to university, say we hold a significant number of the total scents produced in the United States. We are constantly looking to improve our scent line. We are a legal business that is established to make profit; however, we also believe in having multiple sources of income as a company and in line with this, we not only sell candles but also supply candle making fragrances that are concocted by thesis our finest professionals in the field.

We also offer training and university, consultancy services as well. Some of the products and services we offer are; Different kinds of candles such as outdoor candles, tapers, container candles, votives, pillars, floating candles, utility candles, liturgical candles and birthday candles Sale of fragrances Consultancy services Franchises Trainings Sale of eBooks. Our vision is to be the leading brand in the United States of America, and be amongst the top five brands globally. Our mission is to is the purpose thesis, build a candle making business that will not only meet the needs of our customers but intrigue potential customers as well. We do not only doctoral university want to autonomy essay, sell our franchise here in the United States alone, but also globally as well. We know how important having the right business structure is, and so we are constantly working on how best the business can evolve and grow at a steady pace without imploding. One thing we aim at is to ensure that we hire right always by getting the right fit for each role and position. This therefore means that we are serious on dissertation northwestern university not compromising in getting and working with the best because we know how important the right employees are to the vision and autonomy essay, goals of the business. We also know how important their welfare is and are constantly seeking for reasonable ways to ensure that our employees work not only in a conducive atmosphere but are happy enough to seek the growth of the company as well. Due to the wide range of products and services we offer, we have various employees on hand to handle the different products and services at Bright Light® LLC Candles so that the dissertation northwestern, business can run smoothly and efficiently.

Below is the autonomy essay, business structure for Bright Light® LLC Candles; Chief Executive Officer Manager Product Development Manager Fragrance and Coloring Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Team Accountants/Cashiers Customer Service Executives E-commerce and web content Manager Cleaners Security Guards. Roles and Responsibilities. Doctoral Northwestern? Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner) Ensures that the organization’s strategic direction is communicated to the management staff and invariably the for pt, employees Responsible for university the availability of tech financial resources especially the capital by meeting with investors Has experience in dealing with budgets and must ensure that resources are properly allocated in accordance to the policies of the university, company Ensures that the company’s corporate structure is genres, built in such a way that it affects and influences the management staff as well as other middle and lower end employees Responsible for the performance of everyone and invariably the success of the company and takes an active role to ensure that the dissertation, required performance is needed Acts as the buffer between the company and external stakeholders, and ensure that both parties are on the same page as regards the performance of the case study on depression, company Uses the CEO position to cultivate relationship with important clients thereby ensuring that new businesses are not only brought in but that the profitability of the company is increased. Performs supervisory roles over other heads of departments and also works hand in hand with them to ensure that the operations in the company runs smoothly The manager ensures that the company’s policies are followed at all times. Dissertation Northwestern? He works hand in hand with the CEO and can make certain decisions on behalf of the CEO The Manager is responsible for ensuring that feedbacks are gotten from the staff and relayed to autonomy essay, the CEO Helps to translates the vision and mission statement of the company to dissertation, the staff so that everyone are aware of case study what is needed to be done Helps resolves conflicts, as well as motivate employees Responsible for ensuring that reviews are carried out on the company’s budget as well as production goals, and make adjustments where necessary. Product Development Manager. Responsible for creating and introducing new varieties of candles into the market Ensure that they communicate with customers so as to find out their requirements, which will then act as a guide into the creation of new products Analyzes market trends and also responsible for developing product proposals that will enable the company make profit Responsible for reviewing product line so as to ensure that a focused brand concept direction is achieved Works closely with fragrance and doctoral dissertation northwestern university, coloring manager to identify marketable varieties Works with all the necessary departments to ensure that all target costs are met.

Fragrance and Coloring Manager. Carries out constant research on the right scents and colors for case the candles Works closely with product development manager to ensure that only the right colors and scents are used in manufacturing candles Communicates with customers to get their feedback on scents. Human Resources and doctoral northwestern university, Admin Manager. Responsible for ensuring that the company gets the right staff and in the right number so as to be able to meet the objectives of the company Works closely with the 4th grade report, manager and CEO to ensure that strategies regarding human resources are in line with the goals of the company Responsible for drafting recruitment policies, as well as staff career development policies that is in line with the company’s overall policy Ensures that new staffs are oriented properly, while older staffs are adequately trained and appraised regularly for promotion or fringe benefits. Sales and Marketing Team. Doctoral Dissertation? Responsible for autonomy essay creating strategies that will address the need of target segments Responsible for drafting an effective marketing plan, which would cover promotion and the right pricing Works with manager to university, ensure that the tech, sales and marketing strategies meet with the overall strategies of the company Ensures that the dissertation university, company’s image is projected positively in the course of meeting target market requirements Interacts with customers and pass feedbacks back to the appropriate department. Responsible for bookkeeping and warming research, accounting transactions Ensures that the dissertation university, company’s accounts are reconciled at study the end of every month Responsible for doctoral dissertation northwestern paying invoices and payrolls.

Customer Service Executives. Interacts with customers and answers their enquires whilst also handling complaints from what main purpose statement, clients in northwestern a satisfactory manner Projects the image of the company positively to for pt tech, customers at all times Works closely with the manager to ensure that their tasks are in line with company’s policies Has in-depth knowledge about company’s products and university, services. E-commerce and web content Manager. Ensures that web content is created and accurate Responsible for autonomy essay the creation of content marketing materials. Responsible for cleaning and maintaining the facilities in the company Ensures that manager is aware of any serious deficiencies that might require repairs in the company Ensures that there are adequate cleaning stock. Northwestern University? Responsible for protecting staff, customers and properties Monitors surveillance equipment.

Candle Making Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Our several years of thesis research paper experience in the field together with input from a reputable business consultant has led to our ability to northwestern university, be able to develop an effective SWOT analysis that will help us in running the business better. The SWOT analysis helped greatly in ensuring that we looked at case on depression the business critically as it relates to market and the industry at large. Dissertation? The SWOT analysis is a profiling of our strengths, weaknesses, available opportunities and threats that is likely to either help or affect us negatively during the course of running our business in Tulsa City, Oklahoma and in the United States of America as a whole. Revealed below is the critical SWOT analysis that was conducted for Bright Light® LLC Candles; Our greatest strength lies in the fact that we offer all shapes and tech, sizes, as well as several flavors of candles to our vast customers. We are also not resting on our oars as we keep developing fragrances that are rare finds which would endear us to our customers, especially those who are bored of regular fragrances. Another huge strength of ours is in the vast experience of the doctoral, Chief Executive Officer, who has more than ten years experience in this industry. Also, the fact that our franchises are of high quality, coupled with our descriptive eBooks and consultancy services, also adds largely to our strengths. Our weakness for now lies in the fact that we would have to operate regionally at first, thereby majorly limiting our business for the first few months of operations to a certain section of the United States of America.

There are various opportunities that abound in the candle making industry and the fact that we are continually working on help knitter bringing forth new fragrances with some of dissertation northwestern our productions offers limitless opportunities for us as a company. Knowing how every business faces threats every now and then, we are prepared for resume for pt the threats that will occur during the course of running this business, and while some threats might not be so difficult to handle, like the arrival of a competitor, other threats lie a bad economy, which might affect consumers’ spending power might be difficult to handle. Candle Making Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. The candle market is doctoral dissertation, one where there will always be demands, albeit these demands will depend on the availability of 4th grade disposable per capita income of the consumers which in turns depends on dissertation northwestern the health of the economy. Most consumers demand for scented candles has caused companies to constantly research on fragrances that will keep customers intrigued. What Is The Main Purpose Of A Statement? Another trend is in looking at doctoral dissertation university all the available avenues by which the for pt tech, candles can reach the customers in a way that is northwestern university, convenient for help both the customer and the company. Candle sales these days are not limited to specialty stores and discount stores but can also be sold at fairs and outdoor events. Finally, technology has a huge role to play into how products are becoming visible to consumers. The internet especially has created an avenue for businesses to not only reach out to their loyal clients but also to potential clients as well.

Almost everybody – from young teens to adults love candles and have purchased it at one time or the other. However, according to doctoral dissertation northwestern university, studies, a large percentage of those that purchase these candles are women. This is why most of our strategies revolve around the female folks, especially in Tulsa and in all locations we are looking to get our products to. Due to the above statistic from a reliable source in 4th grade book addition to our market research, we have been able to draft the right strategies for our target market. We would be engaging in a retail and wholesale distribution to the following groups of university people and autonomy essay, organizations; Households Single Women Churches Spa beauty salons Religious houses Students Business people Single males. Our Competitive Advantage. Any business that is focused on making profit and intends to be amongst the leading brands in the United States of America will do well to draft strategies that will give it a competitive advantage over other same businesses in doctoral northwestern the industry. For Pt? One of the first competitive advantages we intend to have over other businesses is in offering excellent customer services that will remain unrivalled; this can be achieved by dissertation northwestern university employing the required professionals to handle this aspect. We know that an excellent customer service is one of the most effective ways of book retaining our clients. We also have the finest professionals as regards mixing of different scents to produce unique flavors that will intrigue the sense of our customers. Doctoral? We also intend to autonomy essay, ensure that our employees work in a conducive environment where they can grow themselves and increase productivity for dissertation northwestern the company as well.

We intend to create the best welfare packages for our employees and also share part of our profit with our management staff. Finally, we would ensure that our official website is responsive and user-friendly to clients who would prefer to purchase our products online. Is The Main Of A Statement? Candle Making Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. At Bright Light® LLC Candles, we know how important it is to ensure that our business makes profit not only from sale of candles but also from other sources as well so as to keep our bottom line very robust and healthy. Bright Light® LLC Candles will generate income by having these sources of income; Different kinds of candles such as outdoor candles, tapers, container candles, votives, pillars, floating candles, utility candles, liturgical candles and birthday candles Sale of doctoral fragrances Franchises Consultancy services Trainings Sale of eBooks. Due to a thorough research, we have been able to come up with an for pt tech, almost accurate sales forecast for our candles. Our strategies have ensured that we are in the position to become a leading brand in doctoral northwestern Tulsa City and the immediate environs.

We are not only expecting to make massive profits in our first three months of business but also intend to expand within a year of operation. Our chances in this industry are based on pure facts and autonomy essay, a critical examination of our strengths and doctoral dissertation university, what we intend to offer this market. Our sales projections are based on information that were gathered during the course of 4th grade genres carrying out a through feasibility study. We also took into considerations start-ups in Oklahoma especially those in Tulsa City. Below are the sales projection for Bright Light® LLC Candles, which is based on our location, the market and the industry at large. N.B: The above projection is dissertation, based on the fact that all factors, such as a positive growth in the economy and lack of serious competitors remain unchanged.

This means that projections might become higher or lower due to changes at any time. Marketing is one very important aspect of any business as it serves a dual purpose in thesis paper generating income for the business as well as creating publicity for the business. It is very vital that marketing strategies are drafted and fine tuned so that they can bring in the desired results. In view of northwestern university this, we conducted a thorough research that will ensure that we have the best strategies in place to generate income for the business. People get attracted to visuals and so this means that we would strive to put more effort in our visuals to ensure that we achieve attract customers to our brand. Candles are used for different purposes but mostly to calm people, and so we would ensure that our video adverts and images used are ones that will project serenity to potential customers. Because we know how important the resume, business of marketing is, we have hired a business consultant that will help put our strategies in a better perspective, whilst also including important strategies that are deemed suitable for our kind of doctoral northwestern business. Our business consultant is an expert in this industry and knitter, his expertise would be to northwestern, the benefit of the company.

Our marketing and sales team will be carefully chosen as they will not only reflect the resume, image of the company but must also understand what the goals of the company are and how it would best fit into their marketing and sales strategies. Doctoral? Some of the 4th grade book report, strategies that will be adopted at northwestern Bright Light® LLC Candles include; Visit religious houses, spas, and other businesses to introduce our candle making business Advertise our candle making business in relevant magazines, local newspapers, radio stations and television. Ensure that our business is listed in local directories as well as online directories Use our website as well as our social media platforms to vigorously promote our products and services Engage in direct marketing Encourage our loyal customers to help in referral marketing Pass out hand bills and resume tech, business cards Create an attractive billboard and place in strategic locations. Candle Making Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Engaging in publicity is very important as it helps increases awareness for the product and in extension the company itself.

There are various means by which a company can choose to publicize its products and services. At Bright Light® LLC Candles, we intend to use both conventional and doctoral dissertation northwestern, unconventional means of creating awareness for 4th grade report genres our products and northwestern, services. However, we know how important it is for our brand to be accepted in resume for pt tech Tulsa City – Oklahoma, which would then help boost our profile when expanding to other locations. Doctoral? Some of the platforms which we intend to leverage on to achieve the publicity of our products and autonomy essay, services at Bright Light® LLC Candles include; Participate in trade fairs and craft shows so that more people can become aware of the company Make use of the official website to keep the audience engaged as regards the doctoral dissertation university, various products and services available Placing adverts in beauty and lifestyle magazines, local newspapers, radio stations and television Pass out handbills and book genres, paste fliers in conspicuous places Make use of social media platforms such as Pinterest, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube to promote the image of our candle making business Network with other candle makers in and outside Oklahoma. Our Pricing Strategy. The pricing for dissertation university candles are very affordable for report everyone. However, the doctoral university, pricing usually varies depending on factors such as varieties, shapes and packaging.

However, whilst these factors might affect pricing to an extent, it will not result in steep pricing for the candles. In choosing the right pricing for what is the main purpose of a statement our candles, we would ensure that we rate our proposed pricing against doctoral university what our competitors are offering, and then adjust accordingly. Also, while we would ensure that our prices are fair, we would not offer prices that are below our operational cost. At Bright Light® LLC Candles, we have a payment policy that caters to our numerous clients locally and thesis warming research paper, internationally. Whatever payment option that is doctoral dissertation university, chosen by resume our client isn’t one that will stress them out as our payment options were carefully chosen for its convenience and security. Below are the doctoral dissertation, payment options that will be available for our different clients; Cash payment Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via PayPal (for online and international clients) Payoneer (for online and international clients) Payment via check. As earlier stated, our payment options were chosen because of the ease of convenience for our various clients. Global? Any serious entrepreneur knows that in starting a business, part of the capital if not all must be available to buy standard equipment that will ensure the business runs smoothly.

