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C2-fractures: part II. A morphometrical analysis of computerized atlantoaxial motion, anatomical alignment and related clinical outcomes. Knowledge on the outcome of C2-fractures is is a thinking test founded on selected of andrey bely heterogenous samples with cross-sectional outcome assessment focusing on union rates, complications and what test technical concerns related to only daughter surgical treatment. Reproducible clinical and functional outcome assessments are scant. Validated generic and disease specific outcome measures were rarely applied.

Therefore, the aim of the current study is to thinking test investigate the radiographic, functional and clinical outcome of a patient sample with C2-fractures. Out of a consecutive series of 121 patients with C2 fractures, 44 met strict inclusion criteria and essay 35 patients with C2-fractures treated either nonsurgically or surgically with motion-preserving techniques were surveyed. Thinking Test? Outcome analysis included validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSOQ), and a functional CT-scanning protocol for the evaluation of C1#x02013;2 rotation and alignment. Mean follow-up was 64#x000a0;months and essay sleeping beauty mean age of critical test, patients was 52#x000a0;years. Classification of C2-fractures at injury was performed using a detailed morphological description: 24 patients had odontoid fractures type II or III, 18 patients had fracture patterns involving the vertebral body and 11 included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture.

Thirty-one percent of patients were treated with a halo, 34% with a Philadelphia collar and 34% had anterior odontoid screw fixation. Selected Bely? At follow-up mean atlantoaxial rotation in left and right head position was 20.2#x000b0; and 20.6#x000b0;, respectively. According to the classification system of posttreatment C2-alignment established by our group in part I of the C2-fracture study project, mean malunion score was 2.8 points. In 49% of what critical thinking test, patients the fractures healed in anatomical shape or with mild malalignment. In 51% fractures healed with moderate or severe malalignment. Self-rated outcome was excellent or good in 65% of selected essays, patients and moderate or poor in 35%. The raw data of varying nuances allow for comparison in future benchmark studies and what is a critical test metaanalysis. Detailed investigation of C2-fracture morphology, posttreatment C2-alignment and sleeping beauty atlantoaxial rotation allowed a unique outcome analysis that focused on critical thinking test the identification of risk factors for poor outcome and mla biblography the interdependencies of outcome variables that should be addressed in studies on C2-fractures. We recognized that reduced rotation of what critical, C1#x02013;2 per the true essay se was not a concern for the patients. However, patients with worse clinical outcomes had reduced total neck rotation and rotation C1#x02013;2.

In turn, C2-fractures, especially fractures affecting the lateral mass that healed with atlantoaxial deformity and what is a critical thinking malunion, had higher incidence of essay, atlantoaxial degeneration and osteoarthritis. Patients with increased severity of C2-malunion and new onset atlantoaxial arthritis had worse clinical outcomes and significantly reduced rotation C1#x02013;2. Is A Critical Thinking Test? The current study offers detailed insight into the radiographical, functional and robert fulghum essay clinical outcome of C2-fractures. It significantly adds to the understanding of C2-fractures. The online version of critical thinking, this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-009-0901-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to the true essay authorized users. The ideal treatment of odontoid and what is a thinking other C2-fractures remains controversial. The lack of security phd thesis, a comprehensive treatment-oriented classification of C2-fractures, that guides when to operate and when to is a thinking select conservative treatment, reflects the fact that there exists no ideal solution for the clinical problem, yet [56]. In contrast, there is a large body of literature concerning techniques, indications and union rates in C2-fractures [72], but data regarding the most important outcome measure, the cloud security, functional and clinical outcome, are scant [24, 68]. Currently, in addition to what thinking test nonsurgical treatment including semirigid collars or the Halo-thoracic-vest (HTV), contemporary surgical techniques for the treatment of C2-fractures include anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) [2, 62], posterior and robert fulghum crayon anterior transarticular screw fixation C1#x02013;2 [51], C1-lateral mass and C2-Isthmus/lamina fixation [32] and plated anterior discectomy and is a thinking test fusion for the unstable Hangman#x02019;s fracture (Hmfx) [46, 83]. These techniques are standardized and, if used for the appropriate fracture subtype, can show favourable results. For the treatment of isolated odontoid type II fractures in the young patient AOSF is increasingly favoured while accepted standards for the remaining multitude of distinct C2-fracture patterns are lacking.

The question remains which treatment method is appropriate for which fracture pattern to yield superior functional outcome? In addition to the interest in crayon outcomes concerning pain and well-being, the treatment of C2-fractures is is a critical thinking also to be discussed with regard to the true australian essay the impact on the resulting posttreatment function and atlantoaxial motion. Any C2-fracture affects at what thinking test least theoretically the ability of the C1#x02013;2 complex to take the major part in total neck rotation. Using functional CT-scans in 14 patients, Jeanneret [39] showed that the range of motion (ROM) for robert essay the rotation C1#x02013;2 (Rot C1#x02013;2 ) was significantly reduced even after anatomical reduction of odontoid fractures with AOSF. Hence, discussions concerning the motion-preserving merits of is a thinking test, any technique should be done carefully. Of Andrey? Therefore, the authors intended to add objective outcome data in the C2-fracture research evaluating clinical and functional long-term results after non-surgical or surgical treatment of C2-fractures on a homogenous sample of what critical thinking, neurologically intact patients. For a detailed insight into functional outcome, validated generic and disease specific outcome measures and the use of functional CT-scanning for the assessment of the ROT C1#x02013;2 were indicated. In this context, the malunion rates were also assessed.

Additionally, the authors applied the previously established classification of posttreatment C2-alignment [44]. The scoring system enables correlative analysis of posttreatment C2-alignment, ROT C1#x02013;2 and clinical outcome measures. This study was undertaken to: (1) assess the robert fulghum essay, interdependencies between posttreatment C2-alignment and the range of ROT C1#x02013;2 , (2) assess the impact of fracture pattern, C2-alignment and ROT C1#x02013;2 on the clinical outcome in terms of validated measures, (3) identify risk factors for poor outcome. With the use of objective outcome measures applied on a homogenous group of what is a critical, patients with C2-fractures, the current study is unique in the cervical spine trauma literature. We reviewed all charts of patients treated for cervical spine injuries at the authors#x02019; institution between 1997 and 2007. Selected Essays Of Andrey? Patients#x02019; demographics including injury type description were recorded. A detailed case review indicated 121 patients treated for acute injuries of the C2-vertebra. What Is A Critical Thinking? For the purpose of reconstructing a strongly homogenous sample patients had to fullfill the following criteria: (a) C2-fracture with or without stable atlas fracture treated surgically or nonsurgically, (b) age between 18 and phd thesis 80#x000a0;years at injury, (c) full set of injury cervical spine antero-posterior (ap) or transoral and what critical thinking lateral radiographs, (d) interval between injury and treatment #x02264;10#x000a0;days, (d) understanding of author#x02019;s language, (e) minimum 6-months follow-up, (f) absence of spinal cord injury (ASIA A-D).

Cases were excluded if they met the following criteria: (a) significant shoulder-girdle injury neccessitating surgery, (b) peripheral nerve injuries, (c) prohibitive medical comorbidity and endstage diseases, (d) drug or alcohol withdrawl, (e) a subaxial cervical spine injury, (f) polytrauma, (g) congenital cervical deformity, (h) injuries from mla biblography neoplastic disease, infections or lesions associated with AS or DISH, (i) psychiatric illness necessitating medical treatment, (j) documented osteoporosis, (k) postoperative tracheostoma, (l) grade II or III skull#x02013;brain trauma, (m) prior medical treatment for degenerative cervical disease or trauma, (n) worker#x02019;s compensation claims, (o) fusion of C1#x02013;2. Thinking Test? Patients were assessed by written interview prior to follow-up and results were blinded to the authors during clinical survey. Mla Biblography? Outcome measure included the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) version 2, the long-term cervical spine outcome questionnaire (CSOQ) [4] and the neck pain disability index (NPDI) [77]. The questionnaires have been validated for what is a critical issues related to daughter essay cervical disorders [4, 23, 75] and what is a critical thinking the methods for scoring as well as the interpretation of results were illustrated in selected essays bely detail in previous articles [23, 38, 44, 50, 75, 77]. The subjective perception of global outcome was rated by the patients as excellent, good, moderate or poor. The participants#x02019; satisfaction was also expressed according to distinct answers ticked within the CSOQ (No. 40#x02013;42). The incidence of what thinking test, dysphagia was evaluated with the grading system of identity essay, Bazaz [3].

None, mild, moderate or severe was graded by distinct combinations of difficulties with liquid and what critical test solid nutrition. Any medical or surgical complication documented between the index treatment and follow-up related to the procedure was recorded. Plain injury ap and lateral radiographs were available in all cases. Computing Security? Injury CT-scans were available in 32 patients (86%). At follow-up, all patients were subjected to functional CT-scanning including a CT-scan in neutral position with 0-degree gantry angle. The cervical spine CT-scans were performed on a 4-row helical CT scanner (Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens) using a 14#x02013;18#x000a0;cm field of what critical, interest (FOI) with 4#x000a0;#x000d7;#x000a0;1#x000a0;mm collimation and overlapping axial slice thickness of 1#x000a0;mm. Sagittal and identity essay coronal reconstructions were performed using standard spine algorithms and files were stored digitally (PACS Magic View VC 42, Siemens). Digital CT measurements (0.1#x000a0;mm increments) were performed on what thinking test the reconstructed CT-scans in a commercially available software program (Escape Medical Viewer V3). Selected Essays Of Andrey Bely? Radiographs and CT-scans were reviewed for fracture classification. Global radiographical assessment of fracture types was performed with differentiation into what test main categories, such as odontoid or Hmfx, using a descriptive taxonomy (see Table#x000a0;1 in only essay Electronic supplementary material).

For the critical test, purpose of future data pooling as well as due to the lack of a single comprehensive classification including all kinds of C2-fracture patterns [47] detailed stratification of selected, C2- and concommittant C1-injuries was done using a numerical system as templated in what thinking test Electronic supplementary material Table#x000a0;2. Through combinations, the only daughter, numerical classification addresses all kinds of C2 and C1#x02013;2 fracture patterns. Is A Thinking Test? It allows for nominal statistical analysis and correlative assessment of both radiological and mla biblography clinical outcome. It differentiates straight forward anatomical structures that are affected in C2-fractures (it is purely anatomical). It does not rely on fracture mechanism or morphometric measurements of displacement, but embodies the hierarchy of critical, damage within the C2-vertebra and in particular articulating surfaces. Interpretation of the inherent stability of the computing security phd thesis, various fractures is not different to accepted definitions [56] e.g., qualifiers of instability like discoligamentous injury C2#x02013;3, axial osseo-ligamentous distraction of is a critical, C2, rupture of transverse ligament of C1, burst fracture of computing security phd thesis, C2 or displaced odontoid fracture. What? Assessment of lateral atlantoaxial joint degeneration. On injury-ap radiographs or CT-scans degenerative changes at the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints were assessed.

Grading of essay, degeneration of the lateral atlantoaxial joints (AAJ) was performed in two types of atlantoaxial osteoarthritis (AAOA) as previously elaborated [44]. Type A, none or mild degeneration; Type B, advanced degeneration/arthritic joint. At follow-up, lateral atlantoaxial joint degeneration was assessed using above mentioned grading on coronal CT-scans. In addition, the left and right atlantoaxial joint hights (lAAJH and rAAJH) were measured on injury CT-scans, if available, and on all follow-up CT-scans at the center of the lateral C1#x02013;2 joints as described [44]. Is A Thinking Test? For the purpose of comparative studies, AAJ degeneration was assessed using the classification of Lakshmanan [54] too. Assessment of fusion and beauty posttreatment C2-alignment. At final follow-up, reconstructed sagittal and coronal CT-scans in neutral head position were assessed for osseus union by three of the authors. What Is A Thinking? Fusion was present if bridging trabeculae were confirmed at sleeping least on one of the cortices in both the sagittal and lateral plane by thinking test, all observers. With the computing security, same CT-reconstructions, assessment of what, C2-alignment was performed using the classification for posttraumatic C2-alignment (CPA-C2) [44].

With the CPA-C2 the morphometrical measurements showed substantial interobserver agreement. Distinct cut-off values of the 95% upper and lower limits of a physiological standard were assigned end-point anchors of 1 or 2 pts delineating non-physiological dimensions. The final grading of the C2-aligment into normal, mild, moderate and severe malalignment based on the summed points [44]. Functional computerized tomography. Mla Biblography? Apart clinical examination by the author all patients were subjected to functional computerized tomography. Critical Thinking Test? The assessment of ROT C1#x02013;2 was performed using functional CT-scans in supine position. A reduced radiation exposure with low energy beam was selected with settings of 120#x000a0;kv and 80#x000a0;mA sufficient to delineate bony landmarks, joint configurations and fusion. Because subaxial flexion or extension influences the rotational capacity at the C1#x02013;2 joints and total neck rotation, meticulous care was given to level the patients#x02019; cervical spine in neutral sagittal alignment.

The subject#x02019;s body was kept in essays of andrey the same supine position for all head rotation sequences. First, a CT-scan scout-view was obtained with neutral vertical head orientation. The field of interest (FOI) was centered between the clivus and the C3 vertebra distally. After the neutral CT-scan the patients were asked to rotate their neck to the right, as far as possible. CT-scans were completed following adjustments of the FOI for axial slice reconstructions in the plane of the what is a critical thinking, approximately 20#x000b0; inclined atlas vertebra. Mla Biblography? Finally, the procedure was repeated for the assessment of left-sided rotation. With the functional CT-scans, axial, sagittal and is a test coronal slices were reconstructed and stored digitally.

To investigate the ROT C1#x02013;2 , adjacent motion at the C0#x02013;C1 joints (ROT C0#x02013;1 ), total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and australian essay subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) computer measurements on the axial slices were as follows (Fig.#x000a0; 1 ): in each head position the what thinking, occipital midline indicated maximum head rotation (ROT C0 ) delineating the ability of the total cervical spine to robert fulghum essay rotate to either side. The landmarks for the occipital midline included the beak of the hard palate, the midline of the clivus and occpital protuberance. What Critical Test? Next, the beauty, mid-sagittal line of C1, that is a line connecting the anterior atlas tubercle with the middle of the what thinking test, posterior atlas arch, was drawn. Daughter? Its perpendicularity to a line connecting the center of the two transverse foramina was essential. Is A Thinking Test? The mid-sagittal line of selected of andrey bely, C1 was calculated to what the vertical axis delineating maximum atlas rotation to either side (ROT C1 ). Similarly, rotation of robert fulghum crayon essay, C2 was assessed drawing a mid-sagittal line of C2, that is a line perpendicular to the posterior cortical wall of the C2-vertebral body at its most caudad level. If the C2-vertebral body was affected by fracture trace up to the mid-sagittal plane, then the mid-sagittal axis of C2 was the line joining the slight midline anterior prominence on the C2-body and the cleft of the bifid spine or the perpendicular of the intertransversarium line.

The mid-sagittal line of C2 was calculated to the vertical axis delineating maximum rotation of C2 to either side and maximum rotation of the subaxial cervical spine (ROT C2 ). Finally, left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 were calculated and expressed as the separation angle between C1 and C2, i.e., subtracting the C2 angle by the C1 angle. Similarly, the atlantooccipital rotation (ROT C0#x02013;1 ) was calculated subtracting the C1 by is a critical thinking, the C0 angulation. In addition, angulation C1#x02013;2 was calculated as percentage rotation C1#x02013;2 of the total neck rotation, expressed as %ROT C1#x02013;2 . ROT C0 resembles total neck rotation to either side and the results were controlled for mla biblography age and gender and also expressed as percentage restricted total neck rotation (%restricted neck rotation) compared to data of normals published by Castro [9]. With functional CT-scanning, the left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 were classified into four types: Type 1 (no restriction), #x02265;30#x000b0;; Type 2 (mild), 20 to #x0003c;30#x000b0;; Type 3 (substantial), 10 to #x0003c;20#x000b0;; Type 4 (severe), 0 to #x0003c;10#x000b0;. The worst type of restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 (left or right) was used for statistical analysis. We determined a cut-off rendering physiological and pathological ROT C1#x02013;2 as any measure #x0003c;30#x000b0;, that is what is a thinking test a deviation of essays, approximately #x000b1;2SD from normalcy. For the purpose of assessing changes of the instantenous center of rotation (ICR) of the C1#x02013;2 joints the authors applied a technique similar to White and Panjabi [81] on what test each subject (For technique and results see Electronic supplementary material).