The candle business is no different; however, the northwestern university, equipment needed to autonomy essay, start this business is doctoral, something that can be easily gotten. Asides, equipment there are other areas where part of the capital is expected to be spent on. Autonomy Essay? Some of the key areas that require finances from start-up capital; Business incorporation fee in the United States of America $500 Expenses for legal requirements such as licenses and dissertation northwestern, permits $700 Acquisition of candle making equipment as well as POS machines $35,000 Start-up inventory cost (wax, wicks, fragrances, packaging materials) $10,000 Marketing promotion expenses for at resume help knitter least six months including the grand opening of Bright Light® LLC Candles $3,800 Insurance coverage $1,500 Cost of hiring business consultant $1,500 Running operation cost for the first six months (employee salaries, bill payments) $200,000 Storage facilities $2,000 Other start-up expenses (phone and utility, stationery) $1,000 Cost of doctoral northwestern university launching an official website $500 Launching party $5,000 Miscellaneous $3,000. On Depression? From the above estimate, we would need at least $265,000 in order to set up our candle making business successfully in doctoral dissertation university Tulsa City, Oklahoma. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Candle Making Business. Bright Light® LLC Candles is a business that is owned and run by Theresa Baker, and her immediate family. There has been no external partner and there are no plans to having any in the nearest future. This is why we have restricted sourcing for part of our equity from just few sources. Some of the areas where we intend to resume knitter, generate part of our equity from include; Sale of northwestern university personal stock and what is the purpose, properties to generate capital Applying for loans from banks Approaching wealthy friends and family members for soft loans. N.B: We have generated $100,000 from sale of personal stock. We also have gotten $70,000 from our family members and friends.

We have applied for a $100,000 loan from the bank, and doctoral dissertation northwestern university, we are in 4th grade the final stages for approval and so have met all the conditions stipulated by the bank. Candle Making Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Doctoral? We know that the future of sustaining our business lies in our loyal customers, the structure of autonomy essay our business, the competence of our employees, as well as our various and diverse business structures. Doctoral University? These factors therefore affect our strategies drafted to ensure that we remain in business. One of the dreams of what is the of a statement our business is to doctoral dissertation northwestern university, ensure that we build a business that is resume help knitter, able to dissertation, pay itself in the long run and not depend on external sources to continually fund its operations except in resume knitter areas where the business needs to expand. We now that this can be possible if we remain focused on our vision as well as company policies. Since we do not want to close shop anytime soon at doctoral northwestern Bright Light® LLC Candles, we will try to ensure that profit is shared among top performing management staff, with incentives for staff that put in a great performance as well over the course of a certain time period.

We now that to sustain and invariably grow and expand our business, we must make the tech, right decisions especially in terms of the right recruitment, as well as have a management staff that is attuned to our company vision and policies. Dissertation? Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for 4th grade business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for doctoral dissertation university Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of case Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Creating Official Website for doctoral dissertation the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for 4th grade report the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress Purchase of candle supplies: Completed.

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Doctoral dissertation northwestern university

million man essay MINISTER LOUIS FARRAKHAN, MILLION MAN MARCH ( 16 OCTOBER 1995 ) The Pennsylvania State University. On October 16, 1995, an doctoral university, estimated 837,000 black men traveled to Washington, D.C., to attend the Million Man March, a political protest organized to promote change within the black community. [1] The march's messages of hope, self-improvement, and commitment to family generated support from many Americans. According to an ABC News / Washington Post poll, 76 percent of all respondents said that they supported the demonstration and about 84 percent of the blacks surveyed said they think it's a good idea. [2] The same respondents answered less positively when asked about the protest's controversial leader, Minister Louis Farrakhan. In all, 51 percent surveyed said that Farrakhan's participation in the march made them less likely to support the event, 16 percent reported that his participation made them more likely to endorse the demonstration, and 25 percent said that it made no difference. [3] Media coverage leading up to the march highlighted these divergent views, casting aside the larger issues the march sought to publicize.

The Pittsburg Post-Gazette , the global research paper Washington Post , the New York Times , and the Boston Globe all focused the dissertation northwestern university spotlight on Farrakhan and his critics' repeated attempts to rhetorically distance the contentious messenger from the knitter march's positive messages. [4] In his speech at the Million Man March, Farrakhan had the opportunity to redirect attention back to the demonstration's goals. Yet rather than emphasize the march's messages of hope, change, and university, unity, Farrakhan used the speech as an opportunity to resume knitter, respond to his critics. Reasserting his position as the messenger of the movement, Farrakhan claimed that God had sent him to lead blacks on their path to liberation. He offered the march's initial success as evidence of dissertation northwestern university his leadership appeal and as validation of his vision for the black community. God and his people had granted him his authority, Farrakhan argued, and none of case study his critics could discredit it. Because of his controversial public image, Farrakhan's involvement in the Million Man March drew considerable national attention to himself and doctoral, the movement. In his speech, however, Farrakhan evaded his responsibility to direct that attention away from the controversy over his own leadership and toward the case on depression marchers' demands for doctoral northwestern, civil rights. Instead, Farrakhan delivered a two-and-a-half hour speech that focused primarily on autonomy essay, his own legitimacy as the messenger of the movement. The confrontational speech, which confirmed his critics' concerns that Farrakhan would use the march to support his own agenda, helped undermine the march's theme of doctoral northwestern unity and the common cause.

In the end, many will remember the Million Man March as a powerful demonstration of black men joining together in support of their communities. Few, however, will describe Farrakhan's involvement in help knitter, the march as positively. The controversial leader's speech at the Million Man March and his attempts to retain control over the movement in university, the months following the event revealed how one man's drive for power can eclipse a whole movement's commitment to change. Louis Farrakhan was born Louis Eugene Walcott on May 11, 1933 , in thesis research, the Bronx, New York . [5] His mother, Sarah Mae Manning Clarke, was a Caribbean immigrant and his father, Percival Clarke, was a Jamaican immigrant. Farrakhan, who never met his birth father, grew up with his mother and brother in the middle of a West Indian community in the Roxbury section of Boston . [6] There he witnessed first-hand the difficulties of growing up poor and black in America . Louis Eugene Walcott, the boy, biographer Arthur J. Magida writes, was everything that the world at doctoral university, large would later say Louis Farrakhan, the preacher, was not. Resume Knitter. [7] The young man, whom his family and friends called Gene, was obedient and well-mannered, attended church regularly, rarely got into trouble, and earned high marks in doctoral dissertation, school. He developed an all-consuming passion for music and, at the age of sixteen, began a career as a Calypso singer and violinist. [8] After he graduated from 4th grade book report, high school in 1951, Farrakhan set aside his musical aspirations and enrolled in the Winston-Salem Teacher's College, an doctoral dissertation northwestern university, all-black school in North Carolina . Unable to handle the intense racism in the south, he left college two years later and married his girlfriend, Betsy Ross, who was pregnant with their child. [9] To help support his family, Farrakhan returned to performing and, as Florence Hamlish Levinsohn notes, was on his way to what thesis statement, a successful career until he found a more exciting life as a visionary. [10] Farrakhan's life changed in February 1955, when he and his wife joined the Nation of Islam (NOI), an Islamic religious and socio-political organization founded by Elijah Muhammad to restore and resurrect black people. Doctoral. [11] Elijah Muhammad's and the NOI's message of case on depression black redemption, liberation, separatism, and self-improvement appealed to Farrakhan, but he later admitted that he was far from fully persuaded that this was the doctoral right path. [12] Magida writes, not until a few months later, when [Farrakhan] heard Malcolm X speak, was he convinced that he had found the resume for pt tech right niche for himself. [13] Farrakhan later explained his decision: I went looking not for doctoral dissertation northwestern university, a new religion, but for new leadership that would address the concerns of black people. And I found Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad. I was not interested in changing my religion, but they were Muslims and they spoke a truth that I could identify with. 4th Grade Book Report Genres. [14] This truth resonated with much of the doctoral dissertation northwestern university Black Nationalist thought Farrakhan was exposed to resume for pt tech, as a child. [15] Magida asserts that the young Farrakhan, surrounded by supporters of Marcus Garvey's Black Nationalism movement, had absorbed by osmosis, if not directly a less vitriolic but no less potent brand of theological black pride that Farrakhan would echo, if not outright mimic in his own fashion, decades later. [16] After joining the Nation of Islam at the age of university 22, Louis X, as Farrakhan began calling himself, quickly ascended through the warming research paper ranks. Doctoral University. [17] Malcolm X, the minister of Temple 7 in Harlem , New York , took Farrakhan under his wing and placed the new recruit in autonomy essay, the temple's ministry as his personal assistant. [18] In 1957, the NOI transferred Farrakhan to the struggling Boston mosque, where he was appointed as the assistant minister and captain of the Fruit of Islam, the paramilitary branch of the movement.

Implicit in doctoral dissertation university, Louis X's assignment in resume for pt tech, Boston , Magida writes, was to do what Malcolm X had not been able to pull off: increase the Boston temple's membership roles. Doctoral University. [19] Farrakhan did just that and more. Within six months of taking over Temple #11 he was appointed minister, and in fewer than five years, he had tripled the warming temple's membership. Doctoral University. [20] In 1965, Farrakhan was promoted to 4th grade book, the national representative, one of the most distinguished positions in the Nation of Islam. When Elijah Muhammad fell ill in the early 1970s, Louis X poised himself to assume leadership of the NOI. [21] Although he was not chosen to replace Muhammad as the leader, Farrakhan eventually assumed power over doctoral dissertation the organization in the late 1970s. Asserting that he was divinely chosen to lead the Nation of Islam, Farrakhan set out to rebuild the movement and promote the resurrection of knitter our people. [22] Over the next ten years, Farrakhan established himself as a prominent, yet controversial, black leader. His bold statements, calls for separatism, and unapologetic condemnation of racism attracted more than 10,000 blacks nationwide to the NOI and generated many more supporters within the larger black community. [23] Farrakhan's fiery approach also attracted a fair share of critics. Dissertation Northwestern. His overly defiant attitude toward the white establishment, his description of Hitler as a 'very great man,' and what is the purpose of a statement, his characterizations of Judaism as a 'dirty religion' became the sources of great controversy among members of the broader black, white, and Jewish communities. [24] Robert Singh writes that Farrakhan is easily the most controversial black American to have achieved a public position of national political influence since Malcolm X. [25] Farrakhan's bold rhetoric and doctoral, his separatist views have prompted some critics to autonomy essay, label him a reverse racist, an anti-Semite, a black Hitler, a bigot, a hate monger, a demagogue, and an Islamic fundamentalist. [26] William Pleasant sums up Farrakhan's image: painted as a monster by the corporate-owned media, denounced by doctoral northwestern university the left, center and right political establishments, Farrakhan has come to symbolize the uncompromising fury of Black political resistance. What Is The Of A Statement. [27] Yet, in spite of all of his critics, Farrakhan has remained one of the most prominent black nationalist leaders for northwestern, more than two decades. [28] Ron Daniels writes: Minister Farrakhan more than any other black leader in this period has captured the resume help knitter imagination of Black America precisely because of northwestern his steadfast denunciation of racism and white supremacy and resume help knitter, his persistent call for moral and spiritual renewal, self reliance and self determination. [29] A Time magazine and dissertation, CNN poll in 1994 supported these assertions. Of A Statement. The poll found that 67 percent of the blacks who knew of Farrakhan said he was an university, effective leader, 62 percent said he was good for the black community, and 53 percent said he was a good role model for youth. [30] While Farrakhan's authority within the resume for pt black community is doctoral undeniable, his ability to command larger and more loyal audiences than other black leaders is perplexing. [31] Why are so many blacks attracted to case study, Farrakhan and his visions for black America ? In order to address these questions, we must examine Farrakhan's rhetoric and doctoral, assess his messages to the black community in America . The Call to March. The 1980s and early 1990s was a period of stagnation for the black civil rights movement.

Michael C. Dawson and Lawrence D. Bobo assert that during the 1980s, whatever progress Blacks had made on report, a number of northwestern fronts came to a halt. [32] The Reagan and Bush administrations' strong opposition to race-based policies and social welfare programs led some blacks to genres, view the doctoral university government as hostile to their cause. The political downfall of Jesse Jackson during the 1980s and a leadership vacuum within the black community left black Americans with no strong voice in Washington . Help. [33] President Bill Clinton's election in 1992 offered hope that the White House would once again turn its attention to remedying the racial inequalities within the social, economic, and justice systems. However, the Republican Congress' resistance to civil rights initiatives meant that blacks would not see significant results for several more years. In 1994, Minister Farrakhan and doctoral dissertation, the Nation of help knitter Islam announced that they were tired of doctoral university waiting for the government's response and introduced a plan to bring blacks together to initiate immediate social and political change. Farrakhan first presented his vision for what would become the Million Man March and Holy Day of Atonement to autonomy essay, the First African American Leadership Summit in June of that year. [34] Addressing many of the black leaders who had repudiated him in the past, Farrakhan asked them to reconcile their differences and to join together under one banner for black liberation. He asserted that there was an increasingly conservative and hostile climate growing in America towards the aspirations of Black people and he called upon dissertation northwestern university, blacks to autonomy essay, make a unified response. [35] A few months later, Farrakhan introduced his vision to the public and issued a national call for one million disciplined, committed, and dedicated black men, from all walks of life in doctoral university, America to join him in Washington, D.C., for a day of atonement, reconciliation, and protest. [36] Over the next year, Farrakhan rallied support for the demonstration and encouraged thousands of men to stand up for study on depression, themselves and join together at the march to make demands upon our government and ourselves. [37] The official purpose of the Million Man March was to enable and encourage black men in the United States to take a greater responsibility and play a greater role in caring for, and uplifting the status of, the Black family. [38] Farrakhan blamed black men for the proliferation of drug use, crime, and doctoral dissertation northwestern, fatherlessness within their communities and called upon report genres, the men to atone for their sins.

In addition to promoting self-enhancement and moral reform within the black community, the march would demonstrate to doctoral university, the nation and the world that black Americans would no longer tolerate racism, inequality, and inaction. Cornell West wrote that the march was intended to is the main purpose statement, jump-start a critical dialogue on the legacy of white supremacy with President Clinton and Congress, send a sign of hope and a sense of possibility to black Americans, and--perhaps most importantly--magnify the marchers' demand that black suffering take center stage for the country and world. [39] Farrakhan's leadership of the protest bolstered the marchers' demand, drawing both attention and controversy. S. Craig Watkins explains that the organizers' publicity efforts, the march's anticipated size, and its arrival in a period of high racial tensions amplified media coverage. . University. [40] However, the most crucial factor, Watkins asserts, was the presence, leadership style, and racial politics of Louis Farrakhan. [41] News coverage leading up to the demonstration pivoted around Farrakhan and focused on his past reputation, his anticipated messages, and his claims to leadership within the black community. [42] Watkins writes that the media's decision to peg the 4th grade book genres march to Farrakhan was crucial to the formation, tone, and doctoral, ideological implications of the report genres coverage leading up to doctoral dissertation, the march, and it played a decisive role in how the demonstration was constructed and perceived as a newsworthy event. [43] Farrakhan's promotion of book report himself as the spokesperson for black Americans generated even more media coverage.

William E. Nelson, Jr. Dissertation Northwestern University. asserts that Farrakhan's role as the leader and guiding spirit was a logical extension of a political/career [ sic ] that has seen him emerge as one of the best known and most popular political figures in resume for pt tech, Black America. Dissertation. [44] At the what main statement same time, Farrakhan's role in doctoral, the march embroiled it in controversy, distracted attention away from the issues the march sought to publicize, and led several public figures and organizations to renounce the event altogether. Black congressmen Gary Franks (R-CT) and John Lewis (D-GA), a well-known civil rights activist and chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee in the 1960s, openly stated that they could not endorse or join a march led by Farrakhan. 4th Grade Genres. [45] 'I don't want to be associated with or identified with anything that tends to demonstrate signs of dissertation northwestern racism, bigotry or anti-Semitism,' said Lewis. [46] Mary Frances Berry, chairwoman of the U.S. Commission on on depression, Civil Rights, expressed similar views: 'African Americans as a community are in deep trouble at this hour. However, let me make it unmistakably clear: I do not trust Louis Farrakhan or [NOI leader] Benjamin Chavis to northwestern, lead us to the Promised Land. I do not endorse the Million Man March.' [47] Neither did the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the National Urban League, the Anti-Defamation League, or the African-American Agenda 2000, a group specifically founded in opposition to the event's exclusion of women and its allegedly sexist agenda. [48] Others leaders and knitter, organizations tried to express their support for the march while rhetorically distancing themselves from its controversial leader.

Colin Powell, former chair of the northwestern Joint Chiefs of Staff, refused Farrakhan's invitation to speak at thesis global warming research paper, the march and added that the demonstration was about hundreds of thousands of black men coming together not to celebrate Louis Farrakhan or to buy into his agenda or to speak in dissertation, racist terms, but to begin to uplift black men and uplift African-Americans to is the purpose of a thesis statement, be part of an doctoral dissertation northwestern, inclusive America. [49] President Bill Clinton offered a similar response in a speech at case on depression, the University of doctoral northwestern Texas at thesis research, Austin on the morning of the march. Clinton praised the marchers and doctoral dissertation northwestern university, the values they upheld, but insisted that one million men do not make right one man's message of malice and division. Warming. [50] Some of the marchers also tried to northwestern university, distance themselves and the event from what purpose of a thesis statement, Farrakhan. Joe Certaine, managing director for the city of northwestern Philadelphia , told USA Today : The goal is to set ourselves upon a new path in our communities and begin to on depression, do some things collectively, no matter what organization we represent. This is not about Minister Farrakhan. [51] Jesse Jackson and the Congressional Black Caucus echoed that message. Initially refusing to support the march, both eventually endorsed the dissertation northwestern event after Farrakhan agreed to global warming research, expand the agenda, adopt a more ecumenical approach, broaden the leadership, and dissertation northwestern university, issue new publicity posters that did not include his picture. Resume Help. [52] These demands and Jackson 's assurance that 'the march will be successful because all of the forces are coming together' reflected a concerted effort to distance Farrakhan from the center of the march. [53]

Yet Farrakhan supporters, like the Reverend Benjamin Chavis, Jr., a national organizer for the event and former NAACP president, insisted that 'the attempt to separate the message from the messenger is not going to work.' [54] Chavis defended Farrakhan's leadership and cited the many endorsements of the march as evidence that 'the message and the messenger have transcended all divisions in the black community.' [55] The list of supporters was indeed impressive. With a few notable exceptions, the march was endorsed by university most black leaders and organizations, including the is the of a National African American Leadership Summit, the National Association of Black Social Workers, and numerous churches, fraternities, and sororities. [56] In spite of all the controversy and contention surrounding Farrakhan and the Million Man March, William E. Nelson, Jr. observed that the march was successful in drawing representation from virtually every sector of the Black community. [57] On Monday, October 16, 1995 , more than 837,000 thousand black men, women, and children from diverse backgrounds, professions, and regions registered for and attended the much anticipated Million Man March. University. The demonstration on the nation's Capital would prove to be the largest demonstration of black power and unity in U.S. history. [58] Farrakhan's Address at what main purpose of a thesis, the Million Man March. Black religious leaders, Felton O. Doctoral Dissertation University. Best and autonomy essay, Charles Frazier write, have long been flames of fire in the communities they serve. [59] As the leaders of the black church--the most stable institution in serving African-American communities--they have taken the lead in eradicating the doctoral northwestern social, political, and economic injustices that black Americans have experienced historically. Resume For Pt. [60] The Million Man March provided Farrakhan an doctoral dissertation university, opportunity to emerge from the crowd and show the world that he too was a flame of fire. The demonstration provided him a platform from which he could present his vision for black America to hundreds of thousands of U.S. blacks dedicated to what statement, social change. The march not only offered a sign of hope and possibility to doctoral, black Americans, it presented Farrakhan with an opportunity to autonomy essay, seize a position of leadership in the broader civil rights movement.

Farrakhan's controversial reputation and the criticism leading up to the march, however, drew attention away from doctoral dissertation, its goals and undermined Farrakhan's vision and authority. In an attempt to promote the march's immediate goals and what purpose statement, strengthen his claims to leadership, Farrakhan presented a two-and-a-half hour speech about self-improvement, black liberation, and racism in America . Doctoral. At the same time, he responded to book genres, his critics both inside and outside the march. Northwestern. Defending himself against resume help his critics' charges, Farrakhan relegitimized his personal role in the protest and presented himself as a divinely chosen prophet sent to lead the black community. Dissertation. Farrakhan's attempts to resume tech, reunite himself with the march's message may have been somewhat successful, but they ultimately hindered the march's success because they focused the media spotlight once again on the controversial leader. Farrakhan began his speech by recalling how poorly blacks had been treated in U.S. history. Reflecting on the location for the event, he reminded those gathered that right here on doctoral dissertation university, this mall where we are standing . . . What Thesis Statement. slaves used to be brought . . . in northwestern university, chains to be sold up and down the eastern seaboard (11). [61] He offered this reference not as an illustration of how far blacks had come, but rather as a reminder that they remained second-class citizens.

There's still two Americas , one Black, one White, separate and unequal (7) he declared. But, he assured the marchers, this is a very pregnant moment, pregnant with the help knitter possibility of tremendous change in our status in America and in the world (24). He echoed the march's message of hope by reminding those gathered that if they accepted the responsibility that God has put upon us, they could become the cornerstone and university, the builders of a new world (32). Recognizing that the men gathered on the mall had joined together to do just that, Farrakhan explained in detail their path to liberation. Farrakhan invoked the march's themes of self-help and personal responsibility as he explained that change must first begin with the individual. Our first motion then must be toward the God who created the law of the evolution of our being. And if our motion toward him is right and purpose thesis statement, proper, then our motion toward a perfect union with each other and government and doctoral dissertation, with the knitter peoples of the world will be perfected (40). In order to become closer to northwestern, God, each man needed to complete an eight stage atonement process that included identifying, acknowledging, and confessing one's wrongs; repenting and atoning for one's transgressions; seeking forgiveness; and finally, reconciling with God (40-80). After completing each of these steps, Farrakhan assured his listeners, each man would possess the resume help knitter tools needed to improve conditions for all blacks.

Although Farrakhan declared that freedom can't come from white folks or from staying here and university, petitioning this great government (87), he acknowledged that whites would need to play a central role in the liberation of blacks. But, he argued, President Clinton's approach to black civil rights failed to address the 4th grade book real problems in dissertation university, white society. Is The Of A Thesis. Farrakhan stated, Now, the President spoke today and he wanted to dissertation northwestern, heal the is the purpose statement great divide. But I respectfully suggest to doctoral university, the President, you did not dig deep enough at the malady that divides Black and book report genres, White in order to dissertation, affect a solution to the problem (15). Farrakhan asserted that the resume tech real problem was not race per se, as Clinton suggested, but rather white supremacy: There is a great divide, but the real evil in America is doctoral northwestern university not white flesh, or black flesh. The real evil in America is the idea that undergirds the set up of the western world. Autonomy Essay. And that idea is called white supremacy (136).

After repeated references to the racist practices of doctoral George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and other national figures, Farrakhan directly addressed President Clinton: So either, Mr. Clinton, we're going to do away with the mind-set of the case on depression founding fathers. Doctoral Dissertation. You don't have to repudiate them like you've asked my brothers to resume tech, do me. You don't have to say they were malicious, hate-filled people. But you must evolve out of their mind-set (140). Farrakhan asserted that as the leader of America , President Clinton had to help other whites recognize that white supremacy has to dissertation northwestern university, die in case study, order for humanity to doctoral university, live (143). Only then could blacks and whites both achieve the perfect union God had intended. Farrakhan's comments to 4th grade book report genres, Clinton were more than just advice from one leader to another. They were a response to one of his most publicly visible critics.

Farrakhan scoffed at Clinton's attempts to discredit him, first by defending his contributions to the success of the dissertation northwestern university Million Man March: [W]hether or not you like it or not, God brought the idea through me and He didn't bring it through me because my heart was dark with hatred and anti-semitism, he didn't bring it through me because my heart was dark with hatred for White people and for the human family of the planet (29). Emphasizing the absurdity of the charges, he added: If my heart were that dark, how is the message so bright, the resume help message so clear, the response so magnificent? (29). Farrakhan repeatedly defended himself against Clinton 's criticism: I must hasten to tell you, Mr. Dissertation Northwestern. President, that I'm not a malicious person, and I'm not filled with malice (83). And he even challenged the president's ability to what purpose, mend the nation's racial divide: Power and wealth has made America spiritually blind and the power and the arrogance of America makes you refuse to hear a child of your slaves pointing out the wrong in your society (83). Americans, Farrakhan stated are being torn apart. And we can't gloss it over with nice speeches, my dear, Mr. President (81). Throughout the speech, Farrakhan defended himself against Clinton 's and other well-known political leaders' attempts to undermine his leadership. University. He acknowledged that many have tried to distance the beauty of this idea from the person through whom the idea and the call was made (24).

Again pointing out the futility of those efforts, he stated: Brothers and sisters, there is case study no human being through whom God brings an dissertation northwestern, idea that history doesn't marry the idea with that human being no matter what defect was in that human being's character. You can't separate Newton from the global warming research law that Newton discovered, nor can you separate Einstein from the theory of relativity. It would be silly to try to separate Moses from the doctoral northwestern Torah or Jesus from the Gospel or Muhammad from the Koran. (25-26) So too would it be ridiculous to deny Farrakhan's appeal within the black community or to question his authority as one of God's greatest prophets.

Farrakhan pointed out that even though his critics had played all the case study cards and had pulled all the strings to trigger division among blacks (52), their efforts had failed. He offered the march's turnout as evidence of dissertation university his success, asserting: I stand here today knowing, knowing that you are angry. Resume. That my people have validated me. I don't need you to validate me. I don't need to be in any mainstream (90).

Turning the tables on the dominant society, Farrakhan argued that the men standing before him were the new mainstream and criticized political leaders for dissertation northwestern, failing to represent the masses of the people, White and resume for pt, Black, Red, Yellow, and Brown, poor and vulnerable [who] are suffering in doctoral dissertation northwestern, this nation (91). Resume Help Knitter. Legitimizing himself as the spokesperson for those forgotten people, Farrakhan insisted that it was the politicians who were out of touch with reality (91). Farrakhan's critics, however, were not limited to the mainstream politicians. Doctoral Northwestern. Many of the people who had traveled to Washington , D.C. , for the march had made it quite clear that they did not support Farrakhan or his views. [62] Discussing Farrakhan's attempt to manage this ethos problem in his speech, John Pauley, Jr. has argued that Farrakhan recognized that his reputation was a major obstacle to his rhetorical effect and therefore adopted the role of the prophet in an attempt to reshape his persona and transcend his past reputation. [63] For example, Farrakhan explained that the men came not at the call of 4th grade book report Louis Farrakhan, but had gathered together at dissertation northwestern university, the call of God (23). What Is The Purpose Of A Thesis. Dismissing the public attacks against northwestern university his character, he noted that there is no prophet of God in the Bible that did not have a defect in his character. But, I have never heard any member of the faith of Judaism separate David from the Psalms, because of what happened in David's life . . . Autonomy Essay. you never separated any of the dissertation Great Servants of God (28).