Statistical analysis included parametric methods (independent and dependent two-sided Student t tests, Pearson#x02019;s correlation coefficient) and only analysis nonparametric tests (Kruskal#x02013;Wallis ANOVA, Mann#x02013;Whitney U test, Spearman#x02019;s correlations coefficient). Analyses of cross-tabulation tables were done using Pearson Chi-square test and Fisher#x02019;s Exact test. A P value less than 5% indicated statistical significance. All analyses were done using Statistica 6.1 (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK). Statistical analysis was performed by one of the is a critical thinking, authors (WH). The author (HK) performed the classification of the posttreatment C2-alignment as described [44] on all CT-scans. Essay? As there are currently no data on the reliability of measurements using CT-scans, the author performed the assessment of the critical, C2-alignment with all indicated measurements on plain radiographs and on CT-scans in six patients having a healed C2-fracture. Reliability was expressed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Robert Fulghum Crayon Essay? Interpretation of ICC was done as described [44]. Fourty-four (36.4%) of 121 patients identified met all eligibility criteria.

Five patients (including 3 unstable Hmfx treated with plated ACDF) were lost to what is a critical thinking test follow-up. Selected Of Andrey? Of another 4 patients that were successfully tracked, 1 denied taking part in the study because of no sequelae after nondisplaced odontoid type III fracture treated nonsurgically. What Is A Critical Test? One 61-years-old patient had a displaced odontoid type III fracture with burst left lateral mass that went to severe malunion. Essays Of Andrey? She joined the is a thinking, follow-up but could not be included into the study because of mental retardation. The True Essay? She displayed restricted axial rotation in thinking flexed position (10#x000b0;#x02013;0#x000b0;#x02013;5#x000b0;), complained of cloud, pain during head rotation, had a cock-robin head posture and suffered from left-sided suboccipital neuralgia. Another patient with 8-years follow-up answered to the questionnaires having moderate self-rated outcome after AOSF for dislocated odontoid type III fracture (SF-36 PCS: 31.6, MCS 31.1, NDPI: 32%) but could not take part in further survey because of advanced cardiac disease. One 19-years-old with 2-years follow-up after combined odontoid type II and C1 posterior arch fracture treated with double AOSF was working abroad, doing well as assessed by telephone questioning, but could not be surveyed. Finally, 35 patients could participate resembling a follow-up rate of 80%. Mean age at injury was 46.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;21.7#x000a0;years (range 17#x02013;78#x000a0;years) and 52#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;20.7#x000a0;years (range 18#x02013;80#x000a0;years) at follow-up. There were 12 female and 23 male patients.

Follow-up was 65.4#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;7#x000a0;months on average (range 7#x02013;142#x000a0;months) and mean hospital stay was 12.2#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;9.8#x000a0;days (range 1#x02013;40#x000a0;days). Eleven patients (31.4%) were smokers. Except for what is a critical mild skull traumas, 12 patients (34.3%) had co-morbidities and concommittant peripheral skeletal injuries (Table#x000a0;3 in Electronic supplementary material). At follow-up, no patient complained about disability derived from shoulder-girdle injuries or peripheral injuries. Main injury mechanism was a motor-vehicle or bicycle accident in 15 patients (42.9%), a skiing casual in 4 (11.4%) and sleeping a fall from height in what is a test 15 (42.9%). One suffered a direct blow (2.9%). Eighteen patients (51.4%) had initial treatment in essays a referral hospital and thinking test were transferred for selected essays bely definitive treatment. Except for critical thinking test three patients that had plain radiographs, we had injury radiographs and CT-scans available.

Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were subjected to nonsurgical treatment: 11 patients (31.4%) had HTV treatment and 12 (34.3%) had a Philadelphia collar. Twelve patients (34.3%) had anterior surgical treatment using AOSF and 1 patient had secondary anterior buttress-plating at C2 for daughter redislocation of her odontoid type III fracture. Mean time to index surgery was 2.5#x000a0;days (range 0#x02013;10#x000a0;days). Patients#x02019; characteristics are summarized in Table#x000a0;1 in Electronic supplementary material. Twenty-three patients (65.7%) had 2-part-fractures, 11 (31.4%) had 3-part-fractures and 1 (2.9%) had a 4-part-fracture. There were 24 fractures (68.6%) involving the odontoid that could be classified into 12 (50%) type II fractures (including IIa) and 12 (50%) type III fractures according to the Anderson classification. Eighteen patients (51.4%) had a fracture pattern involving the vertebral body. Seven patients (20%), out of is a critical thinking test, a total of 8 with an atypical Hmfx, had a vertebral body fracture separating the essay, posterior axis wall [45, 46]. In 11 patients (31.4%) the fracture pattern included a dislocated or a burst lateral mass fracture of C2. At all, 19 patients (54.3%) had an what is a critical thinking test, intraarticular fracture pattern resembling an essays of andrey bely, involvement of the what critical test, lateral mass and its articular surface inside or outside the robert fulghum crayon, weight-bearing zone, displaced or non-displaced. Out of 35 patients, 7 (20%) had a concomittant C1 fracture.

C1 fractures included 1 lateral mass fracture with articular surface involvement and what thinking test two stable extraarticular Jefferson burst fractures. Follow-up CT-scans showed that 31 fractures (88.6%) of C2 (and all fractures of C1) went on to union, in 4 cases (11.4%) a nonunion developed. Nonunion was mobile in of andrey bely 2 (50%) patients, showing a tight fibrous-stable nonunion in the remaining 2 (50%). Stability was established on flexion-extension films at what is a critical thinking follow-up. Statistical investigation showed that union was not related to follow-up length, age, gender, type of fracture or any other variable.

At injury 7 patients had a left-sided AAJ configuration of Type B and 5 of these had also a right-sided Type B. At time of injury only two patients showed preexisting advanced atlantodental and lateral atlantoaxial degenerative process. At follow-up nine patients had left-sided and ten had right-sided Type B AAJ changes. Seven patients (20%) had a new onset AAOA of Type B. Analysis? According to the classification of Lakshamanan [54] AAOA was a mean of 1.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;3) left and 1.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;3) right at follow-up. Injury AAJH was assessable in is a critical thinking test 16 patients (45.7%). LAAJH was a mean of 2.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7#x000a0;mm (range 1.6#x02013;4#x000a0;mm) and fulghum crayon rAAJH was 3.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.8#x000a0;mm (range 1.6#x02013;4.5#x000a0;mm). At follow-up lAAJH was a mean of 2.9#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.8#x000a0;mm (range 1#x02013;4.4#x000a0;mm) and rAAJH was 3.1#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7#x000a0;mm (range 1.5#x02013;4.3#x000a0;mm).

Unlike in normals [44] left- and is a critical thinking right-sided AAJH at follow-up did not correlate with patients#x02019; age ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;1.0). There was a significant difference regarding the incidence of left- and right-sided AAOA of Type A and of Type B between time of injury and follow-up ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0001 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0008, two-tailed test). LAAJH and rAAJH were significantly reduced ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0007, P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001) in patients that had AAOA of Type B (left #x000d8;2.0#x000a0;mm, right #x000d8;2.2#x000a0;mm) compared to patients that had AAOA of Type A (left #x000d8;3.1#x000a0;mm, right #x000d8;3.4#x000a0;mm). Security? The results of the functional CT-scans are illustrated in Table#x000a0; 1 and compared to data derived from normals. An illustrative case is is a critical test given in Fig.#x000a0; 2 . The interdependencies of the cervical rotation angles are ranked in Table#x000a0; 2 . Only Essay? Patients displayed an is a critical thinking, increased total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) in the presence of increased subaxial rotational capacity (ROT C2 ). Only Analysis? As expected, total neck rotation was further increased if the C1#x02013;2 joints (ROT C1#x02013;2 ) could substantially contribute to what is a critical overall neck rotation. Likewise, with increasing ROT C1#x02013;2, the the true essay, %ROT C1#x02013;2 of total neck rotation increased significantly too.

On the contrary, ROT C1#x02013;2 did not correlate with subaxial rotation (%ROT C1#x02013;2 had strong inverse correlation with the subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) because of the what critical thinking, definition of %ROT C1#x02013;2 ). In case of decreased atlantoaxial rotation the subaxial spine tended towards compensational rotation not reaching significance: In patients with no subaxial degenerative changes we observed a trend of the subaxial spine to compensate for a lack of ROT C1#x02013;2 but a reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 could not be fully compensated by essays bely, subaxial or atlantooccipital rotational efforts. Our analysis showed a significant difference between left and right ROT C0 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), ROT C1 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002) and ROT C2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007) with the higher rotational ability to is a thinking test the right for all measurements. But the the true identity essay, differences were small (3#x000b0;#x02013;4#x000b0;) and is a thinking there was no significant difference between left and right %ROT C1#x02013;2 or between left- and right-sided ROT C1#x02013;2 . A unilaterally restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 was not compensated for by a substantially increased contralateral rotation. In contrast, reduced ROM for atlantoaxial rotation to the left or right was accompanied by a significantly reduced ROM for the ipsilateral subaxial rotation. Out of 35 patients 4 (11.4%) were identified having ROT C1#x02013;2 according to Type 1, 6 patients (17.1%) Type 2, 20 patients (57.1%) Type 3 and 5 patients (14.3%) Type 4. Thus, more than 70% had substantial (#x0003c;20#x000b0;) or severe (#x0003c;10#x000b0;) restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 at least to one side. The different types of rotational restriction and security the definition of what is a test, total neck rotation with a cut-off of 30#x000b0; had no impact on the clinical outcome measures. We calculated the rotation against age and encountered a significant inverse correlation (Table#x000a0; 3 ). It was strong for total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ) but weak for essay sleeping ROT C1#x02013;2 . Calculated separately for isolated odontoid fractures we observed a total ROT C1#x02013;2 of 36#x000b0; on average and what is a critical thinking a mean total neck rotation of mla biblography, 96#x000b0;. The first author performed all measurements. The analysis of intraobserver reliability demonstrated good to what is a critical thinking excellent agreement between radiographic and CT-based measurements with intraclass coefficients of #x0003e;0.6 for all measurements applied.

There were no measurements performed that were classified as #x02018;pathological#x02019; but otherwise were within normalcy on CT-scans, et vice versa. According to the author#x02019;s classification and grading of mla biblography, morphometrical alignment [44] after treatment of C2-fractures, mean malunion score was 2.8#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;2.5#x000a0;points (range 0#x02013;11points). According to the classification [44], in 5 patients (14.3%) the C2-fracture healed in anatomical shape without any malalignment and in 12 (34.3%) with mild malalignment. Twelve fractures (34.3%) healed with moderate and is a critical thinking 6 (17.1%) with severe malalignment. At all, the C1#x02013;2 complex showed moderate or severe malalignment in computing phd thesis 18 fractures (51.4%). Statistical analysis revealed a significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 in patients with the higher malunion score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and in those classified with a #x02018;moderate#x02019; or #x02018;severe malalignment#x02019; ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Accordingly, patients with higher malunion score had a higher grade of rotational restriction (Types 1#x02013;4, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02). In addition, it striked that patients with higher malunion scores (ANOVA) and moderate/severe malalignment showed a significantly reduced clinical outcome in terms of SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001), NPDI ( P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.00001), CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.005 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.0001), CSOQ-functional disability score (p#x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;.0002 and P #x000a0;#x0003c;#x000a0;0.00001), CSOQ-psychological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.004 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0002) and CSOQ-health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.036 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.036). Means, SD, and ranges of outcome measures are illustrated in Tables#x000a0; 4 and thinking test #x200B; and5. 5 . Data are presented in robert essay comparison to results of other studies. The outcome measures and questionnaires utilized showed good consistency when assessing differences in clinical outcome.

Assessment of thinking, clinical outcomes with the validated measures (SF-36, NPDI, CSFQ) and crayon their correlation with the patient#x02019;s self-rated clinical outcome (#x02018;excellent#x02019; to #x02018;poor#x02019;) showed strong consistency (Kruskal#x02013;Wallis testing: P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03 to P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.003). There were significant differences within the validated measures if calculated for the 4 groups of global outcome: #x02018;excellent#x02019;, #x02018;good#x02019;, #x02018;moderate#x02019; and thinking #x02018;poor#x02019; (Table#x000a0;4 in Electronic supplementary material). There was also a significant correlation between the validated outcome measures and inbetween the various scoring items of the queries (Table#x000a0;5 in Electronic supplementary material). Self-rated outcome was judged excellent by 15 patients (44.1%), good by 7 (20.6%), moderate by 10 (28.6%) and poor by 2 patients (5.9%). So, 65% of daughter analysis essay, patients judged their outcome as good or excellent and what is a thinking 35% as moderate or poor. With the worse self-rated outcome patients displayed a significantly reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 rotation ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and total neck rotation ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05). Likewise, reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 showed slight correlation with decreased outcome measures yielding significance for the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.36, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), the only, NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.34, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05) and the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.44, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). Critical? Patients with reduced total neck rotation had decreased outcomes yielding stronger significance for the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.53, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002), the NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.37, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) and the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). When calculating the sleeping beauty, age and critical thinking test gender matched percentage restriction of crayon, total neck rotation [9] against the clinical outcome measures, correlations existed for what critical the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.54, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001), the NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.38, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), the CSOQ-shoulder pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007), the robert fulghum crayon essay, CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.39, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and the CSOQ-functional disability score ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.35, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04). What Is A Critical? Summarizing, reduced clinical outcome was more reflected by a decreased total neck rotation rather than a reduced C1#x02013;2 rotation. As it was with the sleeping, ability to rotate the neck, statistical analysis revealed a decreased clinical outcome for elderly patients in terms of the NPDI ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.41, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) and what is a critical thinking test the SF-36 PCS ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.56, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.001).

Older patients had higher health care utilization demands in terms of the CSOQ ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.36, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04). Elderly patients had a significantly shorter follow-up period ( R #x000a0;=#x000a0;#x02212;0.45, P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006) that might put age and essays of andrey outcome related interdependencies into perspective. It is of note that patients with worse outcomes had reduced total neck rotation, however, the %ROT C1#x02013;2 did not correlate with the clinical outcome reflecting that a reduced absolute rotational ability affecting the whole cervical spine was a factor of aging, motion induced pain and test a low functional outcome. Significant gender-related differences existed in terms of the cloud security, NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03), the CSOQ-psychiological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.005) and the physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). These results have to be interpreted with the awareness of gender distribution with varying fracture patterns and thinking ages.

So, 8 of 11 patients (73%) with a burst or dislocated lateral mass fracture were female. Similarly, when assessing intraarticular fracture pattern as a variable, 8 of 12 females depicted reduced motion pattern and increased pain-levels. Neither the presence of analysis essay, a nonunion nor combined C1#x02013;2 fractures, nor any complication or whether surgery was performed or not had impact on clinical outcome or cervical rotation (Table#x000a0; 3 ). Notably, the number of main fragments identified (2-part, 3-part, 4-part-fractures of what is a critical test, C2) had significant impact on the %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) but not on the clinical outcome measures. If the smallest denominator was assumed to be an intraarticular fracture pattern involving the C2-superior articulating facets then patients had significantly reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) and in identity essay particular reduced %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006). Rotational abilities were strongly affected by what is a thinking, the presence of an intraarticular fracture pattern.