Farrakhan once again defended his leadership of the march, asserting that God called upon him to lead black people to salvation: God is sending His decision. I can't help it if I've got to make the decision known. You don't understand me. My people love me. . . . I point out the evils of Black people . . Autonomy Essay. . but my people don't call me anti-Black, because they know I must love them in order to point out doctoral dissertation university, what's wrong so we can get it right to come back into the favor of God! (99-100). The audience's applause and enthusiastic shouts bolstered Farrakhan's claims as the marchers confirmed that they endorsed and for pt, supported Farrakhan a formidable civil rights leader. By portraying himself as God's spokesman, Farrakhan rose above his critics' accusations and legitimized his leadership, which he insisted, God had bestowed upon him. Doctoral University. This posturing allowed Farrakhan to tech, address and appeal to three different audiences simultaneously. As Pauley explains: [T]o black Christians, he portrays himself as another Moses or Isaiah, a mouthpiece of God's word; to northwestern, people of report genres his own Nation of doctoral northwestern Islam community, he shows himself to help, be a diviner of mysteries; and for dissertation, his white listeners, Farrakhan assumes the role of the spiritual doctor who has a diagnosis for on depression, the illness that affects them. [64] Farrakhan moved among these roles throughout his speech, weaving together a patchwork message of hope, forewarning, redemption, and promise. With every word and reference, however, Farrakhan made it clear that only he possessed the authority and knowledge to speak the doctoral dissertation northwestern truth. Neither Clinton nor any of his other critics could undermine his God-given role as a prophet for research paper, his race. Clarence Taylor argues that these appeals were symptomatic of Farrakhan's long-term attempts to dissertation northwestern, shift his public image.

Taylor writes that from the late 1970s to the very early 1990s, Farrakhan depicted himself as a religious-masculine warrior, doing God's bidding on autonomy essay, behalf of doctoral dissertation northwestern university dark-skinned people. [65] In the thesis global warming research paper early 1990s, however, Farrakhan attempted to shift his image from a masculine figure who was defending the northwestern race to the all-wise and global research, ecumenical sage who is acting as the savior of the entire nation. [66] Taylor explains that these changes were indications of dissertation university Farrakhan's attempts to be seen as a respected national leader. Research. [67] The Million Man March speech bears some of the general characteristics that Taylor attributes to Farrakhan's new approach. First, Farrakhan attacked the power structure, not Whites in general, a marked change from his past rhetoric. For instance, Farrakhan emphasized that the attitude of white supremacy was at fault for doctoral dissertation northwestern, the mistreatment of blacks, not white people themselves. Research. Second, Farrakhan warned of doom and devastation, but in Million Man March he assured Americans that they could avoid destruction by doctoral northwestern choosing the right path to God and denouncing white supremacy. Finally, Farrakhan aimed his speech at the family of what is the purpose of a statement all humanity. Dissertation. Even though the is the purpose march attracted mostly blacks, Farrakhan called upon all Americans to atone and accept an agenda that's in doctoral dissertation university, the best interest of the Black, the poor and the vulnerable in this society (191). Promoting a more universalized and less racialized view of the problem than was typical of book report his earlier rhetoric, Farrakhan tried to appeal to a broader audience than he had in the past. This move had real implications for the larger quest for civil rights. As Gardell asserts: Farrakhan's move to the mainstream means a mainstreaming of dissertation northwestern Farrakhan. [68] He explains:

In the course of that process, Farrakhan has softened his message and case, sought reconciliation with former foes. Dissertation Northwestern University. The dress of an elderly statesman requires a moderate voice, which is more inclusive and open to tech, dialogue and reason than it is exclusive, uncompromising, and unreasonable. Northwestern University. This was clearly the tone of help knitter Farrakhan's Million Man March address. [69] Nevertheless, an analysis of Farrakhan's speech calls into question Taylor 's claim that Farrakhan presented himself as a respected national leader. Doctoral Dissertation. It also casts doubt on Gardell's suggestion that Farrakhan's rhetoric positioned him more within the mainstream of book report genres political thought. Northwestern. Farrakhan's denunciation of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln as unpatriotic racists, his inexplicable references to numerology and purpose of a thesis, Masonic mysteries, and his portrayal of himself as a doctor heavenly sent to point out, with truth, what's wrong with America (83) all sounded like the doctoral dissertation militant and even demagogic Farrakhan of the past. Steven R. Goldzwig has described Farrakhan's use of violent threats, exaggeration, vilification, polarization, and conspiracy appeal as being characteristic of a rhetoric of symbolic alignment, a defiant style that challenges unstated myths (and offers competing ones) by case on depression exposing regnant ideologies through verbal and non-vernal symbol-using (and misusing). [70] Although Farrakhan may have toned-down his defiant rhetorical style a bit at the Million Man March, as Taylor and doctoral dissertation northwestern, Gardell suggest, he certainly did not abandon that style altogether.

Consistent with his past rhetoric, Farrakhan's highly militant and report genres, divisive speech attacked the values of the present culture and promoted alternative interpretations of reality that provided the marchers with motives for action on northwestern, behalf of social change. [71] Farrakhan's revised rhetorical style may have been less militant than some of his past speeches, but it certainly did not sound like the style of a respected national leader. Farrakhan may have reshaped his public persona by 4th grade book report adopting the doctoral northwestern prophetic role, as Pauley has argued. He even may have legitimized his leadership in the black community and appealed to a larger national audience with his less militant message. What Main Purpose Of A Statement. However, as those who heard the oration can attest, Farrakhan's speech hardly lived up to its promise to rally the black community toward long-term changes. Farrakhan biographer, Arthur Magida, attended the march and summarized the northwestern speech's lackluster reception: A cheer rose when Farrakhan finally took the podium, yet when he started to help knitter, speak, many were visibly let down. Within fifteen minutes, Farrakhan began to lose the crowd, some drifting toward benches to rest their feet, some heading toward the train stations or bus depots for their long rides home.

At the dissertation northwestern university pinnacle of his career, before a Mall crammed with men who had been stirred by his improbable vision of such a gathering, and with 2.2 million households watching him on television, Louis Farrakhan, ordinarily a master of autonomy essay oratory, meandered through a loose patchwork of themes that never quite cohered. [72] Even Farrakhan seemed to dissertation northwestern, notice that his lecture, as he called it, failed to keep the crowd's attention. More than five times during the speech, Farrakhan assured his audience that he was almost finished (121, 161) and beckoned to them Don't move. Don't move (134). Paper. His disjointed message, however, failed to doctoral northwestern university, hold much less persuade the marchers. Two-and-a-half hours later, roughly two-thirds of his audience had left the is the purpose Mall. [73] In the doctoral dissertation end, Farrakhan's attempts to what main of a thesis statement, legitimize his leadership overshadowed his audiences' need. The Million Man March, as the New York Times astutely noted, produced a huge crowd hungry for northwestern, great oratory. But instead of what main purpose of a something like the crystalline 19 minutes of Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream' speech, this crowd got a rambling, self-obsessed two hours from Louis Farrakhan. Northwestern. [74] Instead of case focusing the national spotlight on the march's goals and themes, Farrakhan had stolen the attention for himself. Legacy of the doctoral dissertation university Million Man March Initially, the autonomy essay Million Man March appeared to be a great success.

The mass demonstration drew attention to northwestern, the plight of the black community. Case On Depression. Its peaceful nature offered a new image of black men and, perhaps most significantly, the thousands of marchers demonstrated that they were willing to look past their differences to support a common cause. Immediately following the march, several black organizations reported increases in membership. [75] A month later, Farrakhan and doctoral dissertation university, the National African American Leadership Summit announced a Ten-Point Action Program to improve the lives of blacks in America . [76] A year later, the of a thesis black leaders successfully encouraged approximately 1.5 million more black men to vote in northwestern, the 1996 presidential election than had voted in 1992. [77] Farrakhan's call for unity and community participation, it seemed, had at least some positive, long-term effects. The Million Man March also generated some positive publicity for Farrakhan, at least for a time. Singh argues that the march represented the culmination of is the main purpose of a thesis Farrakhan's bold attempts to achieve political legitimacy and full inclusion within the ranks of the doctoral northwestern university national black American political leadership cadre. [78] And in Singh's opinion, it worked: To the deep chagrin of his many implacable opponents and ardent adversaries, it succeeded spectacularly. [79] Even Farrakhan's drawn-out speech could not dampen what Gardell has dubbed the global warming research paper greatest manifestation of black solidarity in the history of the United States . [80] Immediately following the march, supporters and dissertation northwestern university, critics alike acknowledged Farrakhan's impressive drawing power. As Magida wrote, the case on depression march's indisputable success finally convinced some black leaders that Farrakhan was a force to be reckoned with. [81] However lackluster his speech, the doctoral dissertation university sheer turnout for the demonstration elevated the status of its controversial leader. At least momentarily as H. Viscount E. Nelson wrote, as Minister Louis Farrakhan eclipsed [Jesse] Jackson as the most prominent African American of the 1990s . . Resume Help. . Doctoral Dissertation University. [82]

Immediately following the march, groups like the African American Agenda 2000 worked to discredit Farrakhan's leadership and his vision for the black community. On Depression. Farrakhan's personal ambitions inadvertently contributed to his critics' efforts and undermined the march's long-term success. Within three months of the protest, Magida writes, Farrakhan answered the implicit queries about how he would leverage the doctoral dissertation northwestern university massive political capital he had gained. [83] He quickly showed that he would deploy his new claim to power on his terms. [84] Farrakhan alienated other black and white leaders by pursuing his own agenda for reform. For instance, Farrakhan's bold criticism of U.S. Resume Help. foreign policy and doctoral dissertation, his meetings with some of America 's worst political enemies during his World Friendship Tour in January 1996 made many Americans question his political sagacity. Global. Magida writes: Instead of marshalling the momentum of the march in the service of doctoral a very specific, very detailed agenda, very aggressive political agenda that he could have announced at a press conference the 4th grade day after the march, he chose to solder alliances with some of America 's worst adversaries abroad. [85] In the process, Farrakhan destroyed the hopes of many blacks that their leaders could transcend their differences and come together to address the real problems facing the black community. As H. Viscount Nelson has argued, black leaders who pursue selfish agendas help the white establishment maintain hegemony in the judicial, executive, and legislative affairs of the nation and serve as gatekeepers at the door of opportunity rather than as leaders of their race. Doctoral University. In his opinion, Farrakhan has become one of tech those gatekeepers. Nelson acknowledges that Farrakhan has presented creative ideas for improving the lives of blacks, but he contends that in the broadest sense those accomplishments have proven meager for several reasons. First, Farrakhan seems reluctant to share the spotlight with other black leaders. Second, he has shown limited commitment to sustain his ideas through follow-up activities and initiatives. Doctoral Dissertation University. Finally, he embodies the genres long-standing problem that black leaders have displayed for generations--an inability to establish and maintain positive intra-racial bonds.

As Nelson concludes, Farrakhan's actions before, during, and after the Million Man March illustrated these shortcomings and shed light on why he--and other modern black leaders--have had difficulty effecting positive long-term changes for blacks in U.S. society. [86] Ten years after the Million Man March, Farrakhan again discussed the plight of the black community at a commemorative ceremony dubbed the Million Man March, part II. Northwestern. [87] He again offered a plan for strengthening the resume help knitter black community, and again he challenged the audience to initiate change in their own lives. Reflective of the Millions More Movement's broader vision of doctoral uniting all Americas under a shared banner for change, Farrakhan issued a call for all of our brothers and sisters, black, brown, red and white . . . to work collectively to address the many issues that affect our people and the poor in this country. [88] He concluded his address with a message of reassurance, stating: U nited we can solve our problems and divided we have nothing. [89] The Million Man March offered many blacks hope that together they could initiate positive change within their communities. As the designated leader and spokesperson of the event, Minister Louis Farrakhan had the potential of drawing media and national attention to tech, the march's goals and themes. Instead, the controversial leader evaded his responsibility and seized the opportunity to legitimize his position of doctoral dissertation northwestern university leadership. Farrakhan's divisive, self-absorbed two-and-a-half hour speech and resume for pt, his selfish actions in the months following the dissertation northwestern march proved that he was unwilling to put the interests of the black community above his own. In the end, Farrakhan's drive for power lessened his rhetorical effectiveness, undermined the march's theme of unity, and ultimately hindered the cause's long-term success. Jill M. Weber is 4th grade report a Doctoral Student at The Pennsylvania State University. Dissertation Northwestern University. She would like to thank J. Resume For Pt Tech. Michael Hogan, Shawn J. Parry-Giles, and northwestern, Lubov Zeifman for their help with the project. [1] Disputes over what is the main thesis statement the number of people attending the march arose immediately after the dissertation northwestern university National Park Service estimated the attendance at 400,000.

Boston University researcher Farouk El-Baz, who employed a more advanced method of crowd estimation, placed the attendance at around 837,214. According to El-Baz, the actual number could have been as low as 670,000 or as high as 1,004,000. Joseph Mallia, New Estimate: Over 800,000 Marched in D.C., Boston Herald , October 28, 1995 . See also New View Cuts Short Million Men, Independent ( London ), sec. International, October 28, 1995 , 10. [2] The exact question asked by the ABC News / Washington Post poll was as follows: As you may know, the Million Man March is intended to encourage black males to accept more responsibility for their families and communities. Do you support or oppose such a march?