Calculating any intraarticular fracture pattern against the outcome measures did reveal trends, but did not yield significance. In this context it is of note that only 11 patients were identified to have had a dislocated fracture or burst pattern involving the articular pillar and mla biblography lateral mass. If calculating rotation and clinical outcome against the presence of a burst or dislocated lateral mass fracture in eight patients at all, the statistical analysis still revealed a trend for reduced %ROT C1#x02013;2 , but it striked that this group of patients had significantly reduced outcomes in terms of the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006), the NDPI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), the CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and the CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01). SF-36 PCS scores did not reach statistical significance but a strong trend existed (SF-36 PCS #x000d8;35.7#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;9.0 vs. What Is A Test? #x000d8;43.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;10.2). Differences of 2.5 points are thought to be a clinically meaningful difference for the SF-36 [18, 80].

Patients that had the vertebral body affected (51%) had reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02), but %ROT C1#x02013;2 and total neck rotation were not significantly reduced. However, these patients had worst scores with the CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.007) and the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.05). This group of patients included most of the dislocated burst lateral mass fractures, patients with intraarticular fractures and the group with highest malunion scores. Eleven patients (31.4%) had at least one lateral AAJ of Type B and 6 of these 11 (54.5%) had signs of mla biblography, C2-nerve root mediated pain with radiculopathia suboccipitally. At all, 20 patients (57.1%) reported on pain when approaching the mid-range or extremes of axial head rotation in what is a critical thinking test neutral or sagittally flexed head position or reported on tenderness and localized pain at the C2-spinous process during daily activities. According to distinct questions within the CSOQ 20% of patients reported that they would need additional treatment for mla biblography their neck condition in the future.

Sixty-one percent of what critical thinking test, patients judged they would be extremly or moderately satisfied if their neck condition would be the essays of andrey, same as at follow-up, while 20% judged they would be moderate or extremely dissatisfied if the neck condition would remain the same (20% ticked #x02018;neither satisfied nor dissatisfied#x02019;). Twenty-three percent reported that the what critical thinking, actual result was somewhat or much worse as expected, 49% reported it was somewhat or much better than expected, and 28% as expected. Concerning AAOA, the bely, presence of test, Type B changes at follow-up had significant impact on the rotational ability and outcome measures. Type B patients displayed significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006) and %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) but not significantly reduced total neck rotation. Clinical outcomes were worse than in patients with Type A changes in terms of the essay, SF-36 PCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), the SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01), the NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.002), the CSOQ-psychological distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0005), the CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02). The same interdependencies existed even more in what critical thinking patients that had newly developed Type B changes with a significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.01) and computing phd thesis %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) as well as reduced outcome measures in terms of SF-36 MCS ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0009), NPDI ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.003), the CSOQ-neck pain severity composite score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04), CSOQ-functional disability score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02), CSOQ-psychologic distress score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0009), CSOQ-physical symptoms score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04) and is a critical test CSOQ-health care utilization score ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.006). Patients that had preexisting AAOA of Type B, that had just progressed, had significantly reduced left and right AAJH ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.04 and P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.03) as compared to Type A patients, but clinical outcome measures were not different (Table#x000a0; 4 ). Fracture of the C2 articular pillar. In 8 of 11 patients (72.7%) with displaced or burst lateral mass fractures the left side was affected. At follow-up, these patients had significantly reduced left-sided AAJH ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02).

With increasing malunion score, ROT C1#x02013;2 was significantly reduced, the most on the left side ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.0005). Mla Biblography? When calculating for the intraarticular fracture pattern that affected the left side in 11 of 19 patients (58%) it also striked that left-sided %ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.005) and left-sided ROT C1#x02013;2 ( P #x000a0;=#x000a0;0.02) were significantly affected in comparison to the contralateral side. The findings of what critical thinking, left-sided preponderance were incidental, but substantiated that the intraarticular and particularly burst fracture patterns show their main adverse effects on the development of daughter analysis, ipsilateral AAOA, reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 and what is a critical test C2-malunion scores. Fulghum? The latter had the largest impact on clinical outcome measures. Fourteen patients (40%) were already retired at time of injury unrelated to is a thinking test disorders of the neck. Of 21 patients occupied at time of injury 15 achieved a level of the true essay, W1 (42.9%) according to Denis#x02019; Work Scale, 1 had W2 (2.9%), 2 had W3 (5.8%) and 3 patients (85.7%) were not able to resume previous full-time employment or were unable to work because of neck related impairment. Eighteen patients (85.7%) went back to a full-time employment with a mean time out of work of 17.0#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;6.8#x000a0;weeks (range 3#x02013;24#x000a0;weeks) after injury. With the what is a thinking, dysphagia grading system of Bazaz [3] the mean score was 1.4#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;0.7 (range 0#x02013;3) for liquids and 1.7#x000a0;#x000b1;#x000a0;1.0 (range 1#x02013;4) for solid nutrition.

Buzz-scores were not significantly affected by anterior surgery. In summary, 7 out of 35 patients (20%) sustained a complication: 1 (2.9%) with odontoid type II fracture had delayed-union in the HTV but eventually fused after 6#x000a0;months. Another patient suffered from neuralgia at a former pin-site with subsequent phobia wearing huts. One patient had screw-related dysphagia following double AOSF but denied screw removal. Another had hard-to-treat C2-referred pain lasting for 8#x000a0;months after nonsurgical treatment of an odontoid type III fracture with split-impression fracture of the essay beauty, lateral mass. Another had early fracture redislocation after double AOSF for odontoid type III fracture with oblique split-impression fracture of the what is a, lateral mass. Cloud? The fracture healed uneventful. One female patient with 10#x000a0;years follow-up had HTV treatment for a displaced odontoid type III fracture with en bloc fracture-separation of the comminuted lateral mass. Is A Critical Thinking? Symptomatic nonunion with severe malalignment developed and the patient was subjected to anterior retropharyngeal release with reduction and selected essays C2-buttress-plating 6#x000a0;months after the index treatment. What Is A Critical Thinking Test? Implant removal was performed 1.5#x000a0;years after index therapy. After 3#x000a0;years the patient showed up reporting a progression of myelopathic signs during a 4-weeks period which was found to be related to mla biblography anterior subluxation of C1 on C2.

The patient denied a second trauma. Intraoperatively, there was no significant sagittal motion C1#x02013;C2. After posterior decompression of C1 the patient recovered completely. Finally, during survey of what is a critical test, our patients a 76-year old was subjected to C1#x02013;2 Magerl fixation for painful C1#x02013;2 joint destruction (Fig.#x000a0; 3 ). The patient achieved immediate pain resolution after immobilization of the C1#x02013;2 joints. Fulghum Crayon? The current study is a unique approach to the outcome investigation of C2-fractures, and it is the largest reporting of functional CT-scanning in patients with cervical trauma. What Thinking Test? The author identified several articles [47, 49, 68] reporting on miscellaneous C2-fractures included into cross-sectional outcome analysis or using nonvalidated instruments; most studies are reluctant to further delineate distinct fracture morphology and selected of andrey outcome variables in heterogenous samples [5, 25#x02013;27, 29, 62, 68]. What Is A Test? Therefore, we intended to robert fulghum crayon seek objective outcome data through assessment of validated outcome measures, functional outcome using dynamic CT-scanning, a detailed classification of critical thinking test, fracture pattern and an analysis of posttreatment C2-alignment using a classification system based on valid measurements [44]. The efforts are indicated as there is no consensus on mla biblography the ideal treatment for all subtypes of C2-fractures [2, 29, 43, 46, 62].

Our study yielded for what is a critical test a homogenous sample. We assessed different fractures (odontoid, vertebral body, Hmfx,#x02026;), but unlike prior studies with difficulties addressing all fracture patterns, the security, authors#x02019; characterization of C2-fractures at injury and at follow-up implicates the focus on identical morphological characteristics within the C2-fracture subtypes. Consequently, beside general outcome analysis of is a, C2-fractures, we sought to analyse the influence of distinct morphological subtypes (intraarticular fracture pattern, number of main fragments, burst component,#x02026;) on the remaining rotation C1#x02013;2 and the clinical outcome. We wanted to mla biblography identify risk factors for poor outcome and thereby identified the severity of malunion. We aimed out being able to identify at an early stage of treatment those fractures prone to thinking symptomatic malunion and poor outcome, thus resulting in an adaption of treatment protocols (nonsurgical vs. Daughter Essay? surgical, nonfusion vs. fusion procedure).

Rarely, the type of anatomical alignment and associated outcome after various motion-preserving treatments is reported [1, 10#x02013;12, 21, 26, 34, 41, 42, 46, 47, 57, 63, 71, 74, 78]. A meaningful number of subtypes of C2-fractures exists where complete reduction, normal C1#x02013;2 rotation and a physiological anatomy is difficult to restore [1, 10, 11, 34, 42, 43, 71, 82]. Likewise, a non-anatomical posttreatment C2-alignment, resembling a malunion, can cause significant symptoms even indicating fusion C1#x02013;2 [13, 26, 30, 42, 47, 51, 52, 67, 70, 71, 78, 79] as it had to be done in one of our cases (Fig.#x000a0; 3 ), two others being scheduled (Fig.#x000a0; 4 ). Critical? Malunion in C2-fractures can produce significant sequelae and selected of andrey we sought to stratify those C2-fracture subtypes prone to is a malunion after motion-preserving therapy: In the literature, the approximate rate of malunion in odontoid fractures was reported to be 12#x02013;22% [57, 63]. Using the robert, classification we established in part I of the project [44] we identified 49% of patients having either no or only mild malalignment but 51% having moderate or severe malalignment of C2 or the C1#x02013;2 complex. What? Patients with advanced malalignment had significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 and, even more important, the only essay, presence of advanced malunions had a strongly significant adverse impact on all clinical outcome measures. This study offers evidence for the correlation between a distorted posttreatment C2-alignment, including distortion of the physiologic C1#x02013;2 relationships, and worse clinical outcomes, both involving restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 . Our findings substantiate previous studies that noted reduced outcomes in patients with distorted C1#x02013;2 joint configurations [19, 26]. Dvorak [18] reported on 34 Jefferson fractures and demonstrated that patients with residual lateral displacement of the lateral mass of critical test, C1#x000a0;#x02265;#x000a0;7#x000a0;mm were more likely to mla biblography report worse functional status in is a critical test terms of the SF-36.

In another study [17] on 90 isolated subaxial facet injuries, the analysis essay, group of 18 patients treated nonoperatively contained the most benign fracture patterns but had significantly worse clinical outcomes (NASS, SF-36 subscales). Dvorak hypothesized that the worse outcome even after non-displaced, non-surgically treated facet fractures is due to what is a critical thinking test the development of secondary degenerative changes with malalignment at the injury level. Similarly, we observed that malunion as a result of distorted C2-lateral mass, altered C2-articular surfaces, widening of the vertebral body or increased odontoid tilt caused a remarkable drop in outcome measures and ROT C1#x02013;2 . Only Daughter Essay? We demonstrated that maintaining anatomic C2-alignment has a decisive role for clinical outcomes (Table#x000a0; 5 ). Functional outcome and atlantoaxial rotation. After motion-preserving C1-ring osteosynthesis in five Jefferson fractures, Ruf [65] reported a mean left and right ROT C1#x02013;2 of what test, 20.6#x000b0; and 18.6#x000b0; using dynamic MRI-scans. The patient with worst C1#x02013;2 incongruency had the worst functional and clinical outcome which was attributed to the distorted C1-2 articular surface pattern. Jeanneret [39] measured left and robert fulghum essay right ROT C1#x02013;2 25#x000b0; and 24#x000b0; after AOSF using functional CT-scans.

Likely due to what thinking sample size and only analysis essay fracture analysis, the study did not find any correlation between residual ROT C1#x02013;2 and what is a critical fracture pattern, quality of robert fulghum crayon, reduction or osteosynthesis. We investigated the ROT C1#x02013;2 after treatment of C2-fractures. In our sample with 35 patients, only 30% had normal ROT C1#x02013;2 or mild restriction, but 70% had substantial (#x0003c;20#x000b0;) or severe (#x0003c;10#x000b0;) restriction of ROT C1#x02013;2 at what is a thinking test least unilateral. Likewise, in essay sleeping beauty Jeanneret#x02019;s sample only 38% had normal motion C1#x02013;2 and what is a Verheggen [10] noted that only 61% of patients revealed standard rotation after AOSF. We explored the rotational interdependencies (Table#x000a0; 2 ) and observed that in mla biblography case of test, decreased C1#x02013;2 rotation, the subaxial spine yielded for compensation, but did not reach significance and is suggested to be an the true australian identity, effect of pain-mediated (due to malunions) overall restriction of rotation and coincident a factor of aging. Is A Critical Test? Concerning age, some elderly patients showed advanced subaxial spondylosis and normally the C1#x02013;2 rotation increases compensatorically with aging [9]. Only Daughter Essay? Calculating the is a critical thinking test, ability for sleeping beauty neck rotation against age we observed a significant inverse correlation, pronounced for total neck rotation (ROT C0 ) and subaxial rotation (ROT C2 ). Although we expected an increased %ROT C1#x02013;2 in the elderly, the correlations were weakest for the %ROT C1#x02013;2 and ROT C1#x02013;2 rendering other factors decisive for reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 also in the elderly patients. Concerning compensational mechanisms we observed that unilaterally restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 was not compensated for by a substantially increased contralateral rotation. In addition, reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 to one side was accompanied by a significantly reduced ipsilateral subaxial rotation. We did not observe a significantly increased C0#x02013;1 rotation in case of reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 as it was in children with pathological stickiness C1#x02013;2 [58, 60].

We had a mean ROT C0#x02013;C1 of 2.6#x000b0; and critical thinking test 2.7#x000b0; to the right and computing security left suggesting a normal coupling between C0 and C1 [58]. Only a few patients exhibited increased motion above 2SD but never achieved ranges of what thinking test, 30#x000b0; as in the forementioned study. Overall, we demonstrated a significant reduction of ROT C1#x02013;2 in the C2-fractures with decreasing order in only odontoid, vertebral body and atypical Hmfx, and fractures affecting the articular pillar of critical thinking test, C2. Like Jeanneret, we investigated the reasons for reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 . Robert Fulghum Crayon Essay? While reduction of what is a, total neck rotation after the C2-fractures is mla biblography assumed to be a function of what critical, pain-related restriction of overall motion [42], aging and degenerative processes, we showed the reduction of ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 to be significantly associated with the degree of anatomical distortion and fulghum crayon essay the severity of malunion, outperforming the statistically analysed influence of pain in terms of the outcome vehicles. Our patients had no other cervical injuries and the source of pain could be focused at C1#x02013;2. Statistically a pain-related reduction of what is a critical thinking, ROT C1#x02013;2 and essays bely an associated reduction of total neck rotation existed, but the severity of malunion had the highest effect on is a the rotational ability of C1#x02013;2.

There was a slight correlation between total ROT C1#x02013;2 and mla biblography clinical outcome measures, but no correlation existed for the %ROT C1#x02013;2 and the clinical outcome. It seemed that the restriction of rotation was perceived by the patients to what is a critical thinking test be an acceptable #x02018;price#x02019; to identity essay pay causing less disability if they did not perceive motion induced pain. Likewise, Grob [31] reported the residual neck rotation in what critical thinking 35 fusions of the true australian identity essay, C1#x02013;2 for AAOA with a mean of 58#x000b0;. Notably, rotation was not different between the patients reporting a #x02018;good#x02019; or a #x02018;poor#x02019; outcome. Thinking? Our current findings substantiate that loss of only daughter analysis essay, ROT C1#x02013;2 and total neck rotation do not cause worse outcomes. In normals the C1#x02013;2 joints are responsible for what is a thinking up to 60% of total neck rotation equaling 30#x000b0;#x02013;45#x000b0; [16, 25, 58, 64, 73]. Selected Essays Of Andrey? Even though the osseus contour of the critical thinking test, lateral C1#x02013;2 joints looks concave on radiographs, the analysis essay, padding of joint cartilage converts the articulating surfaces to biconvex discs [58] with the cartilage cover averaging 1.5#x02013;2#x000a0;mm [48, 51]. The spaces anterior and what critical thinking posterior where the articular surfaces diverge are filled by intra-articular meniscoids [48]. Selected Essays? In neutral head position the summit of the atlantal convexity rests on the convexity of the axial facet.

As C1 rotates, one atlantal facet slides down the posterior slope of its axial facet, and the contralateral atlantal facet slides down the is a critical, anterior slope of only, its facet (Fig.#x000a0; 4 ) [8]. Because of the convex shape of the articular surfaces each facet of C1 and is a thinking C2 moves downwards and forwards/backwards at the same time during rotation [15, 69]. The articular surfaces of C1 and C2 touch each other at the mid- point during the rotational process. The understanding of this process is crucial for recognizing the only daughter, C1#x02013;2 joints as a source of pain. Pang [58] established the what thinking test, blue print of normal rotation C1#x02013;2 by analysing CT-based motion curves containing three distinct phases [58, 59]: a single motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;0#x000b0;#x02013;23#x000b0;) when only selected of andrey C1 turns; a double motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;24#x000b0;#x02013;65#x000b0;) when both C1 and what C2 are turning in the same direction because of ligamentous yoking; and a unison motion phase (C1#x000b0;#x000a0;=#x000a0;65#x000b0;#x02013;90#x000b0;) when both C1 and C2 turn as a fixed couple. The authors showed that neck rotation was initiated at robert fulghum the C1#x02013;2 joints and rotation of critical thinking test, C1 occured before C2 rotated [64]. Daughter? Therefore, any rotation of the head is conferred to the C1#x02013;2 facets and in the current sample with an what critical test, overall reduced total ROT C1#x02013;2 of 40#x000b0; the articulating surfaces of C1 and C2 must, at some point, have encountered a restraint.

As Jeanneret [39], Pang [58], Ruf [65], Kim [42] and crayon others pointed out, soft or bony interlock can have its source in malunited vertebral bodies, odontoid or lateral mass fractures, intraarticular scarring and what critical thinking pieces of cartilage wedged into the joint spaces, or can be a sequelae of phd thesis, capsular and periarticular ligamentous scarring like arthrofibrosis. We demonstrated that an critical test, altered joint anatomy of C1#x02013;2 caused reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 , sometimes deformation being striking and the restraint of axial rotation obvious (Fig.#x000a0; 3 j). Concerning the loss of rotation, our findings echo previous observations describing significantly reduced rotation C1#x02013;2 after prolonged immobilization, e.g., with temporary Magerl fixation [7, 71], after ligamentous and mla biblography capsular injuries to the C1#x02013;2 joints [60] and after intraarticular or malunited fractures of C2 [52, 57]. In addition to articular surface deformities, distortion of the what, rotational axis of C1 and C2 in terms of deviated instantaneous center of rotation (ICR C1#x02013;2 ), e.g. Analysis? as a sequelae of a widened C2-vertebral body, deformed lateral mass or tilted odontoid is thought to contribute to reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 [37]. We investigated the ICR C1#x02013;2 and observed a trend towards an anterior shift of the what critical thinking, ICR C1#x02013;2 (Electronic supplementary material). Currently there is sleeping no definition of normal ICR C1#x02013;2 or grading of any deviation of the ICR C1#x02013;2 , so observations warrant further research. Jeanneret noted three patients with restricted ROT C1#x02013;2 and explained the decreased motion with intraarticular comminution of the C1#x02013;2 joints that was supposed to produce painful posttraumatic AAOA [39]. AAOA can disrupt the smooth, gliding joint motions [60] and a clinical hallmark of AAOA is known to what is a critical be the significantly reduced ROT C1#x02013;2 [20, 31, 35, 66]. Accordingly, our patients with AAOA (preexisting and new onset Type B joints) had significantly decreased total ROT C1#x02013;2 and %ROT C1#x02013;2 . The same interdependencies were stressed if calculated separately for patients with new onset degeneration of Type B as a result of robert crayon, intraarticular fracture pattern or lateral mass comminution.

The patient#x02019;s subjective perception of the treatment-related outcome has increasingly become the focus in spinal care. The current study is is a one of the first to analysis essay assess clinical outcomes of fractures at C1#x02013;2 using validated outcome measures [18] applied on a sample, homogenous for what thinking the neurologically intact, with exclusion of essay, many confounding patient based variables through hard selection process. Notably, we identified significant impairment in generic (SF-36) and disease specific (CSOQ, NPDI) outcome vehicles. The use of validated measures allowed an objective comparison of thinking, C2-fractures morphologically classified with other spinal injuries: Tables#x000a0; 4 and #x200B; and5 5 illustrate that our outcome was better than reported with, e.g., Jefferson burst fractures, except for the SF-36 MCS. On the other hand in comparison to, e.g., subaxial discoligamentous injuries in the neurologically intact treated with plated ACDF our results were inferior. For our purpose of identifying prognostic factors we investigated whether pain and selected essays bely disability in patients with reduced outcomes depended on what is a critical thinking test (1) a restricted ability for axial rotation, (2) distortion of C1#x02013;2 anatomy and severity of essay beauty, malunion, or (3) intraarticular damage with subsequent degeneration and development of AAOA. The statistical analysis revealed that clinical outcome was in the majority influenced by the severity of malunion.

Malunion was a frequent sequelae of critical thinking, intraarticular and particularly burst lateral mass fractures with subsequent evolvement of AAOA over time. At all, 65% of fulghum crayon, patients judged their outcome as good or excellent. But 35% judged their outcome as moderate or poor and 20% assumed that they would need additional treatment for their neck condition in the future. In contrast, in literature the critical thinking test, results of various treatment modalities for C2-fractures, particularly for odontoid fractures, were frequently recognized as #x02018;good#x02019; if not #x02018;excellent#x02019; [25, 62, 72]. In the of andrey bely, past, detailed data have been sparse commonly not exceeding cross-sectional assessments and despite the prevailing opinion that overall outcome was favourable, long-term analysis identified persisting symptoms of pain and stiffness in thinking a meaningful number of patients [1, 11, 57, 76]. Platzer [62] reported on robert fulghum crayon essay 110 patients subjected to AOSF. What? Outcome was 1.4#x000a0;points on a #x02018;Smiley-Webster#x02019; scale, judged #x02018;good to excellent outcome#x02019;. Astonishingly, only 14% were reported complaining about limitations in daily living, occasional or chronic pain symptoms and decrease of cervical motion. Unfortunately, the sample was heterogenous including neurologically injured, one-third was reported to have significant co-morbidities or injuries and morphological characteristics of mla biblography, C2-fractures were lacking.

In contrast, after AOSF subjective-rated pain can be found in 10#x02013;40% [1, 11, 57, 76]. M#x000fc;ller [57] reported on 27 odontoid fractures subjected to is a critical test AOSF. Fourty-one percent of patients demanded pain medication and 29% noted motion related pain, only 18% were completely satisfied with their outcome and 22% of fractures went on to malunion. Several patients were noted to have combinations of reduced ROM, persistant pain, a malunion or AAOA. M#x000fc;ller [49] stressed the importance of anatomical alignment in sleeping beauty C2-fractures and the findings of the current study give evidence that with an critical thinking test, increasing number of C2-fragments, deformation of the C2 vertebral body and particularly fractures of the C2 lateral mass clinical outcome drops: Fractures involving the C2 articular pillar can be isolated articular or lateral mass fractures or extensions of vertebral body fractures [5, 26] and were found to australian identity essay be prone to a high rate of non-anatomical union [21] frequently indicating secondary fusion of C1#x02013;2 [30, 67, 70]. What Is A Test? Up to 50% of Hmfx involve the articular facets of C2 and in the largest sample regarding anterior fusion C2#x02013;3 for the treatment of unstable Hmfx, Koller [46] observed a decreased functional and clinical outcome with a subset of patients having reduced rotation C1#x02013;2 and motion induced C2-referred pain. Similar to our study, several of these patients showed incongruency and deformity of the C1#x02013;2 joints and cloud phd thesis a positive correlative relationship between the severity of malunion C1#x02013;2 and reduced clincial outcomes. Likewise, Fujimura et al. [26] reported on 31 C2-vertebral body fractures subjected to what is a thinking nonsurgical treatment including 3 burst and 17 sagittal fractures of the lateral mass. In 15 of 17 sagittal fractures malunion C1#x02013;2 was recognized at robert crayon essay follow-up, 8 of the 17 fractures (47%) went to AAOA reporting moderate or severe nuchal pain.

At all, patients that had suffered from lateral mass fractures had moderate to severe pain in 82%. Since Jeanneret#x02019;s series, several reports substantiate that C2-fractures affecting the what is a, upper facets of australian essay, C2 can show symptomatic C1#x02013;2 incongruency at follow-up [26, 40, 42, 52] and our study adds objective data delineating a significantly decreased outcome in terms of validated measures with increasing C2-malunion. Accordingly, from the is a test, current results the authors support primary fusion C1#x02013;2 in C2-fractures with comminuted or displaced C1#x02013;2 joints showing a high risk of malunion and sleeping poor outcomes. Literature [20, 26, 31, 35, 39, 40, 52, 66] and our current results demonstrate that the C1-2 facet joints can be a meaningful source of pain. Thirty-one percent of our patients had at least one lateral C1#x02013;2 joint displaying advanced AAOA, more than half had signs of what is a critical test, C2-nerve root conferred radiculopathy and motion induced suboccipital pain. The pain was not caused by daughter essay, nerve root or C2-ganglion compression, as there was no abnormal interlaminar space at C1#x02013;2 [6] in any patient. Facet joint pain is likely to what critical thinking test be transmitted by the true, unencapsulated receptors and is a thinking free nerve endings in the joint capsule and synovial lining [35]. With aging or posttraumatic changes, degeneration with capsular laxity and synovitis can occur and finally AAOA can arise with a mechanical nature of bely, pain [35, 36].

As in our sample, pain derived from the C1#x02013;2 facet joints is frequently described in nonneuropathic terms such as #x02018;pressurelike#x02019;, #x02018;deep boring#x02019;, #x02018;dull#x02019;, and #x02018;heavy#x02019; [20, 35] and located almost exclusively at the ipsilateral retromastoid and what is a critical thinking test occipital region [14, 20, 22, 28, 31, 35, 66]. As in robert fulghum crayon essay the current study the main manifestations of C1#x02013;2 degeneration and critical thinking AAOA are pain with significantly restricted ROM [22, 31], elicited or exacerbated by australian, ipsilateral neck rotation [20, 22, 28, 35, 66]. Our current findings are in line with previous authors#x02019; symptoms predominating on the side of the more significant lateral mass arthropathy, some patients even reporting crepitation [22, 45]. The pain in AAOA is secondary to an irritative phenomenon in the joint itself. When motion is is a test eliminated in the joint, the irritation within ceases and pain generation is halted [22].

Therefore, immobilization and definite posterior fusion C1#x02013;2 relieves pain in patients with sequelae of AAOA [22, 28, 31, 35, 55] like in the true australian identity essay one of our cases with intractable pain resulting from a C2-vertebral body fracture with a burst pattern at the lateral mass (Fig.#x000a0; 3 , #x200B; ,4). 4 ). Several authors noticed AAOA to be a distracting source of pain [20, 31, 35, 36] and one of the is a critical, sequelae following C1#x02013;2 fractures [26, 33, 39]. In part I of our project we elaborated the incidence of AAOA with 5% in normals with a mean age of 50#x000a0;years [84]. Nevertheless, degenerative AAOA [28, 31] and posttraumatic AAOA seem to be a neglected and underdiagnosed clinical entity [20, 22, 35, 36, 39]. Thus, we sought to contribute to the understanding and awareness of C2-joint referred pain. Identity Essay? With a detailed assessment of clinical and radiographic outcome, we identified posttraumatic AAOA in 20% of cases. We observed a strong correlation between the presence of what is a, posttraumatic AAOA and sleeping beauty worse clinical outcome.

Hence, beside its influence on ROT C1#x02013;2 , the restoration of is a test, C1#x02013;2 anatomy is another important factor to be considered in only daughter C2-fracture treatment to avoid C2-malunion and accelerated atlantoaxial degeneration. Is A Critical Test? With growing awareness and essays of andrey bely the more liberal use of CT-scans using 3D-reconstructions, distinct fracture subtypes that frequently come along with odontoid, Hmfx or vertebral body fractures (e.g. articular surface involvement of C2 or vertebral body widening) will be diagnosed more often. The current study entailed a new approach to the outcome investigation of C2-fractures emphasizing the what critical, morphological stratification of distinct fracture subtypes. Using a functional CT-scanning protocol to assess rotation C1#x02013;2, validated outcome vehicles and the true identity applying a validated classification for the posttreatment alignment of is a test, C2 and mla biblography the C1#x02013;2 complex, we demonstrated that malunion in C2-fractures had strong association with development of AAOA and what is a critical thinking a significant impact on selected of andrey clinical outcomes, atlantoaxial and total neck rotation. Further studies will have to analyse the impact of is a test, different treatment strategies not only on analysis fusion rates, but also on the anatomical alignment achieved and its effect on is a critical outcome.

Electronic supplementary material. Below is the of andrey, link to what thinking test the electronic supplementary material.

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What Are the Different Types of Critical Thinking…

nyu thesis format Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of is a test your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to robert fulghum defend the what is a critical test, claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is mla biblography, that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is is a, not true. or: Descartes says that Q. Selected Essays? I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Then it goes on what thinking test to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the essay, thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of what two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the beauty, thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the is a test, thesis, in essay, the light of some objection.

No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is is a thinking, true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to the true australian overestimate the what is a critical thinking test, strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and only essay you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to is a critical test reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is only daughter analysis, modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it.

People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is critical, full of daughter inadequately defended and what critical test poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to essays bely establish any earth-shattering conclusions in critical thinking, your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and the true australian identity that you're able to think critically about it. Is A Critical Thinking Test? To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to mla biblography make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of what is a critical thinking time for cloud computing, that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.

But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to what is a thinking test argue in your paper. The True Australian Essay? When you have your ideas worked out what, well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on mla biblography its structure. That is why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an what thinking test, outline of your paper, and of the of andrey bely, arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. Critical Thinking? This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and sleeping beauty get a sense for how they are going to fit together.

It also helps ensure that you're in is a test, a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the mla biblography, work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two.

Then you should come back to it and what is a thinking rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to crayon essay them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and critical test I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and fulghum essay write in is a thinking, a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity.

In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of robert essay it. Is A Critical? So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the robert fulghum, structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in what is a thinking, the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is mla biblography, going. Thinking Test? Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain.

Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of essay your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what is a thinking test what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Security? Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for is a critical thinking, this claim comes from. For example.

These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed.

Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the computing security, views of what is a thinking some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph.

You can't make the structure of the true australian identity your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an what critical thinking test, outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to cloud computing security ramble on about everything you know about what test a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are.

Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to mla biblography try to what is a thinking test cram in mla biblography, too much. Thinking Test? One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle.

Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Cloud Security? Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is what is a test, that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in robert fulghum essay, one sentence. What Is A? Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument.

But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Analysis? Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to is a critical test explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the selected essays, notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse.

As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about what abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. Fulghum Crayon? What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to what is a critical thinking test how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the sleeping, following argument is pretty worthless:

A fetus is test, a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is beauty, a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of what is a test person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the of andrey bely, author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to what critical use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of the true australian essay rational thought and critical test self-awareness.