ABC News/Washington Post Poll, September 28, 1995-October 1, 1995, Accession Number 0267412. http://www.lexis-nexis.com (accessed 21 August. 2007); Michael A. Case On Depression. Fletcher and dissertation northwestern, Mario A. Brossard, Poll: Many Blacks Back March but Find Organizers Troubling, Houston Chronicle , October 6, 1995 , A6. [3] The exact question asked by the ABC News/Washington Post poll was as follows: One of the main organizers of the autonomy essay Million Man March is Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of doctoral northwestern university Islam. Does his participation in the march make you more likely or less likely to support the march? (If more or less likely, ask:) Is that a lot more/less likely to support the march or somewhat more/less likely? ABC News/Washington Post Poll, September 28, 1995-October 1, 1995, Accession Number 0267416. http://www.lexis-nexis.com (accessed 21 August 2007 ). [4] The media both documented and purpose of a thesis, perpetuated the contentious message/messenger debate. Doctoral University. For examples prior to the march, see: One-Man March: Sadly, Louis Farrakhan's Role Will Leave That Impression, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 25, 1995, A10; Edward Walsh, Criticism of Farrakhan's Million Man March Muted; Nation of Islam Leader's Effort Pushing Him to what is the thesis, Forefront of Black Leadership, Washington Post , October 8, 1995, A22; Francis X. Clines, Organizers Defend Role of Farrakhan in March by Blacks, New York Times , October 13, 1995, sec. A, 1; Rachel L. Jones, Chavis Downplays Farrakhan March Role; But Anti-Semitic Remarks by Nation of Islam Leader on TV Renew Controversy, Pittsburg Post-Gazette , October 14, 1995 , A1; . . . Not the Messenger, Boston Globe , October 15, 1995, 86; Paul Shepard, Farrakhan's Shadow Rolls with Caravans of Black Marchers, Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH), October 15, 1995, 1A; Richard Sisk, N.Y.C. Sending Many to March Prez Tries to doctoral dissertation northwestern university, Love Goals, Not Goalie, Daily News (New York), October 16, 1995, 4; Julian Beltrame, Million Man March: Controversy Detracts from Positive Message, Ottawa Citizen , October 16, 1995, A6; Lynn Sweet, White House Shrinks from 'Bigoted' Farrakhan, Chicago Sun-Times , October 16, 1995, 10.

The message/messenger theme continued in the post-march coverage. See, for example, Mario A. Brossard and Richard Morin, Leader Popular Among Marchers; But Most Came to Support Black Family, Show Unity, Survey Finds, Washington Post , October 17, 1995, A01; Terry M. Neal, Farrakhan's Message of Redemption; He Denounces White Leaders While Calling for Black Self-Improvement, Washington Post , October 17, 1995, A01: Richard Roeper, Message of Hope Is Worth a Million, Chicago Sun-Times , October 18, 1995, 11; Larry King, A Memorable March; A Bet on Colin Powell, USA Today , October 23, 1995, sec, Life, 2D; William Raspberry, The Only Leadership, Washington Post , October 27, 1995, A25. [5] Clarence Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals: The Fight for Equality from Jim Crow to the Twenty-First Century ( New York : Routledge, 2002), 151. Farrakhan underwent several name changes over genres the course of doctoral university his life. He was born Louis Eugene Walcott and, upon entering the NOI, began calling himself Louis X. He later renamed himself Louis Farrakhan, Abdul Haleem Farrakhan, and then went back to Louis Farrakhan. Resume Help. Magida, Prophet of Rage , 58. [6] Shortly after his parent's marriage, Farrakhan's father abandoned the family for extended periods of time. During one of northwestern university Clarke's long absences, Farrakhan's mother fell in love with Louis Walcott, who fathered her first child, Alvan Walcott in 1931. A year later, Clarke briefly surfaced and Manning became pregnant with Farrakhan. Arthur J. Magida, Prophet of Rage: A Life of Louis Farrakhan and His Nation (New York: Basic Books, 1996), 9-10; See also Florence Hamlish Levinsohn, Looking for Farrakhan (Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee, Inc., 1997), 181-182.

[7] Magida, Prophet of knitter Rage , 9. [8] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 15. [9] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 24-27. [10] Levinsohn, Looking for dissertation, Farrakhan , 206. [11] An old friend convinced Farrakhan and his wife to on depression, attend the Nation's annual Saviour's Day convention in Chicago , where Farrakhan had been touring at the time. Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals , 151. The Nation of Islam was derived from previous Black Nationalist movements, which issued an unequivocal rejection of dissertation white America and a turn inward to the black man and the black community as the resume only source of northwestern hope fore resolving racial problems. The NOI places an emphasis on black consciousness and is the statement, racial pride and grounds its teaching in doctoral dissertation northwestern university, religious appeals. As part of its separatist plan, the NOI encourages members to support black-owned businesses and it maintains its own paramilitary branch, the Fruits of Islam. For more information, see J. Herman Blake, Black Nationalism, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 382, Protest in the Sixties (March 1969): 15-25. [12] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 32.

[13] Magida, Prophet of thesis global research paper Rage , 32. [14] As stated in an interview with Author Magida. See, Prophet of Rage , 32. [15] Both Magida and Levinsohn note that Farrakhan's mother, and many of the doctoral dissertation northwestern university other West Indian residents in Roxbury, strongly supported the teachings of Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican Black Nationalist. Magida, Prophet of global warming paper Rage , 15; Levinsohn, Looking for Farrakhan , 168, 214. Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), the largest mass-based protest movement among Black people in dissertation northwestern university, the history of the United States . [16] Magida, Prophet of case study on depression Rage , 17. [17] Upon entering the Nation of Islam, the Muslims provide each member with a new name that eliminates the person's slave name. For example, upon doctoral, entering the NOI, Louis Walcott began calling himself Louis X. [18] Mattias Gardell, In the Name of autonomy essay Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of doctoral dissertation northwestern university Islam (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996), 120-21. [19] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 59.

[20] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 62. [21] Gardell argues that Farrakhan's ascendancy made him a chief contender to succeed the Messenger and lead the Nation. Gardell, In the purpose of a Name of Elijah Muhammad , 122. [22] As stated in an interview with Steven Barboza. Doctoral Dissertation. See, American Jihad: Islam after Malcolm X (New York: Doubleday, 1994), 142, 148. [23] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 151. [24] Farrakhan Again Describes Hitler as a 'Very Great Man,' New York Times , July 17, 1984, A18; Nathan McCall, Backing Farrakhan Seen as Way of 'Hitting Back'; Popularity Linked to 4th grade book report, Audacity and Agenda, Washington Post , December 11, 1989, A6. For a more complete discussion of Farrakhan's controversial statements, see Michael C. Kotzin, Louis Farrakhan's Anti-Semitism: A Look at doctoral university, the Record, Christian Century ( 2 March 1994 ): 224-225. [25] Robert Singh, The Farrakhan Phenomenon: Race, Reaction, and the Paranoid Style in report, America Politics (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1997), 1. [26] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 5. [27] William Pleasant, Independent Black Leadership in America (New York: Castillo International, Inc., 1990), 22. [28] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectual Leaders , 150. [29] Ron Daniels, The Meaning of the Million Man March and Day of Absence, Million Man March/Day of Absence: A Commemorative Anthology , eds.

Haki R. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern University. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 83. [30] Tananarive Due, Farrakhan: Pride or Prejudice, Houston Chronicle , August 13, 1994 , sec. Autonomy Essay. Religion, 1. [31] Pleasant, Independent Black Leadership in America , 22. [32] Michael C. Doctoral Northwestern University. Dawson and Lawrence D. Is The Purpose Of A Thesis. Bobo, The Reagan Legacy and the Racial Divide in the George W. Bush Era, Du Bois Review 1, no. Dissertation University. 2 (2004): 210. [33] For a discussion of Jackson 's defeat and knitter, the black leadership problems in the 1990s, see H. Viscount Berky Nelson, The Rise and Fall of Modern Black Leadership ( Lanham , MD : University Press of America, 2003) 251-311. [34] Cornel West, Historic Event, Million Man March/Day of dissertation university Absence: A Commemorative Anthology , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 98. Autonomy Essay. Consistent with the northwestern university religious element of Black Nationalism, Farrakhan emphasized the importance of all blacks' atoning for their sins on the day of the march.

[35] Farrakhan argued that the Republican-endorsed Contract with America and a recent Supreme Court decision against affirmative action showed that Congress had begun turning back the hands of time and that the Supreme Court had set the stage in the United States for closing doors and impeding the progress of Blacks. The Vision for the Million Man March, reprinted in Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 150. [36] Farrakhan, The Vision for the Million Man March, 151. [37] Haki R. Case Study. Madhubuti, Took Back Our Tears, Laughter, Love and Left a Big Dent in the Earth, Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 2. [38] Million Man March Fact Sheet, reprinted in Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds.

Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 152. [40] S. Craig Watkins, Framing Protest: News Media Frames of the Million Man March, Critical Studies in Media Communication 18, no. 1 (March 2001): 89. Although the Million Man March was scheduled several months in dissertation northwestern university, advance, it arrived two weeks after the controversial verdict in the O.J. Simpson double-murder trial. Simpson's acquittal sparked controversy across the research paper country as Americans' responses to the verdict seemed to be divided along the color line. [44] William E. Nelson, Jr., Black Church Politics and the Million Man March, Black Religious Leadership from the Slave Community to the Million Man March: Flames of Fire , ed. Felton O. Best (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998), 246. [45] Nelson, Black Church Politics, 250.

[46] D'Vera Cohn and Debbi Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, Not Aims; Goal of Uniting Black Men Wins Wide Support, But Farrakhan Draws Fire, Washington Post , October 14. Doctoral Northwestern. 1995, A11. [47] Cohn and Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, Not Aims, A11. [48] Shepard reported that the study on depression NAACP and doctoral university, National Urban League voiced support for the movement's goals, but refused to resume help knitter, endorse the march because of Farrakhan's involvement. Paul Shepard, Marching for a Reawakening; Despite Shadow of Controversy, D.C. Rally is Gaining Support with Local Men Set to doctoral dissertation, Join, Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH), September 24, 1995, 1B. The Anti-Defamation League vehemently protested Farrakhan's role and issued a full page ad in the New York Times that stated: we understand the need of African Americans to come together in a march on Washington and we understand that the autonomy essay vast majority of participants in the march will not subscribe to the anti-Semitism and racism of the march's leader.

Likening Farrakhan to a white supremacist, however, they maintained that they could not ignore the fact that a hatemonger was the driving force behind the March. Lynn Sweet, Jewish Groups Back Million Man March But Blast Farrakhan, Chicago Sun-Times , 30 September 1995 , sec. News, 5. A partial image of the ad is available at http://www-cgi.cnn.com/US/9510/megamarch/10-15/flier.jpg (accessed 21 August 2007 ). The African-American Agenda 2000 issued a statement in doctoral dissertation university, opposition to the march: No march, movement or agenda that defines manhood in the narrowest terms and autonomy essay, seeks to make women lesser partners in this quest for equality can be considered a positive step. Therefore, we cannot support this march. Doctoral Northwestern. Cohn and global warming, Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, A11.

A few women attended the march, including Maya Angelou and Rosa Parks who addressed the marchers. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern. See, Maya Angelou, From a Black Woman to a Black Man, in Million Man March/Day of Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 30-31. [49] Colin Powell told CBS This Morning : I was concerned that my presence on the stage with Farrakhan might give him a level of credibility--more of a level of credibility than I would have liked to have seen, so I would have regretted it. Retired General Colin Powell Discusses His Book, the Million Man March, Racism in America and His Reaction to the O.J. Simpson Trial Verdict, CBS This Morning , CBS News, October 16, 1995, http://lexis-nexis.com/ (accessed 21 August 2007). [50] William J. Clinton , Remarks at the University of Texas at Austin October 16, 1995, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States Web Page , http://www.gpo.gov/nara/pubpaps/photoidx.html (accessed 21 August 2007 ): 1601.

For an global paper, analysis of Clinton 's speech, see Jill M. Dissertation University. Weber, Bill Clinton 's 'Racism in the United States ,' Voices of Democracy: The U.S. Oratory Project , National Endowment for study, the Humanities, voicesofdemocracy.com. [51] Desda Moss and doctoral university, Gary Fields. Mobilizing 1 Million; Theme Timely, but Organizer Is Controversial, USA Today , October 13, 1995 , 1A. [52] Art Golab, Jackson Backs Million Man March on D.C ., Chicago Sun-Times , September 23, 4. [53] Hamil R. Harris and for pt tech, Michael A. Fletcher, Jackson Endorses Men's March; Black Caucus, Others Back Farrakhan Event, Washington Post , September 23, 1995 , A01. [54] Francis X. Clines, Organizers Defend Role of Farrakhan in March by Blacks, New York Times , 13 October 1995 , sec.

A, 1. [55] Clines, Organizers Defend Role, 1. [56] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 344-45. Some officials from the NAACP and the Urban League planned to attend the march although their organizations refused to endorse the event. Cohn and northwestern university, Wilgoren, March Foes Assail Leader, A11; Million Man March Partial Listing of Endorsements to Date, September 30, 1995, reprinted in Million Man March/Day of global warming paper Absence , eds. Haki R. Madhubuti and Maulana Karenga (Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1996), 154-155. [57] Nelson, Black Church Politics, 245. [58] Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1963 March on Washington , the largest civil rights march, attracted more than 200,000 demonstrators. March on Washington for northwestern, Jobs and Freedom, The King Encyclopedia , Stanford's Martin Luther King, Jr., Papers Project, http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/about_king/encyclopedia/march_washington.html (accessed 21 August 2007 ). [59] Felton O. Best and Charles Frazier, Introduction, Black Religious Leadership from the autonomy essay Slave Community to the Million Man March: Flames of Fire , ed.

Felton O. Best (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998), 15. [60] Best and Frazier, Introduction, 2, 15. [61] Here and university, elsewhere passages in Million Man March are cited with reference to paragraph numbers in the text of the speech that accompanies this essay. [62] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 193; Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 344-345. [63] John L. Pauley, II., Reshaping Public Persona and global warming research, the Prophetic Ethos: Louis Farrakhan at the Million Man March, Western Journal of Communication 62, no.

4 (Fall 1998): 519. [64] Pauley, Reshaping Public Persona, 515. [65] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 151. [66] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 151. [67] Taylor, Black Religious Intellectuals, 160. [68] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 345. [69] Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad , 345. [70] Steven R. Goldzwig, A Social Movement Perspective on Demagoguery: Achieving Symbolic Realignment, Communication Studies 40 (Fall 1989): 218. [71] Goldzwig, A Social Movement Perspective on northwestern, Demagoguery, 218. [72] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 193.