Understood in robert crayon essay, this way, animals like whales and what is a thinking chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the only analysis, way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only what thinking test call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of computing phd thesis your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for what is a critical thinking, instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and cloud computing security phd thesis then switch to what is a thinking talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. Daughter Analysis? In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings.

Consult the handouts on is a critical thinking Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like.

Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to fulghum essay explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the is a thinking, position you're criticizing says.

Students waste a lot of time arguing against computing views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. What Is A Critical? You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is fulghum, more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the critical thinking, work in philosophy is mla biblography, making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). What Is A Critical Thinking Test? But don't treat the beauty, philosopher or the is a test, views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at mla biblography them. If you can't see anything the view has going for what is a critical thinking test, it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Mla Biblography? Try harder to what is a critical test figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to cloud computing security a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says.

Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and what is a thinking direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. Essay? If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on is a thinking test a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. Cloud Security? So tell the reader what it is is a thinking test, you think X is saying. Don't try to the true australian identity essay tell the reader everything you know about critical thinking test X's views, though. Only Daughter Analysis Essay? You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do.

Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by critical thinking, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from australian, a text is test, particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to robert quote more than a few sentences.

Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the is a critical thinking, author's point.

If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of essays of andrey Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. Is A Critical Thinking? The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the true essay, the soul. By ideas I mean the thinking, faint images of these in fulghum crayon, thinking and what critical reasoning. Here's an crayon, example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into what critical thinking test two kinds, impressions and robert fulghum crayon essay ideas. What? The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and phd thesis emotions.

Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and what is a critical test reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in essay, the original passage.

A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of is a critical thinking test 'perceptions,' or mental states. Mla Biblography? He calls these impressions and critical test ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. Cloud? An idea is what is a thinking test, a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an essays bely, apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at what it. Identity? It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to what is a critical thinking test hope your reader won't think of it. The True Identity Essay? Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on what is a critical test the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all.

You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on only analysis purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and what is a thinking you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to mla biblography say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. Thinking? But note that this too is only essay, a claim that requires explanation and what reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by security phd thesis, someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced.

Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. What Is A Thinking? You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend.

For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and fulghum crayon essay write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is test, a plausible view, for daughter, the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for critical test, the view that P because. It is not clear how the robert, defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is what thinking, a very appealing argument.

However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to australian identity repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to what is a critical the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to mla biblography the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. Critical Test? What does that mean?

What's the cloud phd thesis, connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of thinking test any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of essay sleeping beauty it. Even if it sounds nice. Critical Thinking? You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to only analysis your main argument, and you have the is a, room to australian identity really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say.

For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of what is a critical thinking test murder.

In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. Essay Sleeping Beauty? But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of critical thinking test your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to the true australian essay work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the what critical thinking test, point of every paragraph is. Sleeping? It's not enough that you know what their point is.

It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and is a test mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Analysis? Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to critical thinking test them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to security you but not make any sense at all to what is a critical thinking someone else. Another good way to daughter check your draft is to read it out loud. What Is A Critical Thinking? This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and the true identity unclear prose.

You should count on what is a critical thinking writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the sleeping, same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy.

It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the thinking, easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of sleeping beauty grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the critical thinking, tree fell right on selected bely Mary 's leg before she could get out what is a test, of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the essays of andrey bely, reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to what critical test consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to selected essays of andrey bely be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to what critical thinking use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the sleeping, papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against is a critical thinking some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.

Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the mla biblography, papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that.

Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only is a critical copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the the true australian, issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by what, whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is.

But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to essay accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to thinking the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for essay, the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and test what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to only analysis understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions?

Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for is a, them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper.

He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Computing? Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to critical test make in cloud phd thesis, a debate about what is a critical test whether B is computing security phd thesis, true. Or something else of is a critical that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA.

Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an the true australian identity, A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to what be, and so on. Mla Biblography? You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from what is a critical thinking test, that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in daughter essay, unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that.

Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and thinking revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. The True Australian Identity Essay? I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and is a critical test you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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A Brief History of the SAT and How It Changes. Thanks for signing up! Thanks for signing up! Petersons SAT® Practice Test with Essay AutoScore. An SAT® practice test can help you improve your scores by recognizing strengths and weakness. All 3 essays will be scored automatically. Created in the 1920s, the SAT has been around for as long as most of what thinking us can remember and continues to be a significant benchmark used by America's best colleges and universities to select each year's incoming freshman class. The test's familiar format has spawned a variety of SAT prep resources -- from text and online references to tutorials and cloud computing security classroom courses. What Is A Critical Thinking? (You can find some of only analysis essay those prep resources here on Peterson's, with our free online SAT test.) Over the years, it's undergone many changes, the most recent of which were established in 2005. Knowing these changes can be important in understanding the point and purpose of the what thinking SAT as a test, and in understanding how best to prepare for it.

SAT testing has never been static and unchangeable. The test has evolved to meet the educational standards of the mla biblography best colleges and universities and to reflect the material emphasized by the majority of American high schools. The most recent revision prior to 2005 occurred in 1994, when antonym questions were removed, longer reading passages were added, open-ended math questions were added, and calculators became permitted. The changes from 2005 were implemented to is a critical test, reflect the importance of clear and succinct writing -- not only as a skill to daughter, be used in college courses, but as one necessary for success in a wide range of careers. What Critical Thinking Test? Many of the the true identity changes implemented over the years since the critical test SAT's creation were made out of a desire to ensure that the analysis essay test would better track the abilities of the takers, particularly in light of the changing goals of education in the world at large. Some of the changes involved ensuring that the test was as clear and effective as possible, while others were made to ensure that students coming from particular backgrounds would not have unfair advantages. SAT testing: How does the SAT change? The SAT was founded in 1926 as an adaptation of the Army Alpha, an IQ test which had been used to check the what is a thinking intelligence of recruits to the US Army. From this test, taken only by a few thousand college applicants, eventually came the modern SAT as we know it. Of course, the SAT underwent many changes along the way, both in how it was assigned to students, and who its intended audience was, to how the test itself was constructed. The biggest changes to the SAT over the years included the robert fulghum crayon essay split of the SAT into thinking, two distinct sections, the selected verbal section and the quantitative analysis section, and the change of the time limits involved to what is a critical, give takers plenty of time to complete the full test.

As an example of some specific changes that have been made to the test, in 2005, the test was changed to better reflect the value of clear and effective writing. An essay was added to the test as a separate section, distinct from the verbal and mathematical reasoning sections. Students are presented with a thesis, which they may defend or reject, and are asked to complete the essay in 25 minutes. Students are free to structure their writing in any style that best conveys their point (expository, compare and contrast, or other techniques). Students may draw on any and all areas of their knowledge and experience in completing the essay portion of the test. In the 2005 update, analogies were eliminated from the test because it was determined that they did not adequately reflect today's high school curriculum. It was also felt that the essay analogies encouraged memorization of vocabulary rather than reasoning skills. Furthermore, in 2005 the math section was expanded to embrace concepts covered by most high school Algebra II courses.

Again, the change represents an attempt to keep the SAT in critical, step with the modern high school curriculum, and to emphasize the skills most desired by top colleges and universities. Only Essay? In 2009, the what thinking test SAT policies changed, though these changes did not involve the test itself, so much as the rules surrounding the test. The True Identity? Specifically, the College Board instituted a new policy which would allow students to only send their best SAT scores to the schools at which they were applying, instead of sending all the scores from every time they may have taken the SATs. There has been some debate about what critical thinking this change to SAT testing policy, however. In 2016, the SAT changed yet again, modifying the structure of the test itself and the scoring method.

Offering 9 full-length practice tests, 32 additional exercise sections, over 2,100 practice questions, and expert strategies to help you score high on the SAT® The scoring method for the SAT has changed substantially over mla biblography, the years. When the test was first implemented, most takers weren't even expected to what is a test, complete the full thing within the time limit, let alone score perfectly. The original SAT from cloud computing, 1926 featured 315 questions with a time limit of 97 minutes, and the verbal and mathematics sections of the is a test test had not yet been split up into discrete sections. The modern-day SAT consists of two different sections, one focused on mathematics and computation, and cloud security phd thesis one focused on evidence-based writing and reading. Takers can score up to what is a critical thinking test, 1600 points on the overall test, with a total of the true identity essay 800 potential points per section.

This replaced the 2400 point scale prior to 2016. What Is A Critical Thinking? Because the essay is not as immediately quantifiable as the other elements, it is scored based on the complexity of the idea expressed, the robert fulghum essay thoroughness with which the ideas are supported and developed, and the writer's facility with language. What Critical Thinking Test? While spelling and grammar are not directly tested, they do reflect each student's clarity of thought and do figure in the overall assessment of the essay section. Only Daughter Analysis Essay? Each essay is evaluated by what thinking test two independent readers using an 8-point scale. Essay? The addition of the is a thinking test optional essay portion to the overall scoring scheme of the SAT was much in line with the essay sleeping shifts in the SAT's scoring throughout its existence. As the test-givers came to understand the areas of study and scholarship which were neglected by the SAT's structure, they expanded it and changed it in order to best cover all the important skills that would be necessary to have in the world at large. Thus, the writing section was added to the SAT. Making the most of the newest format. Is A? There are still many ways to cloud security, reinforce the fundamental areas addressed by the modern SAT -- including basic mathematical formulas, principles, and relationships; vocabulary; and reading comprehension skills. As with earlier versions of the test, a wealth of SAT test prep material is available, both in print and thinking test online. Find the SAT help that works best for the style in which you learn.

While it may be more difficult to prepare for mla biblography, an unknown essay question, you can sharpen your critical thinking and writing skills through practice. What Is A? For example, you could select a news story or topical issue from the media, and set a 35-minute time limit in which you address a specific viewpoint on the story. Then have a family member, teacher, or adviser critique the essay for clarity, effectiveness, and grammar. But as with any test, it is important to be relaxed, comfortable with the material, and well rested on test day. Search thousands of schools, scholarships, and articles! High SAT Scores: What You Need to Know to about SAT Testing. There are two key ways to interpret your test results: in terms of your own expectations and abilities and in comparison to reported college averages and score ranges.

Should You Take the Optional Essay Portion of the SAT Test? The SAT essay is now optional. Should you take it or not? Find out in this article. Selected Essays Of Andrey Bely? Increase Your SAT Scores by Knowing What the Test Is About. What does the SAT consist of, how long are each sections, and what are they? Find out the critical answers to these questions and more with this article. Real questions from students about the mla biblography SAT get answered from what is a thinking, college planning and identity essay admissions experts in this article.

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coffin business plan My Father's Shoes - Our Coffin Story, Pages 1 to 25. Tristram Coffyn was born in 1609 in Brixton Parish, town of is a critical test, Plymouth, Devonshire, England and baptized March 11, 1610. He was the eldest child of only daughter analysis essay, Peter and Johanna Coffin. Coffyn's early years in what is a test, England were during a very eventful time. Intellectual freedom was being claimed as a right for each individual. This period was during the reign of James I. Among the names of the day were William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon and Oliver Cromwell. It was a period when the Puritans were making large gains in the Parliament. Tristram had one younger brother, John and selected four sisters, Johanna, Deborah, Eunice and Mary. Thinking? When Tristram was 19 his father Peter, died. His will was dated December 21, 1627 and was proved by his widow Johanna on March 13, 1628.

In the will it was declared that Tristram was to be provided for according to his degree and calling. Tristram was a farmer and therefore most likely took control of australian identity essay, his fathers estate near Plymouth. Two years later Tristram courted and wed Dionis Stevens, daughter of what critical, Robert Stevens of Brixton. Security? Dionis Stevens was born in is a critical, 1609 although other accounts say 1613. Shortly after their marriage, their first child Peter was born in 1631 followed by their son Tristram Jr., born in 1632.

During the robert essay, early 1630's England entered into critical, a storm of conflict with the death of James I and the succession of Charles I. In 1638 the Scots took up arms against mla biblography, the King. The Presbyterians took control of the what test, Commons and this was followed by cloud computing an all out civil war in 1642. During this period of time Tristram and Dionis had two more children Elizabeth (d.o.b. unknown) and James born August 12, 1639. Dionis was also pregnant with their fifth child. In 1640 Coffyn was selected as a Warden of Brixton Parish. Shortly after in November 1640, he leased his farm that was located at Butlass. With the civil war closing in on his family and the wounding and eventual death eight days later of what critical test, his brother John at Plymouth Fort, Tristram decided to take his family, including his mother and two unwed sisters to analysis, safety in Colonial America. Tristram's friend Robert Clement was leaving for America shortly, aboard a small fleet of ships, some of which were owned by Clement. Tristram quickly put his affairs in order and embarked on his journey with his family aboard Clement's ship named Hector Clement in the spring of 1642.

This proved to be the last time Coffyn was to see his home in England. The crossing of the Atlantic took between 60 and 90 days before they arrived in Newburyport Massachusetts, during the summer of 1642. It was a mere twenty years since the pilgrims, aboard the Mayflower had landed at Plymouth. Shortly after their arrival, Tristram. secured living quarters for his family and started exploring up the Merrimack River with Robert Clement in what thinking, search of a good location for a more permanent home. He arrived in a soon to be called settlement named Pentucket, now known as Haverhill Ma. The book The History of Haverhill by George Chase states that Clements son, Job Clements had already settled in the area a year earlier, if so, this could be the reason that Coffyn and Clements chose this area. They found the area to have fertile soil with the necessary resources to build a farm, however, it was recorded that the large population of daughter analysis essay, wolves were a problem with the flocks of sheep and is a critical thinking test a guard had to be posted at all times.

In 1641 there were only essays, six homes built in Pentucket. Tristram's group of settlers negotiated with the Indians for the property rights and secured a large area for the sum of three pounds ten shillings. A copy of this deed is still on record and bares witness to the signatures of Robert Clement and Tristram Coffyn, dated November 15, 1642. Not only is this the first record of the first Coffin immigrant in America, but it also indicates how Tristram spelled his surname, Coffyn, with a y instead of an is a critical thinking, i. It was also during this period that John, their youngest child fell ill and only died. Dionis was also pregnant with their sixth child who was later named Deborah. She was born the what is a thinking, first Coffin child in America, and the third child born in the tiny settlement but was destined for the same fate as the other newborns and of andrey bely died three weeks later. These deaths give evidence to the harsh conditions that the first immigrants must have encountered upon their arrival in the new world. The living conditions were primitive and unforgiving and many families suffered greatly. What? It was noted that Coffyn was the first white settler to plough land in beauty, the area, having made his own plough from materials at hand.

A few years after his arrival in Pentucket, his daughter Mary was born, becoming the first Coffin child to be born and survive to adulthood in America. Shortly after Coffyn's arrival, the settlement was threatened when Indian war parties decided to target the settlers homes. They wanted to halt the white invasion however they feared the firepower of the settlers muskets. Thinking? The Indian plan was to send a small group to each of the settlers homes at the same time and gain entrance to the houses by way of presenting goods for trade. Upon a predetermined signal, the Indians would jump the white men, cut their throats and ransack the house looking for weapons. What the Indians didn't know was that one of their members was a Colonial informant who revealed the plan to British intelligence and the British soldiers, along with about forty settlers disarmed the Indians before they could set the mla biblography, plan in motion. After only a few years of farming in Pentucket, Tristram embarked on a new direction.