[73] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 196. [74] Earnest Crowd, Empty Leader, New York Times , October 17, 1995, sec. A, 24. [75] Desda Moss, March Gives Black Groups Momentum, USA Today , October 30, 1995 , 3A. Manning Marable, Black Leadership , New York : Columbia University Press, 1998), 162. [76] Where We are After the Million Man March: Toward the Million Family March, Million Family March , http://www.millionfamilymarch.com/agenda/intro.htm (accessed 21 August 2007 ). [77] Marable, Black Leadership , 163. [78] Singh, The Farrakhan Phenomenon , 62. [79] Singh, The Farrakhan Phenomenon , 62. [80] Gardell, In the Name of resume for pt tech Elijah Muhammad , 5. [81] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 197. [82] Nelson, The Rise and Fall of Modern Black Leadership 308-309. [83] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 199.

[84] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 199. (original emphasis) [85] Magida, Prophet of Rage , 201. [86] Nelson, The Rise and Fall of Modern Black Leadership , 310-311. [88] More than a Million Pledged to Restore, Rebuild and Repair Broken Lives and Communities at the 10 Anniversary Commemoration of the Million Man March, Millions More Movement http://www.millionsmoremovement.com/news/press_rel10-15-2005.htm (accessed 21 August 2007). [89] More than a Million Pledged to doctoral northwestern university, Restore, Rebuild, and Repair Broken Lives, (accessed 21 August 2007 ).

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Why I Love Pizza – A Personal Essay About My Favorite Food. Ever since I was a little boy, pizza has always had a special place in my heart. Dissertation Northwestern? From pizza day in the school cafeteria to pizza parties at sleep away camp, there was nothing more exciting than when that cardboard box was opened to for pt tech reveal a round pie with eight delicious slices waiting to be devoured. Early on I learned that everybody eats their pizza differently. There are those who fold their slices in half, those who eat their slices with two hands, and those who (dare I say) like to cut their pizza with a fork and knife. Some people soak up the olive oil with a napkin, while others don’t mind a greasy slice. Some people like the crust, while others live for that first bite. Some people decorate their slices with spices, while others like it plain. Nearly any ingredient can be put on pizza. From pepperoni and anchovies to barbecue chicken and pineapple, every pizza pie is like a unique work of art.

Every pie is a different shape and size. There are thin crust pies, deep dish pies, and everything in between. There are pies with different cheeses and tomato sauce, or even pies with a completely different base altogether. Growing up in the suburbs of Washington, DC there weren’t so many great options for pizza. Ordering in from Domino’s and Pizza Hut was a weekly occurrence. But when I arrived in New York in 2002, I was thrust into an entirely new pizza universe.

Living at an NYU dorm by Washington Square Park, I developed a quick allegiance with my local pizzerias. I could barely walk a block without passing by northwestern a shop — many of them claiming to help knitter serve up the best slice in the city. There was Joe’s on the corner of Bleecker Street and Carmine Street (which closed it’s doors in doctoral dissertation northwestern 2004) where tipsy students, homeless people, and even celebrities made their way to thesis global research paper the counter through the northwestern university wee hours of the morning. I remember eating a slice of pizza with Dave Chappelle one evening after he’d finished up a set at the nearby Comedy Cellar. Report Genres? Joe’s served up a good slice, but it was about more than the food. Going there was an university, adventure. It was where old friends would run into each other and new friends were made. Resume? You couldn’t help but notice the non-stop hustle and bustle around you — but at the same time there was sense satisfaction once you took your first bite of their delicious slices.

Within a five minute walk from my dorm, there were dozens of pizza places and I intended to try them all. I fell in love with many including Pizza Booth on Bleecker Street and northwestern university The Pizzeria on MacDougal Street. I remember the night I ran into 4th grade book Adam Sandler at Ben’s Pizza on the corner of MacDougal and 3rd Street and the first time I went to northwestern university Pasty’s Pizzeria on University Place — the final meal I ate in 2002. Patsy’s opened my eyes to a whole other world of pizza — the upscale pie. I had always thought that a New York slice was served on a paper plate — intended for a quick late night bite on your way between watering holes. But I soon came to learn that many of warming paper, city’s best pizza places didn’t serve slices and that eating their pizza involved a great deal of patience while your custom pie was prepared. The fall of 2003 took me to doctoral dissertation northwestern what is still one of my favorite pizza places in knitter the New York: Grimaldi’s . Although there is a subway stop a few blocks from this Brooklyn pizzeria, the only true way to get there is by walking over the Brooklyn Bridge, arguably the most picturesque ways to doctoral dissertation university take in New York’s sprawling skyline.

To me, a walk over resume help, the bridge and dissertation university Grimaldi’s have become synonymous with one another. Help? I can’t walk across the bridge without stopping at Grimaldi’s and I can’t stop at Grimaldi’s without walking across the doctoral northwestern bridge. This is the first thing I do with any out-of-town guest. It’s just off the beaten path enough to make a tourist feel like a New Yorker, yet not so touristy that a New Yorker feels out of place. It is the quintessential New York experience. There have been days when I’ve been seated at Grimaldi’s right away and other times where I’ve waited behind hundreds of for pt, people outside in northwestern the cold. When you’re inside, the best view of the action is in the bathroom line, adjacent to what purpose statement the brick ovens where pies are constantly being removed, put on a platter, and placed on dissertation, a nearby table as the steam still rises off the top.

The pizza is knitter thin enough that two people can split a large pie. In fact, ordering the small pie for $2 less is not even economical. There is dissertation northwestern no better place to digest Grimaldi’s than on the Brooklyn Heights Promenade overlooking lower Manhattan. It’s the thesis global only place in the city that I can be assured to find at least one bride and groom snapping photos every time I’m there. On weekend afternoons it’s common to see five or six couples taking wedding photos. Walking back on the bridge, one feels content, satisfied, accomplished, and [insert positive feeling here]. There are few experiences that rival this. The spring of 2004 took me to Italy where I spent a semester studying in doctoral dissertation northwestern university Florence. At the time, I was not a big foodie, so I rarely kept track of where I ate. Today, however, if I was to return, my entire trip would be dictated by food. Is The? Although Florence is university a very Americanized city, my apartment was a 20 minute walk from the center of town.

One evening, while exploring the area around our apartment, my roommates and I discovered a little hole-in-the-wall restaurant on a hidden side street. Is The Purpose Thesis? There wasn’t a single English speaking person in the entire place and there was no English version of the menu. Although I have no idea what this place was named, I know how to get back there and one day plan to return. Their pizza pies were large, but so thin that everyone needed their own. Their pies were more closely resembled the shape of dissertation northwestern, a puddle in tech the street than a geometric figure. Of the dozen times I dined there, my pizza never looked the university same. Is The? I think about this place a lot — whether it still exists, what it was actually called, whether any other tourists every discovered it. But most of all, I’m upset that I can’t tell people traveling to dissertation Florence how to thesis global warming paper find it.

I need to get back there for northwestern, the sake of this pizza place. Upon returning from Italy, I moved to the east side of warming research paper, Manhattan where I inherited a completely new set of local pizza places. Nino’s Pizza on the corner of St. University? Marks Place and Avenue A became a favorite along with Pizzanini on what is the main thesis statement, the corner of 2nd Avenue and St. Marks Place. Dissertation Northwestern University? There were drunken nights spent in Due Amici on resume, 3rd Avenue and 12th Street and Two Boots on doctoral dissertation, Avenue A and 3rd Street. I never really developed a favorite place in 4th grade report the East Village. All these pizzerias served solid New York slices. Pizza continued to remain an dissertation, important part of my diet and determining which place to eat at resume help, was solely based on where I was when my pizza craving hit.

As my love for pizza deepened, I began to do more research online about where I could find the city’s best pie. All sources pointed to doctoral dissertation northwestern the same place – Di Fara – a modest shop in the Flatbush area of global warming research, Brooklyn that has been serving its heavenly pizza for more than 40 years. Dissertation? It’s owned and run by Dom De Marco. He makes every single pie himself, working 12 hour shifts, 7 days a week. Apparently he takes 3 ? days off a year. If he’s sick, the shop is closed. It shut its door for a few weeks in 1988 when De Marco went to Italy and another time in 2006 when he had foot surgery. The lines have been known to stretch for hours as he gives every single pie his undivided attention. He likes to know who every pizza is for before serving it to them. 4th Grade Report Genres? Watching him make a pie is like watching an artist paint a painting – in slow motion. He uses a hand grater for the cheese and meticulously smears the tomato sauce on the dough.

I made my first trip out dissertation university, there in research the fall of 2006 and taking my first bit of pizza at Di Fara changed my life forever. Northwestern University? Not only was it the best slice of pizza I’d ever eaten (and still remains so), but I honestly can say it was the best food I’d ever consumed. There is no description that could do each bite justice. Only a few steps away from the Flatbush Avenue stop on the Q train, it’s about help knitter, 45 minutes from Midtown Manhattan. It’s a place that every New Yorker should go.

I can only doctoral dissertation northwestern, hope that De Marco continues to churn out resume for pt, his mouth watering pies for years to come. For weeks after my visit I had dreams about the pizza on a nightly basis and only wish I could return there more often that I currently do. In the spring of 2007 the blogosphere started to buzz about a new pizza place that opened on 14th Street between 1st and 2nd Avenue. Lines were forming around the corner. And during peak hours, it’d be common to wait for more than an hour for dissertation university, a slice of the tech city’s most talked about new pizzeria. Artichoke Basille’s Pizza Brewery reinvented my notion of a local pizzeria – primarily because it’s about a 60 second walk from my apartment. After my first visit there, I found it difficult (actually impossible) to doctoral go to what is the purpose thesis statement any other pizza place in dissertation university my neighborhood.

Once that Artichoke craving hit, I knew where my last stop of the night would be before heading home. In fact, I still find it difficult to resume knitter even walk by the shop without stopping in for a slice. The aromas that fill the area outside Artichoke are undeniably enticing. Doctoral Dissertation University? When I pass people on the street who are eating pizza, I lean over and take a big sniff of their slice – hoping to fill my sinuses with that signature Artichoke smell. If you couldn’t tell I’m a little obsessed. Artichoke does it right. They have four kinds of slices – a square Sicilian slice, a classic Neapolitan slice, an artichoke-spinach slice, and a crab slice. All are delicious and so think and what is the cheesy that they’re as filling as an entire meal. Doctoral? Now that the hype has dwindled down, so have the lines.

A good thing for my taste buds, but a bad thing for thesis warming paper, my arteries. Around the same time that Artichoke opened I was reading a “Best Of New York” issue of New York Magazine. They listed what they believed to be the best pizza place in each of the five boroughs. Doctoral Northwestern? Having been to none of them, I decided to form a “Pizza Club” in the summer of 2008. Case? The mission was simple: every other weekend we’d venture to a different pizza place on the list in dissertation northwestern an attempt to resume help knitter determine which borough truly has the best pizza. I couldn’t possibly imagine finding a better place than Di Fara in Brooklyn or Artichoke in northwestern university Manhattan. Here’s where we went: Brooklyn: Our first trip was to case on depression Franny’s on Flatbush Avenue in Prospect Heights.

Their pies are slightly overpriced (as were most of the places we went) and not as filling as I would have liked. But tasty they were. I had the tomato and buffalo mozzarella pie. Dissertation Northwestern University? Not one of the best in Brooklyn, but a nice restaurant in for pt tech a cute neighborhood that’s worth checking out. Queens: Of the five places listed in New York Magazine, Nick’s Pizza in Forrest Hills was my favorite. Their pies were simple, yet uniformly excellent – a crispy crust, gooey mozzarella cheese, tangy marinara sauce, and doctoral northwestern university a touch of fresh basil. We ordered one with mushrooms on knitter, top as well, a nice touch to an already solid pie. The Bronx: It’s a trek up to Arthur Avenue in the Bronx, but once you reach this strip of authentic Italian restaurants, you’ll feel like you’ve been thrust in the center of a quaint town in Tuscany. Doctoral University? At Zero Otto Nove , we tried three pies: Margherita (tomatoes, mozzarella, and basil), Patate E Porcini (mozzarella, sliced potatoes and porcini mushrooms), and Quattro Formaggi (smoked mozzarella, gorgonzola, provolone and fresh mozzarella).

I particularly enjoyed the last two which were more unusual combinations – a nice paring with the traditional Margherita pie. Manhattan: Una Pizza Napoletana is known as the most expensive pizza place in Manhattan. Report? At $21.95 for a 12-inch personal pizza, it’s hard to feel like you’re not getting ripped off. Our group tried all four pies they serve: bianca, marinara, margherita, and filetti. The bianca (buffalo mozzarella, olive oil, garlic, basil, and sea salt) was my favorite, but the steep prices make Artichoke, which is right around the corner, a more appealing option. Staten Island: After a ride on the subway, ferry, and bus, we finally made our way to doctoral Joe Pat’s , a famous establishment in the city’s forgotten borough. In addition to a traditional cheese pie, we tried a vodka pie, and help a pesto pie with fresh tomatoes.

Staten Island isn’t known for its pizza (it’s not known for much actually, is it?), so I would say the highlight was the doctoral dissertation adventure out there, not necessarily the pizza itself. Nevertheless, it was fun to dine alongside locals in case study one of the Island’s most famous pizza places. The Pizza Club visited two other pizzerias at the end of the summer: LB Spumoni Gardens in the Bensonhurst neighborhood of doctoral dissertation northwestern university, Brooklyn and Di Fara. LB Spumoni Gardens has a large outdoor eating area which makes it particularly enticing to visit when it’s warm out. They’re known for their Sicilian slices which the group overwhelming enjoyed more than the regular slices. The thick square slices are overloaded with tomato sauce and are definitely worth the trip out there. Little did I know I’d return to Staten Island for 4th grade report genres, pizza in the fall of dissertation, 2008 as part of 4th grade report, a Staten Island pizza tour. Doctoral Dissertation University? This tour is one of the first offerings by global paper a newly formed tourism department which was created in order to bring more New Yorkers out to the Island. Doctoral Northwestern? In addition to stopping at what main of a thesis statement, four pizza places, we visit the Staten Island Zoo, the doctoral university Wagner campus, and knitter various historical sites on doctoral dissertation northwestern university, the Island. Our first pizza stop was at Jimmy Max, my favorite of the resume for pt afternoon.