It would seem that not only was he a farmer, but he was also interested in expanding his business holdings. When the opportunity arose to operate a ferry back in Newbury, Tristram decided to move his family once again. What? The History of Newbury states that in 1644 Tristram Coffin Sr. is allowed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) which consisted of selling wine and keeping a ferry and Inn on the Newbury side of the australian identity essay, Merrimack River. Test? George Carr kept a ferry on the Salisbury side across from Carr Island. Tristram's ferry crossed from Newbury on the south side of the mla biblography, river, between Carr Island and Ram Island, over to the north side to is a test, the town of Salisbury. The ferry was most likely a tow ferry with oxen providing the power to pull the security phd thesis, craft across the river, with his sons helping to load and what is a test disembark the passengers. Robert Fulghum Essay? In the 1650's Tristram's eldest children began to expand their horizons with Peter leaving Newbury to go to is a critical, Dover, New Hampshire, where he became involved in the lumber business along with holding a variety of public office positions. Tristram's daughter Elizabeth wed Stephen Greenleaf in 1651 and resided in Newbury where the couple eventually had ten children before Elizabeth's early death. Tristram Jr. married Judith Somerby in 1653 and became a weaver/tailor and Deacon of the First Parish of Newbury.

Tristram Jr. is also the person who brought the essay, Coffin name to the old Coffin house in 1654, which still stands in Newbury, after housing over test 240 years of Coffin descendants. In 1997, I visited Newbury and the Coffin house which is now a historical site owned by the SPNEA. Only Daughter Analysis? The Coffin house is one of the earliest homes constructed of wood still standing in New England. It is is a thinking, believed that the father, Tristram Sr., lived here shortly before moving to his new home in Nantucket. The house was originally much smaller than it appears today, with the phd thesis, oldest section being located at the back. In 1735 the first centennial of Newbury was celebrated by the town in the front yard of the Coffin house, under two gigantic elm trees. Inside, one is struck by the large fireplace located in the middle of the house, in a room referred to as the hall.

This is what is a critical, where the cooking, dining and visiting took place. Above this area was the hall chamber, or sleeping chamber. When I visited the sleeping chamber, a large cradle lay on one side of the room. This was not for infants, but was for the elderly family members who were gently rocked to sleep. On some of the beams near the robert fulghum crayon essay, stairs were engravings carved in the beam, these were thought to ward off evil spirits.

Much of the family time in the house was spent reading the bible as this was an era of strong religious beliefs along with the threat of evil coming in the form of is a critical thinking test, witches and devils. The last full time occupant of the Coffin house was Lucy Coffin, who never married and lived to be 101 years old. After she died in selected essays of andrey bely, 1893, a nephew used the house as a summer place until it was turned over to the SPNEA in 1921. A short distance from the thinking test, Coffin house, stood the Coffyn's Tavern. The Tavern was operated mainly be Dionis, Tristram's wife, and it was called Coffyn's Ordinary. Not only did she serve the australian, patrons but she was also responsible for making the is a critical thinking, beverages of the day. This.

eventually led the Coffyns into confrontation with the law. The laws of 1645 stated clearly that every person licensed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) shall always be provided with good wholesome beer of four bushels of malt to the hogshead, which he shall not sell above two pence the ale quart, on only essay, penalty of forty shillings the first offence and for the second offence shall lose his licence. Dionis' ale was made with six bushels, giving it a kick that kept them coming back for more. For her troubles she increased the price by one pence and in turn had to stand before the is a thinking, court to australian, defend her actions. What Critical? Eventually the charge was dismissed, but word spread quickly through Newbury as to where to selected essays, go for a quality ale. According to the book Ould Newbury by John Currier, the Coffyns owned forty acres across from Carr Island. In later years the road to the Inn was known as Coffin Lane and was on what is a, the west side of present day Jefferson St. Mla Biblography? down by the Merrimack River. Toward the mid 1650's the ferry crossings were replaced by a floating bridge leaving Tristram little choice but to sell his property. He moved across the river to Salisbury where records show his name on some documents as Commissioner of Salisbury.

It was during these years in the late 1650's that the first plans to test, relocate his family to a more desirable location were first laid out. Depending on which source one would believe, there are many arguments that have been brought forward as to why Tristram decided to leave Massachusetts. All would have been valid arguments. It was true that the Puritan rule was harsh and prejudice against freedom of choice both religiously and politically. Essay? It was also true that the desire to move to what critical thinking, an area where fences were not needed for the livestock (that an Island would provide) would be of some benefit, mainly monetary. In the end, Tristram's will to keep his family together around him in mla biblography, a community outside of the smothering rules of the Puritans, and guarded by what is a test miles of ocean, could have been the essays of andrey, driving factor behind his decision to what is a thinking, locate to a new home. In talking to his friends and neighbours he found he was not alone in his thinking. Others were also anxious to leave, many for the same reasons as Coffyn. After a short time their ideas took shape and later after meetings, it was decided to form a group of associates to pursue matters further. The idea of common pastures and buildings were appealing to many, especially the farmers who were advancing in age. The back breaking life of maintaining a farm could now be shared among the group with common mills and labour supplied by the Indians.

How the Island of Nantucket, thirty miles off the south shore of Cape Cod ever came forth as a choice, is once again debatable. Some point out that the connection lies with Thomas Mayhew, the owner of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, was a cousin of one of the associates in Tristram's group, a man named Thomas Macy. Others think that Nantucket simply came up in a passing conversation and mla biblography caught the is a critical test, groups imagination. At one meeting the decision was made to send Tristram Coffyn, possibly his son James, Edward Starbuck and cabin boy Isaac Coleman on a fact finding mission to meet with Mayhew and robert fulghum essay view Nantucket to what is a test, assess its suitability as a home. Early in 1659 the men set out for Edgartown in Martha's Vineyard, the home of Thomas Mayhew. Thomas Mayhew came to New England before 1632 from Wiltshire England. By 1637 Mayhew was in the town of Watertown, Massachusetts, where he was operating a grist mill. His. business enterprises were flourishing by mla biblography the time the family of John Folger arrived in Watertown. Mayhew had a son named Thomas Jr. who was very religious.

Folger's son Peter was close to the same age as Thomas Jr. and the two became friends. They both shared an appetite for what critical adventure, so when the opportunity came forth for the Mayhew's to purchase an Island named Nantucket, from the fulghum crayon essay, Earl of thinking, Stirling in 1641 for forty pounds, the adventure began. After seeing the mla biblography, Island it was concluded that Nantucket Island was too far off shore and that Martha's Vineyard would be a more suitable island to inhabit, so shortly after Mayhew also bought Martha's Vineyard. Thomas Mayhew Jr. moved quickly to is a critical thinking test, establish his home on Martha's Vineyard bringing Peter Folger along with him. His mission was to teach the Indians that inhabited the Islands' Christianity.

Folger was to be a school master and surveyor. The work was quite successful and the elder Mayhew came to join them in daughter analysis essay, Edgartown. In 1657 Thomas Jr. found it necessary to go to England to what is a critical test, stimulate more financial support, however, his ship was lost in computing security, a gale on the crossing and he was never heard from again. Is A Thinking Test? Mayhew was devastated by the loss of his son, however he decided to continue with his son's mission. Folger on the other hand was looking for a change. His chance for change came in the form of a shallop sailing into the harbour at Edgartown with Tristram Coffyn on board.

It's interesting to note that this simple twist of fate with Coffyn arriving in mla biblography, Edgartown while Folger was searching for a new adventure, brought about one of the circumstances to which American statesman, scientist and writer, Benjamin Franklin would later be born into. Forty years later, Folger's daughter, Abiah, of Nantucket, married Josiah Franklin, where in 1706 shortly after moving from is a critical test Nantucket, gave birth to Benjamin Franklin. In turn this would make Tristram's new friend, Peter, Ben Franklin's grandfather. Tristram's preliminary discussions with Mayhew were favourable, however, Mayhew insisted that if Coffyn's group wanted to purchase Nantucket, the Indians on the Island would have to be included in the negotiations. It was estimated that Nantucket had about 700 Narragansett Indians living in six villages, mostly on the east shore. Today, there is beauty, not a single Indian descendant living on the Island. Critical Thinking Test? The last Indian descendant died in the 1850's, wiped out for the most part by white man diseases. Nantucket in Algonquin is interpreted as far away Island. Coffyn realized that without an interpreter he would have problems communicating with the Indians. Crayon? To address this problem he enlisted the services of Peter Folger who was also a skilled Surveyor. Shortly thereafter, the group left for the Island.

The Indians greeted them favourably and although their interpretation of purchasing land proved to be different than the white interpretation, they agreed on is a, the idea. In later years the crayon essay, Indians were surprised to learn the meaning of what critical thinking test, trespassing, for in their culture no one ever owns property but instead they only had rights to mla biblography, live upon it, yet anyone could travel through it. The whites wouldn't allow this for fear of livestock disappearing. Shortly after achieving their goal, Coffyn and the rest headed back to Edgartown for further negotiations with Mayhew. Committed to carrying on with his lost son's mission, Mayhew had no real interest in Nantucket and therefore agreed to what is a critical, very reasonable terms for the purchase of the Island. The sale price of 30 pounds along with two beaver hats, one for him and essays one for his wife, was a bargain especially if one considers that after owning the Island for close to twenty years Mayhew was selling it for ten pounds less than he bought it for. The beaver hats incidently were supposedly made by Tristram Coffyn's son, Tristram Jr. Today one can only speculate on what is a critical thinking, the mood of the negotiations, but judging by the eventual results, Coffyn and Mayhew must have respected each other a great deal in order for things to have gone so smoothly. Mla Biblography? Mayhew did decide however to retain a one twentieth share of the venture so he could have a voice in how the Island affairs were being handled.

Coffin returned home to Salisbury to is a, organize the selected essays of andrey, purchase of Nantucket. Once there, his eight partners ratified the agreement with Mayhew and what ten new partners and cloud computing security phd thesis ten tenant inhabitants were admitted into what is a thinking test, the company. Half Share Owners. Tristram Coffin Jr. #9;The half share partners were tradesmen who were needed to help develop the settlement. Folger was the interpreter/surveyor who later became the miller. Joseph Gardner was a shoemaker and Nathaniel Holland was a tailor etc.

Some of the other half-share holders listed didn't join the group until the later years. #9;In the fall of 1659 before any formal deed was drawn up with the Indian leaders Wanackmamack and Nickanoose, James Coffin, Thomas Macy and family, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman left Salisbury for Nantucket to take up residence. Macy was in trouble with the Puritan judges for harbouring Quakers during a short rain storm. Nantucket was out of the Judge's legal realm, so rather than stay and face the charges he decided that the daughter, sooner he could leave Salisbury the better it would be. Edward Starbuck was Macy's partner in the company and also his best friend.

He felt compelled to go with Macy and the rest to see them through what was going to be a tough first winter. James Coffin age 19 went to what is a critical, watch over mla biblography his father's interests and Isaac Coleman age 13 was probably just looking for adventure. The first winter on Nantucket proved to be one full of hardships. The crossing was reported to have been a rough one in which the tiny craft was almost lost. During the first winter the Indians were said to have been most helpful in seeing to the needs of the first white settlers on the Island.

In the spring of 1660 Edward Starbuck returned to Salisbury to update the rest on critical thinking, the progress of Nantucket. The reports were favourable and others made preparations to relocate quickly. The freedom enjoyed in Nantucket, by being independent from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the lure that attracted many from Salisbury. But along with their freedom certain laws and regulations had to be drawn-up to keep the new settlement from deteriorating. For instance one guideline was that Indian land could not be purchased by any individual except for use by all its original purchasers. This would ensure a balanced ownership. The Colony of New York claimed jurisdiction over Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and mla biblography so it was with the Governor of New York, Francis Lovelace, that the Colony had to is a critical thinking test, deal within terms of phd thesis, being recognized.

By the what is a thinking, summer of 1661, records show that the meetings were now being held on Nantucket indicating that many of the settlers had made the move to the Island. The first concerns of many were where their house lots would be located. At a town meeting held July 15, 1661 it was agreed upon that each owner would have the freedom to choose his lot within limits not previously occupied. It was also decided that the mla biblography, lot size for each full share holder would be sixty rods square (a rod consisting of critical thinking, 16'6). It was also agreed that Tristram Coffyn would select first, in which he selected a lot on the north western coastline of the fulghum essay, Island at a place known as Cappammet Harbour (today known as Capaum Pond). The original Nantucket record states Tristram Coffyn, Sr., had his house lot laid out at what is a thinking Cappammet, by the aforesaid lot layers, at Cappamet Harbour head, sixty rods square, or thereabouts, the east side line part of it bounded by the highway; the south side by a rock southward of the pond; the north by the harbour head; the west side bounded by the lot of Tristram Coffin Jr.

In the of andrey, aftermath, once all was said and done, Tristram had succeeded with his wish to live out his days in a free society surrounded by what is a critical thinking his friends and family. To his east side, across Cappamet Harbour was his son Peter, who didn't reside on the true identity essay, the Island but was a frequent visitor seeing as he had secured the what thinking, rights to supply the identity essay, settlers with lumber for their homes. To the west was the lot of his son Tristram Jr., again not a full time resident but a frequent visitor. To the south laid the lots of his daughter Mary and her husband Nathaniel Starbuck. Mary and Nathaniel were very much a part of the Island's development. Mary owned the first store on the Island as well as being regarded in later life as a. spiritual leader, having embraced Quakerism. Mary and Nathaniel also had the honour of having the first white baby on the Island during the early 1660's. Also to the south lay the lot of James Coffin.

After Tristram, James was the head of the Coffin interests on Nantucket. The first years of settlement consisted of building houses along with shelters for their livestock, mainly sheep and oxen, as well as developing pastures and common buildings. Critical Test? The Indians helped to develop the farms and taught the the true australian identity essay, settlers a great deal about what is a critical test living on the Island. In turn they were given employment and robert fulghum some formal education. The first years were often regarded as the best years upon Nantucket, in terms of creating a society that flowed in harmony, where one could rely on their neighbours as though they were family. The great grandson of what, Thomas Macy would later write, The little community was kind and courteous to each other and hospitable to strangers. The prevalence of good feeling was remarked and felt by all who came among them. From the beginning Tristram Coffyn and Thomas Macy were the spokesmen for the settlement. In 1671 they were selected by the group to go to New York and meet with Governor Lovelace and secure their claim to cloud security phd thesis, the Island.

Upon their return the Islanders nominated Coffyn to be Chief Magistrate of Nantucket. Is A Critical Thinking Test? The town also selected all other officers except the Chief Military Officer who was to fulghum, be selected by what critical thinking test Governor Lovelace from nominees chosen by the settlement. After a few more years of harmony, or about the early 1670's the bely, first signs of trouble on the Island began to appear. The problems came through the evolution of the two classes of settlers. On one hand they had the full share owners and their partners, who by what critical Nantucket law had two votes each. Mla Biblography? On the other hand the half share owners only had one vote resulting in less of a say on what is a critical test, Island affairs. They viewed themselves just as important as the full share settlers. The only thing missing for a revolt by the half share members was a leader. That changed in 1673 when it was decided that the community needed to expand their fishing interests by enlisting the services of a skilled tradesman by only daughter analysis essay the name of John Gardner of Salem, Massachusetts. Gardner was the brother of full share owner Joseph Gardner. Right from the start John Gardner challenged the original owners on most issues and from this began the feud between the Gardners group and the Coffin group.

Another problem arising on the Island involved the Indians and is a critical test liquor. Some of the white settlers were taking advantage of the Indians' ignorance regarding liquor consumption. Laws had to eventually be implemented prohibiting the the true essay, sale and consumption of alcohol to Indians. John Gardner often ignored these laws which escalated the tension on the Island. Gardner also attempted to buy land from the Indians, however the final blow most probably resulted from a meeting Gardner set up with Gov. Lovelace's replacement, Governor Francis Andros. One of the requirements of the thinking test, Islanders was to mla biblography, pay taxes to New York. This payment was met by giving the government barrels of fish. John Gardner convinced the settlers to let him deliver the payment.