Their pizza was served with fresh mozzarella, tomato sauce, and basil leaves – pretty standard, but delicious nonetheless. After visiting Joe Pat’s we made our way to Denino’s which reminded me of one of those sit-down Pizza Hut restaurants with waiter service. Not to compare their pies with those of Pizza Hut, but in a blind taste test, I’m not so sure Denino’s would stick out in my mind. The final stop was Lee’s Tavern, an unassuming bar on the corner of doctoral, a quiet street. There isn’t even a name on the outside. Resume Knitter? We made our way to a backroom of the place where our already stuffed stomachs were filled with a final serving of university, pizza. At this point of the book report day it was hard to really rate the pies at Lee’s, but they seemed to be just as tasty as the rest of the pizza we’d been eating all afternoon.

And with one final bite of crust, I was back on the ferry to Manhattan. Pizza has obviously played a big role in my life. I eat it almost everyday and dissertation university continue to study keep my eyes and ears open for new places I’ve yet to doctoral northwestern university try. Totonno’s in Coney Island is at the top of my list as far as New York pizza places go, after which I hope to work my way through some of the smaller neighborhoods of the outer boroughs in hopes of discovering some hidden gems. Resume? And one day I hope to visit Pizzeria Bianco in Phoenix, Arizona where Pizzaiolo Chris Bianco makes pies that are considered by many to doctoral be the best in the country. But in the meantime, I’ve created this blog for pizza lovers.

I’ll post any pizza content I come across, which is a lot, in genres hopes of creating the go-to website for northwestern, all pizza related content for those who love pizza as much as I do.

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9-11 essays All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. Doctoral Dissertation University? These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. 4th Grade Book Report? Racial profiling entails using a person’s race to ascertain one involvement in a criminal activity without putting into consideration the available evidence for the criminal case. Racial profiling has been a contentious issue in the United States and all over doctoral northwestern university the globe, particularly to the extent on which the action infringes the very fundamental human rights and civil liberties protected by the law. Thesis Global? Such an approach by law enforcement agencies and officers is an ineffective strategy, since law enforcement agencies overlook the fundamental evidence, and the suspicion is usually based on an individual’s race and dissertation northwestern the perception of the society relative to that race.

For instance, African-Americans commonly associated with illegal drugs and urban crime. Help? On a similar account, Arabs and Muslims are associated with terrorism. Dissertation University? The September 11 attacks presented an thesis global, opportunity to instigate a racial stereotyping against the Muslims and doctoral dissertation northwestern university Arabs in the United States, especially those of Middle East origin. This research paper attempts to investigate the extent to which September 11 attacks influenced racial profiling in genres the US and later to the rest of the world. Arguing from two perspectives, racial profiling has worsened after the attacks and that racial profiling has not worsened post 9/11, a conclusion is doctoral dissertation northwestern university reached basing on the collected facts and evidence. How racial profiling has worsened. After the September 11 attacks, Arabs and Muslims living in the United States have been subjected to intense racial profiling.

This is due to perceptions that Arabs and Muslims are likely perpetrators of terrorism. Case Study? Interestingly, this perception is deeply rooted within the non-Arabs and non-Muslim population groups. As a result, law enforcement agencies in university the US are using this assumption and thesis global perception to associate Arab ethnicity and Muslims with terrorist acts. Dissertation Northwestern? The underlying fact is that most Arabs and Muslims living in the United States are not terrorists, but law abiding citizens. Is The Purpose Of A Thesis Statement? A 2002 report from the Human Rights Watch in the US revealed that at least 1200 Arab Americans, mostly from the doctoral university, Middle East and South Asia, faced detainment exclusive of formal charges directed at them. The same report asserted that the is the purpose statement, United States Justice Department abused and violated the fundamental human rights of the Arab and Muslim detainees. The law enforcement agencies perceived terrorism as a reserve for the Arabs and dissertation Muslims in global warming research paper the US, as a result, suspecting any Arab and Muslim for their involvement or attempted involvement in a terrorist activity. It is evident that racial profiling against the Muslim has worsened since the September 11 attacks.

This worsened further after the enactment of the Patriots Act by President Bush, and the Act targeted mainly Arab Americans by doctoral dissertation university linking them to terrorism without any evidence or questioning. In that context, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement authorities went overboard in case searching the homes of the Arab Americans, and by forcefully investigating their financial records and personal information. This is a violation of human rights based on race and ethnicity, with the target being mainly people of Arab and doctoral dissertation northwestern Muslim origin. Another indicator that racial profiling against the Arabs and Muslims in 4th grade the United States has worsened since September 11 is that the federal government is significantly relying on racial profiling as means of doctoral dissertation northwestern university counter terrorism strategy. This is widely evident in the entry points of the United States. Case On Depression? Law enforcement agencies at the entry points of the United States are putting stringent measures to immigrants who come from Islamic countries associated with terrorism such as Afghanistan. This perception is based on the view that all the Muslims coming from such country gain entry into the United States with the aim of pursuing terrorist activities. Therefore, the entry point authorities are applying racial profiling for Arabs and Muslims. According to doctoral northwestern a 2004 report released by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), dubbed Sanctioned Bias: Racial Profiling since 9/11, it is evident that there is an increase in anti-immigrant perception towards the Arabs and the Muslim both from the public and the law enforcement agencies. In fact, after the September 11 attacks, there is an thesis research, official policy in the United States that grants law enforcement agencies jurisdiction to question individuals especially Arab Americans without posting criminal charges. Such suspicions are based on race and religion; being Arabic and of Islam faith and only attempts to associate them with terrorist acts.

As a matter of fact, racial profiling was a foreign phenomenon in United States before the September 11 terrorist attacks. Moreover, if there existed racial profiling, it could only doctoral dissertation, be associated with common crimes in United States, and of which mostly was applied to the African-American community. Therefore, majority of the Americans were of the view that racial profiling was unacceptable. Case? With time, majority of the Americans changed their perception towards racial profiling after their safety was put under threat by terrorists. In fact, the African-America community that was earlier oppressed by racial profiling supported the phenomenon, especially if it was to be subjected to Arabs population from within and outside United States. A recent survey conducted by Gallup Company revealed that almost 70% of African Americans favored racial profiling compared to 50% of dissertation northwestern university white Americans who proposed racial profiling against Arabs. Immediately after the September 11 attacks, Arabs across America were not only harassed, but their basic human rights and liberties as citizens of United States were also violated. Basically, like any other government with a concern of its citizens, national awareness and main of a thesis increased security measures became a priority for the United States government. However, questioning and doctoral northwestern university deportation of innocent Muslims and Arabs was not the is the main statement, answer to war against terrorism in United States.

To understand the magnitude of racial profiling and its negativity, one has to consider various incidents used by law enforcement agencies that can only be termed as unnecessary and illogical. Northwestern? For example, there have been cases where brown-skinned people have been denied access to public transport and air flights, since other passengers see them as Arabs and a security threat. Another example of Arabs who were arrested and profiled because they had money and cell phones stacked in their vehicle happened in Colorado. Interestingly, their lawyer affirmed that if the had non-Muslim names they wouldn’t have been profiled (Spencer, “the necessity of profiling”). Amid all the intensified security check-ups at airports, railway terminus and bus stations, other American racial groups and government agencies are more than ready to what is the main purpose statement infringe other people’s liberties. United states have been known of its respect of human rights and democracy, but racial profiling against Arabs and Muslims after September 11is an indication that America has stooped to low in preservation of human rights. How racial profiling has not worsened. Nevertheless, it would be inappropriate to dissertation university view racial profiling as a non-beneficial policy to United States considering that millions of American citizens are at case on depression risk of death by terrorism. However, United States is yet to prevent itself from terrorist attack, especially domestic terrorism. Although since the September 11 attacks, there has never been an attack of similar magnitude, racial profiling is dissertation northwestern yet to be reduced in any significant form till date.

However, law enforcers allege that racial profiling has been in thesis global research paper its low since the September 11 attacks. Law enforcement agencies argue that security officers mandated to doctoral dissertation university conduct racial profiling data have been assigned military duties, mostly in paper countries like Afghanistan and Iraq. It is important for one to understand that racial profiling is legally conducted by police officer. From this perspective, there have been concerns that police officers have with time decreased their racial profiling data collection routines. Although close analysts argue that this is a form of police disengagement in racial profiling activity, critics of racial profiling argue that police officers are tired of the doctoral dissertation university, activity, since they spend a lot of time in filling in the racial profiling forms. This argument can be supported by the fact that various departments of police in United States have been subject of criticism due to for pt their laxity and minimal productivity. In addition, recent interventions by American Muslims and human rights activist have tried to doctoral northwestern criticize the racial profiling activity in United States. Immediately, after the September 11 terrorism attack, Muslim were vigorously harassed and abused across United States and study some were falsely accused by doctoral northwestern university anti-Arab and anti-Islam groups. These interventions are in 4th grade book report form of doctoral northwestern legal support to those who have been interrogated and detained without a legal procedure, protests against generalized profiling and protection of civil rights through legal representation by human rights activist attorneys’. These interventions have greatly increased public awareness of the negativity that emanates from racial profiling, and the American society is progressively rejecting the policy. Laws against racial profiling.

The United States constitution prohibits racial profiling through the 4th grade book, federal law, a fact that may not be in the public domain according to a NYU survey done on American law by Susan Akram and Kevin Johnson in 2003. Dissertation Northwestern University? Entrenched in the fourth amendment of the federal law, prohibition against racial discrimination was endorsed by President George Bush during his reign in the year 2001. The law prohibits all actions which are based on race, and actions which federal law enforcers may use during their interrogation and law enforcement responsibilities. The federal law is very categorical that law enforcement officers are not to use race as a factor during interrogation, decision making, traffic stops and even prevention of natural disasters. In addition, law enforcement official and agencies are not supposed to offer national security to citizens by aligning them with their race and study religion.

I is therefore, unfortunate that the very government, through the northwestern, convention of the congress have violated the very same laws entrenched within the supreme law of united the United States. The spontaneous reaction of the resume for pt tech, law enforcement agencies of the United States and the United States department of defense is dissertation university ill intended and misplaced. For example, the mere insinuation that all Arabs and Muslims are potential terrorists is unreasonable. Book Genres? It can only be aligned as a transgression towards personal freedom of worship and religion, not to doctoral dissertation northwestern university mention that America has thousands of resume help knitter Arabs who are not necessarily Muslims. According to Bernard Harcourt, while reviewing Muslim profiles during the post September 11 attacks and the effectiveness of doctoral university racial profiling and how the autonomy essay, act violates freedom.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.

Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is doctoral northwestern, often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to autonomy essay judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to dissertation university provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and global, this is also where conventions come in.

Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. Dissertation Northwestern University. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and help knitter, will be described here in northwestern, more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by what of a, stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the northwestern university author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.

The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the resume text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in doctoral dissertation northwestern university, front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to global warming paper be the doctoral dissertation northwestern university ideal place for global studying the effects of dissertation northwestern, direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).

Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the main of a statement ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the doctoral dissertation northwestern references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). Help Knitter. If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to doctoral northwestern anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of book, a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the doctoral university original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes.

It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Purpose Of A Thesis Statement. Can you really be sure this is dissertation northwestern, what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.

Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. What Is The Main Of A Thesis. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. Dissertation. The convention to help circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the dissertation university original publication, together with the one of the autonomy essay work you consulted. Doctoral Dissertation. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and of a thesis statement, ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of northwestern, them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to case identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and dissertation northwestern university, (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication.

Always cite the resume for pt text you consulted, because in doctoral, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of for pt, your essay you should include a list of doctoral northwestern university, references. Such a list of on depression, references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Dissertation Northwestern. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text.

References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the warming family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the doctoral university name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. Resume. after the first three, but some styles insist on dissertation northwestern university, citing all authors.

Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the for pt tech actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is dissertation northwestern university, capitalized. Global Warming Paper. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and dissertation university, Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and autonomy essay, Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.

Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in northwestern university, a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the is the purpose of a family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by dissertation university, the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at 4th grade, the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in doctoral, the list of references, too.

For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Case Study On Depression. Hardin, R. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). On Depression. Leroy, P. Doctoral. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. Thesis Warming Research. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in doctoral dissertation, Smelser, N. Autonomy Essay. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too.

The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the case study year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and dissertation northwestern university, Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. For Pt Tech. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Northwestern University. Valente, T. Study On Depression. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.

Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. Doctoral Dissertation. The reference includes the name of the global warming author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in doctoral dissertation university, square brackets, the resume help knitter place of dissertation university, publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the resume content was written. Doctoral University. For example: Moser, P. Autonomy Essay. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is doctoral northwestern, given.

The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of thesis global research, publication in brackets, the title in dissertation northwestern, single speech marks, the thesis global warming name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to doctoral dissertation university use the abbreviation p. , for resume tech articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is doctoral northwestern, common. For example: Cockburn, P. Warming Paper. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from doctoral northwestern a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Report Genres. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by dissertation university, the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the purpose thesis statement place, and date of the lecture. For example:

Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at doctoral northwestern, Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. For Pt. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is dissertation northwestern university, not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important.

It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. Study. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. Doctoral. If there is no-one, it’s customary to resume for pt tech put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is doctoral dissertation university, not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the resume for pt word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the dissertation indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the book genres name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in doctoral northwestern university, this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to resume tech you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example:

Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the doctoral dissertation northwestern main title that is capitalized. In the case of resume for pt tech, a book, the main title is that of the book. Northwestern University. In the resume for pt case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized.

Capitalization is not very hard to northwestern achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in case study, fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in doctoral university, capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to thesis statement give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Dissertation Northwestern University. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at resume help knitter, the end.

It’s difficult to write about doctoral dissertation university referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. Of A. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves.

The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is doctoral northwestern university, deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Study On Depression. Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied.

Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by dissertation northwestern, laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to autonomy essay copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in dissertation northwestern university, front of you. By so doing, there is thesis warming paper, very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and university, not least, you’ll also get better grades.

Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to thesis global research paper put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in doctoral northwestern university, the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example.

If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to autonomy essay spot.

Usually, however, this is university, just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of purpose statement, your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to dissertation university essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to case other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. University. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to resume tech read, or whether you’re likely to dissertation have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in case on depression, the question. An even easier sign is having the northwestern same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Genres. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in northwestern university, fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Help. Writing style includes the doctoral university tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of book, metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of northwestern, sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Autonomy Essay. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and dissertation northwestern university, things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles).

The presence or lack of book report, references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at dissertation northwestern, the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by resume knitter, the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.

In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly.

Knowing your citations from your quotations is dissertation university, useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of autonomy essay, someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only northwestern university, use the report idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to northwestern check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is autonomy essay, no difference.

Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the doctoral dissertation university main text by indenting the genres quotations, and usually putting in university, a slightly smaller font. 4th Grade Book Report Genres. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Dissertation Northwestern. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the for pt tech three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to doctoral some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. Study. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)

When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Dissertation Northwestern University. Sometimes, you might want to is the main purpose of a thesis change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. Doctoral Northwestern University. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the autonomy essay words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). Dissertation Northwestern. I made the changes, because I wrote about for pt intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose.

The consequence is doctoral, that the knitter quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the dissertation references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. Autonomy Essay. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is doctoral northwestern university, needed if I can’t remember the author right away.

Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by case study, including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to dissertation northwestern university reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases.

Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to 4th grade genres familiarize yourself with their working before the dissertation northwestern university deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the knitter references to a separate file. Northwestern. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of resume, copying and pasting, without the northwestern work of formatting the reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of autonomy essay, time, too.

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Doctoral dissertation northwestern university

How To Disappear Completely When SHTF. Maybe it’s the northwestern, fact the we are inherently a corrupt race. Mankind in and of itself is questionable. What Is The Purpose Statement? It’s now clearer than ever that this big wheel is running on greased palms and padded pockets. There is very little regard for human life at this level.

Those at doctoral northwestern, the highest levels of government, those supposed to what main purpose of a protect us, are involved as well. What happens if they decide to doctoral come after you? Why would they? Well who knows really? What’s much more important is the fact that they can and without impunity. We all remember waking up hung over to find out for pt that on new year’s eve Barack Obama had brought back into existence the doctoral university, most terrifying bill ever propose, NDAA. In case you forgot about NDAA this excerpt from resume help knitter, info wars should freshen you up a bit.

Section 1031 of the NDAA bill, which itself defines the entirety of the United States as a “battlefield,” allows American citizens to be snatched from the doctoral university, streets, carted off to a foreign detention camp and held indefinitely without trial. The bill states that “any person who has committed a belligerent act” faces indefinite detention, but no trial or evidence has to be presented, the White House merely needs to make the accusation. Of course as this country evolves we just can’t be sure who will become the next most wanted. It’s clear that those who hold a strong belief in the second amendment and those with a conservative voice are often targeted by resume, the government and the media. If the time comes when you decided being you is far too dangerous this article will teach you how to dissertation northwestern university vanish! Whether you are a victim, taking precautions or running from something whatever your choice to disappear is it comes with some legal ramifications that you should consider. Chances are you are in thesis warming research, some sort of debt and northwestern university that will be left behind when you jump ship as well. This will not sit well with collectors they will be allocating resources to find you as well. Case On Depression? This is doctoral dissertation northwestern, just another set of eyes out there looking for you. Of course we’d all pay off our debts if possible but just a connection to consider when severing ties. Remember this debt could become the burden of your loved ones if you choose to leave it behind.

If someone decides to report you missing you could also be held liable for the resources used to come find you. If you happen to autonomy essay disappear from a wilderness area or in the ocean you have to understand you will be using up precious resources that could come back to haunt you if you make the terrible decision to resurface one day. Doctoral Dissertation University? All this equals out to some serious penalties, fines or worse if you are found. Are you in love? Do you have a family that can’t live without you? Stop reading now if you answered yes to any of what of a thesis these questions. If you want to be effective at doctoral university, disappearing you must go it alone. Imagine for autonomy essay a second that there are tiny filaments of threat tied to you and every person you ever interacted with, with every transaction you ever made and every camera you ever walked by. This is a serious web that you have to avoid in your new world.

Now imagine that web times two. If you bring someone else along you are vastly increasing the risk for doctoral dissertation northwestern university exposure. To do this right you will have to what purpose statement create a new you. Having someone who expects the old you makes this very hard. Dissertation? It could lead to other issues down the line that could increase the risk of exposure as well.

If you are seriously looking to start fresh or hide away do it alone. The internet is obviously your largest fingerprint. For Pt? You will have some work to do to eliminate pictures of you and videos. That one is a no brainer. What about prior jobs, IDs, school pictures, other people’s photos of you all of these must be considered. University? You may not be able to get rid of everything but the resume knitter, more you can eliminate the better. Not only should you plan for a life of cash only but you should probably spend at least 3 months in that world prior to disappearing. Any clothes or tools you plan on buying to reach your goals should be purchased in cash. Also, consider thrift stores, flea markets and yard sales.

There is virtually zero traceability involved with these locations. Saying goodbye to bank accounts and plastic will not be easy but it will certainly be necessary to your success. The other important thing is to consider how you will be getting paid for those three months prior. If you are getting direct deposit and pulling it all out of your bank in cash red flags could go up for those investigating your disappearance. Until you establish a new identity and procure the proper documentation you will also have to doctoral have cash to get around in your new world. The new you will still be subject to the pangs and global research thousand shocks that flesh is heir to.

In other words you will have to dissertation northwestern university eat and sleep and what not. These things will cost money. You will have to help knitter also consider where your new setting will be. Naturally if you move one town away your little run will come to an end pretty soon. That may be common sense but perhaps the next thought won’t be. Did you love where you went to doctoral dissertation college? How about your favorite vacation spot? It may sound great to live in one of resume these locations but you have to be aware of dissertation northwestern not just the people you know but those who know you. You may not remember the girl at case study, the coffee house but she might never have forgotten your face.

To do this right move far away. Go far and move into a highly populated area. Utilize the old adage of a needle in a haystack. You probably couldn’t find your own mother in downtown Philadelphia. How would anyone know you in a town like LA where everyone’s looking to be seen?

This is a little bit morbid but let’s not forget that you are attempting to disappear yourself so let’s be honest about what’s going on here. You will begin by searching the death notices at doctoral dissertation northwestern university, your local library. Help? Do not do this on the internet and especially not on your home computer. If you decide to be Harry Callaghan and the FBI finds a search of that name that can be linked to you I am pretty sure your efforts will be in vain. You should seek out ID’s from the small towns of America. If you find someone in your age bracket call the county and doctoral dissertation northwestern university tell them you left town years ago and need a copy of your birth certificate.

Use a prepaid cell phone for this call and every call going forward. If you hook them they will send you a copy. From there you can get official ID. You could get a driver’s license under that name. After that it’s all in thesis statement, the bag. Do you feel a little nasty doing a thing like that. Well, there are other options. Pretend to be an illegal alien from an northwestern university area through which you have roots. Somewhere you can fake an accent. Take on case study that persona and seek out ID through state or local organizations.

You will either procure an ID legally or be approached by someone who can get you one illegally. This process happens here in America all day every day. It is important to note that it’s not just our friends coming from the southern borders that are getting over on the system. There is no reason why you should use similar tactics if you are looking to northwestern make your own great escape. What would you never do?

List about 5 things you would never do as the person you are today. On Depression? Next become an doctoral dissertation northwestern expert at all of them. Well, at least look into them and take them on as either a habit or a hobby. You see your old habits and your old hobbies are what will trip you up. That means if you smoke you better quit now! This little links are easy to make with someone especially if you are dealing with people who are trainer.

Work these opposites into your new lifestyle and the path back to the old you will get washed over by this new person. This is a quick technique for severing the old ties of who you were. It will be hard to do but this one step will pay dividends. You like country music? Listen to thesis global warming research gangster rap. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern? You like steak and case study potatoes?

Well now you are a mouthy vegan. Bible toting Christian? When you are in public you are an atheist who wears witty tee shirts that mock religion. It sounds horrendous but this is what it takes. Making a massive choice like this will not come without sacrifice and work.

It’s not going to northwestern be comfortable and it’s not going to be easy. Just remember that if you put the effort and 4th grade genres pre planning in this can be a reality. It is possible to start over or disappear altogether. Lie about everything. Lie for the fun of university it. Book Report? Make up stories of your origin as often as possible. Doctoral Northwestern University? Remember the scenes in the Dark Knight when the resume help knitter, Joker was explaining how he got the scarred up markings on his face that looked like some twisted smile? He gave two very different stories about how these scars came to be. Both were terrifying but neither was probably true.

Become an university expert at this. It’s almost just as important to never hammer down specific history of yourself. With the autonomy essay, advent of technology it wouldn’t take much for someone to dissertation northwestern university go home and Google you. They could find out a lot about who you are or who you are not based on that. So try not to form many connections. In closing I would hope this article, for most of you, was for educational and entertainment purposes. Resume Help Knitter? If this is something you are considering just know that there are many other resources available on this topic and doctoral northwestern university God bless you. Resume Help? If life has pushed you in the direction of disappearance I have to northwestern believe that you are suffering in study on depression, some way. You are not trapped and this article could be your first steps towards freedom. Please Spread The Word - Share This Post.

I lived OTG for 7 years. Northwestern? During that time, I lived with others, acting as “housekeeper”. Nothing was in my name. Not as glamorous as you’d imagine, yet safe and resume knitter effective. I agree, the “trick” is to doctoral dissertation deal in cash. Small things matter, such as scrambling the for pt tech, last 4 of your SSN. Even banks will accept your SSN verbally if opening an account. Dissertation? You can buy checks with that account. #, yet substitute a different (or additional) name, to match your new ID. Global Warming Research Paper? Small things add to your credibility. It’s not expensive to do a name change. Women can resume maiden or former married names easily.

Commitment is key, to success. Doctoral Dissertation Northwestern? The “system” is not the security you are taught to thesis global warming paper believe in. Self reliance is empowering! Learn to northwestern live without credit, the stress reduction alone is worth any offset. What government doesnt realize is that in declairing US soil a battleground subjects its solders to the laws of war. Thesis? if they include our officers then they must accept the dissertation, same rules.

If they are killedwe as combatants cannot be tried for murder. If we do not participate in the declared war then we defend our land and again cannot be tried for murder. Clearly this like so much of today’s laws are not well thought out. since when has the government EVER adhered to case on depression the rules meted out for the rest of us lowly citizens? “Section 1031 of the northwestern university, NDAA bill, which itself defines the tech, entirety of the United States as a “battlefield,” allows American citizens to be snatched from the streets, carted off to northwestern a foreign detention camp and held indefinitely without trial. The bill states that “any person who has commit/ted a belligerent act” faces indefinite .detention, but no trial or evidence has to be presented, the White House merely needs to make the accusation.” This was just a “reminder” of the is the thesis, Patriot Act signed into law by idiot Pres Bush after that atrocious 9/11 deal. and the morons on both sides of the worthless aisle keep calling that idiot a “republican”…..he didn’t have a conservative bone in his body. One must understand what the “United States” represents. Northwestern University? Then you need to learn where the “United States” has jurisdiction.

It is autonomy essay, all spelled out, but cleverly hidden in plain sight. The District of Columbia Municipal Corporation is DBA the “United States”. Their jurisdiction(enumerated powers) is dissertation northwestern university, limited to 10 miles square(know as DC), forts, docks, and territories. That’s it. Much for for pt tech everyone to doctoral dissertation university grasp, but this has been the case since 1871. You can thank Lincoln for is the purpose statement putting this scam in motion.

Remember, Lincoln was an Attorney. Doctoral University? Shootout is correct. These are the little tricks that are played on us. So,, I am not a U.S. Citizen of the corporation. I am an American,,native born.

“Maybe it’s the is the thesis, fact the we are inherently a corrupt race. Mankind in and of itself is questionable” This is what they would have you believe, but the simple fact is northwestern, that people inherently good. This has been proven over and over again. For Pt? People who believe they are doing things for a cause for the higher good, are in their minds justified in harming others. The only dissertation university, thing inherently wrong in the world is government and religion. Once you think your power, your belief is warming research paper, higher than ANY individual, you are capable of terrible things.

Again, proven over and over again. Dissertation Northwestern University? Mankind is inherently good. Power, and its ability to corrupt is inherently evil. Genres? I suggest reading: “the most dangerous superstition” ?ormally, though, when a youngster is taller than 36 inches or larger compared to 30 pounds (normal? at about 2 years ?f a?e), a typical security gate oug?t to no longer be relied on to constrain him. Can you folks (preppers) tell me how to email Ron Melchiore and Johanna ? Tell them Pat would like to visit.

Does Ron have a brother who wants to do what Ron Johanna are doing? Ron and she are in Canada. Hi guys…an Aussie intelligence agent here…errr…did I miss something in this prepper advice…like…#1- LOOSE THE F-ING CELL PHONE!! Not sure about the doctoral northwestern, USA yet…but in autonomy essay, Australia… we have technology (supplied to our gov intelligence agencies by a private security/intelligence agency that provides CT services to the gov called – ANSS) where we can now type a cell phones IME number into a work phone which have a certain program in doctoral dissertation northwestern university, it which can be held up to 4th grade genres recieve the exact location direction of the POIs phone aswell as its distance away…in additon to the old triangulation methods that we first use via mapping to doctoral northwestern get the general location. (We used to use the what is the of a statement, old GPS version like find my phone, but thats usless once gps is off) There is a number of doctoral dissertation other simple methods used which I wont disclose publically here that makes it extreemly hard, sometimes impossible to locate POIs for those interested. I have schematics for thesis global research paper a device that could solve the problems mentioned.

Problem is that if it works an entire segment of doctoral northwestern society could disappear, which might cause a lot of problems.