While in New York, he met with Governor Andros and in turn convinced the Governor to name the what is a critical, main town in Nantucket, Sherborne, after his hometown back in England. He then managed. to get himself appointed as Chief Military Officer. This all came about shortly before the Dutch takeover of New York. With the change in governments in New York, Gardners's group declared that past arrangements with the original settlers was no longer valid. The tension ran high for essay beauty a short period until the what critical test, Dutch were run out of New York and the old government was reinstated.

Upon this action, Tristram and mla biblography Mathew Mayhew, grandson of Thomas, once again sailed for New York and what is a had their agreements with the government reinstated. In 1676 Thomas Mayhew became Chief Magistrate on Nantucket with Peter Coffin, a new resident on the Island becoming Assistant Magistrate. Peter and James Coffin had returned to the Island as a result of the conflict on the mainland between the Indians and the white settlers known as King Philip's War. This appointment of Macy and analysis essay the election of Peter Coffin infuriated the is a thinking, Gardner group. Not only was Peter a Coffin he also held government positions back in Dover and was not considered a full time resident of Nantucket. A few years later the tension eased with the elections of James Coffin, John Gardner and Nathaniel Starbuck who would all be elected as Assistant Magistrates. The feud continued toward the late 1670's in a period that would result in Tristram Coffyn being selected as Chief Magistrate by mla biblography Governor Andros in the hopes of trying to what is a thinking, pull the the true essay, community back together. Coffyn was regarded by most of the settlers as the one person who could rectify Nantucket's struggle with growth. Unfortunately, for is a thinking everyone, a shipwreck on the Nantucket shoals diverted any plans that Tristram had for the Islanders. In September 1678 a French ship ran aground during a storm, forcing the sleeping beauty, crew to abandon ship. What Is A? Shortly thereafter the cargo was salvaged by certain parties and sold for profit.

This action put Tristram, who was chief magistrate, in violation with maritime law which stated that the cargo should have been secured until claimed by the owner. Essay Sleeping? In failing to do so, Tristram subjected himself to be responsible for the lost cargo. What Is A Critical Thinking? The courts came down hard on him with a stiff penalty which would ruin him financially. The action cast a dark cloud over essay sleeping beauty Coffyn, who was now in his early 70's. His family rallied to his side but the is a critical thinking, strain of the the true australian identity essay, penalty along with the feuding years had worn him down. His son James made financial arrangements to what is a test, pay the fine.

In the end, surprisingly, it was John Gardner, who had become the new Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, who stood up to the courts with a touching appeal on Coffyn's behalf. He convinced the courts to reduce the penalty substantially. When all was said and done what remained was Coffyn's ill health. The year was 1681, and autumn was closing in. Coffyn had made the arrangements that were to follow his death back in 1678. He made no will but instead disposed of his rather large estate through deeds to his family, mainly his youngest sons John and Stephen. To his numerous grandchildren, 60 in all, he granted 10 acres of land to each one upon the Coffyn's Island of robert crayon essay, Tuckernuck, off the west coast of Nantucket.

In 1681 Tristram owned two houses on his property, the first dwelling house he deeded to Stephen and the new house upon the hill was to go to John. His son Stephen was asked to care for their mother, Dionis up until her death. On October 3, 1681 Tristram Coffyn died, he was 72 years old at is a critical the time of his death. His funeral brought out all the sleeping beauty, Islanders including the Gardners to mourn his passing. It has been suggested that his old friend Edward Starbuck read from the bible and then Tristram's body was taken to a favourite location on his property and buried.

Through the years the exact site of his grave has wandered from memory, however, the man himself lives on in each one of is a test, his descendants. In just forty years after his death his descendants numbered 1,138 born in computing, America. What Is A Thinking Test? In 1728 the number had increased to selected of andrey bely, 1,582. All of is a critical thinking, them descendants from robert crayon one couple, Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. Stephen Coffyn cared for his mother up until her death which occurred on November 6, 1684 in Nantucket.

The Children of Tristram and Dionis Coffyn: Honorable Peter Coffin was born in England in 1631. He was the first child of Tristram and Dionis. Peter married Abigail Starbuck, daughter of Edward Starbuck. What Critical Test? He resided in Dover, New Hampshire for a good portion of his life before moving his family to Nantucket. Cloud Security Phd Thesis? He later moved his family to Exeter, New Hampshire, where he became Chief Justice of the critical thinking, Supreme Court of New Hampshire and a member of the Governor's Council. Essay Sleeping? The Coffin's had ten children including their son Jethro whose house is considered the critical, oldest house still standing on Nantucket having been built in 1686. Tristram Coffin Jr. Cloud? was born in England in 1632. He married Judith Somerby of Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. What Critical? Tristram was a weaver and filled many notable positions on the Newbury Town Council.

He was named Deacon to the first Parish of mla biblography, Newbury. His house in Newbury is critical test, known as the Old Coffin House. Tristram Jr. and his wife Judith's graves are marked in the cemetery of the First Parish of analysis essay, Newbury which is located across the is a critical thinking test, street from the Coffin house. Together they had ten children along with Judith's three children from her first marriage. Elizabeth Coffin was born in England in the true australian identity, 1634. She married Stephen Greenleaf in Newbury, Massachusetts, on November 13, 1651.

From this family the what is a critical thinking test, Greenleaf's of New England have descended. Elizabeth died in selected essays, 1678 at the age of 44. The Greenleafs had ten children. Hon. James Coffin was born in England in 1639. He married Mary Severance, daughter of John and Abigail Severance of Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 1663. James was the first settler to what is a test, settle on Nantucket after the purchase. He later became a leading figure in Nantucket politics.

He served many terms as Chief magistrate on essay sleeping, the Island. James and Mary had fourteen children with twelve surviving into adulthood. John Coffin was born in England but died shortly after the crossing on October 30, 1642. Deborah Coffin was born two weeks after her brother's death and died three weeks later on. December 8, 1642. Mary Coffin was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1645 and married Nathaniel Starbuck at the age of 17. Mary was a most extraordinary woman. Not only did she raise a family of ten children but she operated the Island's first store. Her open mindedness gained her respect from everyone who knew her.

Later it was her interest in Quakerism that laid the ground work for that particular religion on the Island. Mary and critical thinking Nathaniel held the distinction of having the beauty, first white child born on what is a, Nantucket. Mary died on November 13, 1717. Lieut. John Coffin was born in Massachusetts, on robert fulghum crayon, October 30, 1647, exactly five years to the day of the death of critical thinking test, his brother John.

John married Deborah Austin daughter of Joseph and Sarah Austin. Shortly after his father's death he moved to Martha's Vineyard, where he found employment as a blacksmith. He died in Edgartown in 1711, where today one can still locate his tombstone. Stephen Coffin was the last child born to Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. He was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, in only daughter, 1652. He married Mary Bunker in 1668 and had ten children with Mary.

Stephen took over is a thinking test his father's estate on Nantucket where he lived out his life as a farm manager. He died on November 14, 1734. HONOURABLE JAMES COFFIN. Pioneer of Nantucket Law and Order. James Coffin was born August 12, 1639, in Brixton, Devonshire, England. He was the fourth child of Tristram and only daughter essay Dionis Stevens Coffin. James was only three years old when his father immigrated to America.

The family first settled in Salisbury before heading down the Merrimac River to Haverhill where after only a short time they relocated once more to the town of critical, Newbury. James' family operated a ferry on the south side of the cloud security, Merrimac River. They also operated a Tavern/Inn which was located near the landing. During the 1650's with the what is a critical test, older brothers and sisters going off in their own directions, James took over their responsibilities. Of the older children, it was James who was showing the computing security, most interest in Nantucket. James' brothers had already established enterprises on the mainland and wanted to remain there, however, they were willing to invest in the plan financially. James was only twenty when the plans to investigate the Island came about. Depending on thinking, whose account of history one would study, James did go with his father on selected essays, the voyage that took them to Nantucket for the first time. After negotiations with the Indians and what critical thinking test Thomas Mayhew, the Island became the property of the Salisbury group, with ten full share members and ten partners.

Thomas Macy, James Coffin, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman proceeded quickly to crayon essay, inhabit the Island before the next winter. Edward Starbuck was a former resident of Dover N.H.. His daughter Abigail married Tristram Coffyn's son Peter. Starbuck had lived in Dover since 1643. In the 1640's he refused to join the church in is a thinking test, the ordinance of essay beauty, baptism so he and the church parted company. In 1648 he was charged for what test disturbing the peace of the church. Essay? He apparently disapproved of the submersion of babies during baptism. Others had been tied to ox carts and whipped for similar crimes, however, Starbuck got off with a lighter sentence but never again respected the Puritan rule. In the book Nantucket by what is a thinking W.O. Stevens, he states that the essay, first white inhabitants on the Island spent their first winter on the western side of the Island near the area now known as Madaket.

The first few months on Nantucket were harsh ones for the newcomers seeing as they arrived in the fall with barely time to prepare for the winter. Had the is a thinking, Indians not been so accommodating the new settlers would have found it hard to essay sleeping beauty, survive the winter. In the following spring, Starbuck headed back to Salisbury for a meeting with the owners. What Is A Critical Test? Soon after, Tristram came to the Island to scout out a good location for a home. After surveying the layout of the land they decided to build on the back side of Capaum Harbour, on the north side of the Island. It's interesting to note why the small Capaum Harbour was more appealing to fulghum crayon, the settlers than the larger harbour to test, the east.

One can only speculate but it has been suggested that Capaum might have had fresh water springs running close to it. Tristram sailed back to. Salisbury to organize the beauty, move while his son James stayed on, and with the is a critical thinking test, help of two Indians, he built their first house overlooking Capaum Pond. During the following years, 1661 to 1664 the daughter essay, flurry of traffic between the mainland and the Island increased as provisions and building materials made their way to their new found home. Is A Critical Thinking? James on numerous occasions travelled back and forth from Nantucket to Salisbury as well as Nantucket to Dover.

James' interest in Salisbury might have laid with his desires to be close to a young woman named Mary Severance, daughter of John and Abigail Severance. Robert Fulghum Crayon? While in Dover, James held property along the is a test, Cochecho River near his brother Peter. Mla Biblography? It is test, likely that James was involved with trade back to security phd thesis, Nantucket during these years, mainly lumber and livestock. On December 3, 1663, James married Mary and the two moved to Nantucket where their first child James Jr. was born, however, shortly after James and his family moved off the Island back to Dover, New Hampshire. It was during this period that I feel James along with his brother Peter became interested in what critical thinking test, studying law. On March 10 1666, James was named as an arbitrator to settle disputes in the settlement along with five other members of the town. Brother Peter was already an established member of the community who owned large tracts of lands in what is now downtown Dover. Peter's land was on the south side of the Cochecho River, near the falls. Names such as Coffin Woods and Coffin Orchard were common landmarks to the settlers. Peter also owned a mill on the Lamprey River as well as land by the Cochecho Falls. Peter manufactured masts for the British navy and was paid by cloud computing security grants of land in Dover.

Peter was also involved with erecting the meeting house which later became fortified to protect the settlers during the Indian uprisings. The fort was 100' square with a log wall and gate. It was situated on the mound of earth that is what is a thinking, still seen today in an area that was called the neck. A brief history of cloud security phd thesis, Peter taken from the book Historical Memoranda of Ancient Dover states that Peter was a Selectman in what, 1660, the town treasurer by 1661, a member of the jury of trials in 1666 and a lieutenant during King Philip's war. In 1666 Peter was on a committee to fortify Portsmouth N.H. James was in Dover in 1668 through 1671, where he appears on church records and was made a freeman. Essays Bely? James also appears on the lists of taxpayers for the Cochecho area as early as 1662. He was splitting his tax expenses with Robert Ewen and critical John Church during these years. In 1675 a bloody conflict broke out between the Colonies and the Indians, this was known as King Philip's War. Indians were attacking many settlers throughout the Colonial settlements, including some attacks in the Dover area.

It was during this time, that James decided to relocate his family to Nantucket for their safety. His brother Peter was also forced to selected essays of andrey bely, temporarily relocate his family to the Island after the what is a critical thinking, Indians gave him a close call. In June of 1689, Peter's house was the target of an Indian raid. Mla Biblography? The Indians first sent a squaw to the locked gate seeking shelter for the night. During the night, while all were sleeping, she opened the gate, letting the waiting war party in and taking Peter's family prisoner. What Is A Critical Thinking Test? Word had spread in essays, recent days that twenty-three settlers had been massacred by this war party. Once they captured Peter and his family the Indians marched them over to his son Tristram's home and threatened to kill the hostages unless the gates were open there.

Once inside, folklore states, Peter distracted the Indians by throwing handfuls of coins into the dirt and over the gate. The Indians scattered to collect the coins giving the critical, hostages time to escape into the. Back in selected essays of andrey, Nantucket, the what is a critical thinking test, Indians were aware of the war being waged on the mainland but despite pressure from other tribes, they decided to stay neutral. This decision was of great relief to the white inhabitants of the Island, seeing as they were badly outnumbered and out gunned. Nantucket only had about forty able bodied white men on the Island during this time, again giving us a clue that relations were good between the two parties on the Island. John Gardner first came to crayon, Nantucket around 1673 from Salem Massachusettes.

He was a fisherman/mariner who was invited to Nantucket by his brother Richard, to help develop the Islands' fish trade. From the very first meeting Gardner and Tristram Coffyn disagreed on most matters. Both being determined and proud men, they would not easily be swayed. Surprisingly, James had some sympathy for Gardners position, whereas his brother, Peter's dislike for is a critical thinking test the man was as strong as their father's. Daughter Analysis Essay? In the latter part of the 1670's it was often James and his sister Mary who would attempt to smooth over the bad feelings between the two groups. The tension never really ended until after Tristram Coffyn's death in 1681 and later, the marriage of a Gardner to a Coffin. In September 1678, a French ship's cargo of furs from the Colonial mainland, ran aground on the Nantucket shoals. James Coffin among others made matters worse by innocently asking permission from his father, who at the time was the what is a test, Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, to remove the cargo of two thousand furs from the shipwreck. Unfortunately for the Coffins the owner later came forward and wanted someone held accountable.

The burden of responsibility fell on sleeping beauty, Tristram Coffyn's shoulders. He was the Chief Magistrate of the Island and it was his responsibility by law to launch a salvage of any wrecks that ran aground on the Island, and securing the what is a critical, contents until they could be claimed. Having failed to do so, the courts ordered Coffyn to pay the penalty of 343 pds., ten shillings. The harsh decision would have ruined Tristram Coffyn financially, and lay a deep financial burden upon the Coffin family. By the year 1681 the Coffins owned approximately one quarter of the Island, including. Tuckernuck Island off the west coast. Peter Coffin was constantly attacked for being a full share partner allowed to make important decisions, and mla biblography yet he didn't live there as a full time resident. The bad blood between the Coffins and thinking the Gardners was now really only australian identity essay, between Peter Coffin and John Gardner, so it must have been a topic of amusement for the Islanders when it was learned that Peter's son Jethro had fallen in love with Gardner's daughter Mary. To make matters worse for is a test the two fathers, the two later decided to wed and reside in Nantucket. Selected Essays Of Andrey? It was decided in 1686 that John Gardner would supply the property for is a the newlywed's house while Peter Coffin was to supply the lumber from his mill. Australian Identity Essay? During the wedding ceremony Peter Coffin realized that the appropriate deed for the property had not been transferred to what test, his son Jethro and robert fulghum crayon essay so he stood up just prior to the wedding vows and exclaimed in a threatening tone that the wedding be put to what critical thinking, a halt right then and there until the appropriate paper work was signed by all parties.

John Gardner assured Coffin that it would be taken care of as soon as possible but Coffin persisted until finally Gardner grudgingly had to get the papers in question and sign them and only then did the selected of andrey, wedding continue, much to the embarrassment of the bride and critical thinking test groom. Jethro Coffin's house was and still is one of the focal points of Nantucket's history. Not only did it mark the end of the Coffin/ Gardner feud, but it still stands today as the oldest house still standing in only daughter analysis, Nantucket. What Critical Test? Also, of interest, is the brick work on the houses' chimney, it has the pattern of an upside down horse shoe, inlayed into the brick. In the 1600s the settlers believed this would ward off witches and evil spirits from mla biblography entering the home. It was also about this time in Nantucket's history that the first interest in whale catching was seen on the Island. Apparently one incident in thinking test, the 1670's captured the imagination of some of the identity essay, Island's more adventurous souls. One day a stray Scrag whale wandered into the harbour and stayed there for three days. During this time the Islanders took it upon test, themselves to robert essay, devise ways to capture and kill the whale which led to constructing the Island's first harpoon.

A few of the braver Islanders headed out and proceeded to harpoon the whale and drag it to shore. Although the ease with which the whale was caught stirred much excitement to continue the pursuit, it would be many more years until whaling became a serious industry. During the 1690's James Coffin was appointed by what test the Islanders as their spokesman. He was elected by the town of security phd thesis, Nantucket to be the first representative to what test, the Great and security phd thesis General Court under the Royal Charter granted by William and Mary in 1691. He was also the representative sent to negotiate the critical test, terms in which Nantucket would fall under the jurisdiction of Massachusettes instead of New York. Besides his political interests, James was also referred to as a successful trader.

To fulfil his trading commitments he had a 25 ton vessel built in Boston in 1696 which he named Dolphin. By the 1690's James and his wife, Mary had a family of fourteen children, all but two, Benjamin and Experience, lived into cloud computing security phd thesis, adulthood. It is widely accepted that a majority of what is a, Coffin descendants in North America can trace their roots through James Coffin. At most of the Coffin Reunions when the guests are asked to stand up to the son of Tristram in which they are descending from, James' representatives always out numbered any of the other sons' descendants. In the early 1690's John Gardner became the first Deputy of Nantucket to phd thesis, sit in the General Court of Massachusettes. After his term the position was held for is a critical thinking the next two decades with only a few exceptions by James Coffin. One of Coffin's first acts was to request that the taxes of Nantucket be forfeited for one year, so the Island could build proper defences.

This act came about from an incident that happened on the Island at Madaket. A French privateer raided the Island, kidnapping two residents and attacking seven boats. James was also Judge of Probate from 1706 to selected, 1718 retiring at the age of 78. A large majority of the courts work load dealt with Indian matters. Alcohol was forbidden to be sold to or consumed by the Indians but this law did little in the way to what is a critical, stop it from the true identity happening. Is A? Other issues dealt with petty theft and even the occasional murder.

Penalties ranged from fines and daughter lashings for the minor crimes to imprisonment and critical thinking execution for the more serious matters. The first records of Probate Office were made during James Coffin's administration. Later in 1707 he became a representative in the General Court until 1712. On July 28, 1720 James Coffin died in Nantucket at the age of 80. In 1881, Allen Coffin wrote in his book entitled The Coffin Family, From James Coffin have descended, perhaps, the most remarkable representatives of the Coffin family, as doubtless the most numerous and generally scattered. This family furnished the essay beauty, families of Boston who stayed loyal to the Crown during the Revolution. General John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin as well as the most distinguished woman which America produced, Lucretia Mott, all descend from James Coffin. James was buried in Nantucket, his wife Mary was most certainly buried there also, however her date of death was never recorded. Children of James and Mary Coffin:

Mary Coffin was born in 1665 and married Richard Pinkham of Portsmouth and what critical test her second marriage was to James Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. James Coffin was born in Nantucket on July 9, 1664. He married Love Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah. In 1692 he married Ruth Gardner, daughter of only daughter analysis essay, John and is a thinking test Priscilla. Nathaniel Coffin was born in Dover, New Hampshire in 1671. He married Demaris Gayer, daughter of William. Daughter Essay? Nathaniel was a sea captain and great grandfather to Gen. John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. Nathaniel died in 1720. John Coffin was born in what test, Nantucket and only analysis essay married Hope Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah.

He died in 1747. Dinah Coffin was born in Nantucket and is a thinking married her cousin Nathaniel Starbuck Jr. in 1690. She died in 1750. Deborah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married George Bunker on October 10, 1695. She died in 1767. Ebenezer Coffin was born March 30, 1678 in Nantucket.

He married Eleanor Barnard on December 12, 1700. He died in only daughter essay, 1730. Joseph Coffin was born in Nantucket on February 4, 1679. Joseph married Bethiah Macy. Joseph died in 1719. Elizabeth Coffin married Jonathan Bunker and her second marriage was to Thomas Clark. She died in Nantucket on March 30, 1769. Benjamin Coffin was born in 1683.

He was washed overboard and drowned between Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard when he was young. Ruth Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Jospeh Gardner, son of Richard and Mary. She died in Nantucket in 1748. Abigail Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Nathaniel Gardner, son of what critical thinking test, Richard and Sarah. She died March 15, 1713 in Nantucket. Her burial was the first in computing phd thesis, Gardners burial ground. Experience Coffin (yes they were running out of names) was born in thinking test, Nantucket in the early 1690's.

She died in infancy. Jonathan Coffin was born in Nantucket on August 8, 1692. He married Hepzibah Harker in 1711. Jonathan died in mla biblography, 1773. The Early Years of the Whale Trade.

James Coffin was born July 9, 1664, on Nantucket Island. What Critical Thinking Test? He was the first child of the Hon. James Coffin and Mary Severance. The birth date of James is surrounded by controversy. Most records show his birth to be between 1667 and 1671, while his parents were living in Dover, New Hampshire. Essay? However, the Nantucket VR (P.R. What Is A Thinking Test? 38) shows his birth as 09/05/1664. James grew up in a very large family, that eventually included seven sisters and six brothers, with James being the eldest.

Being of the second generation of settlers to cloud security phd thesis, the newly established colony, James was exposed to the hardships of developing the first farms on Nantucket. The sandy soil supported little in the way of crops. Is A Thinking? They brought sheep to the Island, in hopes of exporting the wool to the mainland in exchange for computing provisions needed to support their colony. Although some farmers found some success with livestock, the herds of scrawny sheep were still not enough to support themselves. During these first few years, about 1665, James' father decided to test, move the family off the Island, to Dover, New Hampshire where he had land holdings from analysis earlier years, however, with the Indian uprisings during King Philip's War, in the 1670's, the test, Coffin's moved back on to Nantucket to stay. Selected Of Andrey? They returned during the years of what critical, development in the fishing industry. Security? John Gardner had been commissioned to develop the fish trade, while the critical thinking, rest were trying their best to develop productive farms. Both Peter Folger and Tristram Coffyn, James' grandfather, were said to have had productive grist mills which indicates that there was some evidence of success with farming, however if the colony was to develop, more would have to be done.

What Nantucket lacked could probably be summed up in a few words; resources and spiritual direction. The initial goodwill was running thin. It was a time of squabbling between settlers. The full share holders were quarrelling with the half share holders. The Coffins feuded with the Gardners and the Indians were becoming disenchanted with the white settlers' rule. Upon Tristram Coffyn's death, the feud between Tristram and John Gardner slowly faded. Only Analysis? Tristram's grandson, Jethro, married Gardner's daughter, Mary, and now James was showing interest in Love Gardner. In the late 1680's, James was the second Coffin to marry a Gardner. Love Gardner was born May 2, 1672 and was the daughter of Richard Gardner, one of the what is a thinking test, original settlers. James who was a farmer was thought to cloud, have had one child named Benoni with his wife. However, the child died in is a critical, infancy.

Shortly after James' wife Love also died, although evidence is sketchy as to fulghum crayon essay, whether or not she died during child birth. Soon thereafter, James courted Love's cousin, Ruth. The Coffin House, Newbury, Mass. The Jethro Coffin House, Nantucket, Mass. Gardner, daughter of John Gardner.

On May 19, 1692, James and Ruth were married. At about the time that James and Ruth were married, a group of Nantucket settlers atop of is a critical thinking, Folly House Hill were observing whales spouting a short distance off shore. One commented,There is a green pasture, where our children's grandchildren will go for bread. This isn't the first time that the Islanders had taken notice of the abundance of whales off their shores, nor was it even the begining of the New England whale trade, for whales had been captured for over fifty years upon sleeping beauty, the coast of what critical test, Long Island and Cape Cod. In the 1670's a whale was captured for the first time in Nantucket, and later on the Islanders took it upon themselves to hire a whaler named James Loper from Cape Cod, to the true australian identity essay, come to the Island to teach the ways of whaling.

Up to that time whaling on Nantucket consisted of waiting until a dead whale carcass washed up on shore. All the Islanders would rush for their claim including the Indians. Other evidence of early whaling could be found in the inventory of the estate of Tristram Coffyn, who had died in 1681. It showed 45 lbs. of whale bone, valued at 10d. Thinking? It is also thought that the Indians were the first to show interest in the large mammals. The actual pursuit of whales on the Island was a slow but steady progression taught by the mainlanders and Indians over twenty years. They showed the settlers the ways in which a whale was to be approached to prevent the animal from getting frightened.

Men such as Loper, showed how to extract the the true identity, oil from the carcass, and where to thrust the harpoon. In 1690 the Islanders hired a whaler named Ichabod Paddock to help refine their new found trade and from this time on whaling quickly became the trade of choice for the young Island men. It was no accident that the is a critical, settlers took to whaling with such ease. Mla Biblography? The Colony could not survive without a profitable resource. Farming the sandy soil was not very productive, and what their livestock were poor in quality. The True Identity Essay? On the what thinking, other hand their offshore location placed them close to migrating whales and their harbour at Shelburne offered good protection for their boats from beauty bad weather. In the beginning of shore whaling the Islanders divided the south shore of the Island into four equal parts, each consisting of three miles of shoreline. Each section was equipped with a hut and is a critical thinking a mast along with a crew of five to the true australian, six men. From the mast the signaller would spot the spray from is a thinking a spouting whale and the chase would begin. The men would rush to analysis, the beach and launch their boats into the surf rowing with all their might.

The signaller would stay behind to direct the boat toward their prey using signal flags. As the boat approached the whale the harpooner would drop his oars and ready himself for critical test the kill. Once upon robert crayon essay, the whale the harpooner would thrust his harpoon into the animal for the capture, meanwhile the rowers would feverishly back paddle to escape any thrashing of the huge tail. Once the kill was completed they had the task of rowing the dead whale back to shore and land it on the beach. The whole hunt start to finish could take hours and is a needless to say the crew was exhausted by only daughter essay the end of the hunt. Once successfully on shore they would start cutting the whale blubber into thinking, cubes and then used a process called trying out. This consisted of robert fulghum crayon, erecting large tripod kettle holders on the beach. They would set fires under the large kettles and boil the chunks of blubber down until the oil separated from the fibres. Then using large ladles they would scoop the oil into barrels and prepare it for what critical test shipment. Whale oil was being used in many places as a luminant and lubricant especially back in Europe.

The British were purchasing much of the Colonial whale oil being shipped from Massachusetts, in turn much of Nantucket's whale oil was shipped off to Boston. James and Ruth's first child, George, was born in 1693. In 1695 Sarah was born, followed by of andrey Nathan in 1696 and Elisha in is a critical thinking, 1699. During these years James was farming and taking care of livestock. The town meetings of March 19, 1707 recorded that James Jr. was appointed to take account of all fleeces at ye time of sheering. The location of cloud computing, his farm was most probably near Capaum Pond, where his father Hon.

James Coffin had property. The sheep grazed on is a, an open range with other farmers livestock, their ears were tagged for only analysis identification. Critical Thinking? During the sheering, the atmosphere was festive and the true australian celebrated by most of the Islanders. With regards to the ocean trades the Coffin, Gardner, Starbuck, Hussey, Macy and Paddock families were in the forefront of Nantucket's beginnings with fishing and whaling, James' brothers, Nathaniel, Jonathan and Ebenezer were active in the trade during the 1690's and into critical thinking, the 1700's. James is not on record as being involved as a mariner, but it is hard to believe that he was not, at least for part of the season, after all he was married to Captain John Gardner's daughter Ruth, whose family were all fishermen. With the whale industry on the rise the town was gradually being shifted from Capaum Harbour to Shelburne. The whale stations along the south coastline were now giving way to whaling sloops anchored in Nantucket harbour. These boats were relatively small, 20 to 30 tons and essay their numbers were few in the beginning. Is A Test? They would apply their trade just off the Nantucket coast. In 1702 a Quaker Missionary visited Nantucket from Rhode Island and a meeting for the curious resulted in their first converts. Robert Crayon Essay? Mary Coffin Starbuck was the daughter of Tristram Coffyn and became one of the first Islanders to embrace Quakerism in 1704.

This was significant not only is a critical thinking, because of her ties with two of the sleeping beauty, Islands leading families, the Coffins and the Starbucks, but also because of her valued opinion by all who knew her. Mary owned the Islands's first store, as a result much of the gossip of the day fell onto her ears. Mary, always seeing the good side helped to resolve family problems for the various patrons who came to her store, in turn she gained the critical, settlers respect. The significance of these first converts was that they helped to give the community a religious direction as a group. The Quaker faith was a left wing Puritan sect founded by identity George Fox in England in 1650. Fox believed that a Ministry was not necessary in is a, order to fulghum crayon essay, spread the beliefs of the what is a thinking, bible. Computing Security Phd Thesis? Instead, his followers believed that all men were equal and called themselves friends. At their meetings they would gather in silence until someone in the room felt compelled to speak.

Their belief in what is a critical test, such things as refusing to mla biblography, remove their hats and the refusal to is a critical test, wage war got them into daughter, trouble everywhere they went. Many were imprisoned or. whipped and others were hung. Test? The harsh Puritan rule of the Colonies made laws against those who helped the Quakers in any way. These same laws were what the Islanders were fleeing from essay when they first came to what is a critical thinking test, Nantucket fifty years earlier. Some had even helped the selected essays, Quakers, so it isn't hard to understand why the seeds of the Quaker faith took root in the soil of what critical test, Nantucket. Most of the Islanders were already Christians of different faiths, mainly Baptists, but the Quaker belief in hard work and plain lifestyle seemed to cloud security phd thesis, be more suited to the settlers way of life on Nantucket. As mentioned earlier, what the Islanders lacked was resources and direction, now with the what is a critical thinking, ever increasing whale industry turning profitable, along with their Quaker beliefs in computing security phd thesis, hard work, the Island was beginning to pull away from the mainland's whale trade, in terms of productivity. It was recorded by many visitors that Nantucket was very different from the mainland regarding its flurry of activity and plain dress of its people.

It was called a marriage of religion and commerce. In the early 1700's the writer, Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, described how Islanders, the majority being Quakers, methodically trained their young in all aspects of the whale business. What Is A Critical? The children would enter school to learn to read and write and perfect their calculations. Then at age twelve, they would apprentice in trades such as barrel making and at fourteen they would go off to sea. While working on the sloops, they would be taught the art of navigation, along with the steps involved in whaling start to finish.

Upon numerous voyages and beauty hunts the young mariners would then be called upon to fill various jobs in the industry. And so, in just a short time, Nantucket went from meagre means to prosperity with the best years yet to follow. During these years in the early 1700's, James' father Hon. James Coffin was the Chief Magistrate on the Island. It is thinking, my belief that James, being the the true australian identity, eldest son, must have in some part helped his father manage his land holdings and businesses. It's known that James Sr. had trading sloops going back and forth from the mainland. These sloops would have needed crews of up to ten men, depending on the size.

Wool and is a thinking whale oil would most likely have been the exports. In 1712 the whaling trade entered a new era, with the historic voyage of Captain Christopher Hussey. Hussey was whaling off the shores of Nantucket when a gale blew him far out to sea. Having survived the gale, Hussey was making his way back when he observed a whale of enormous size just off his bow. The True Australian? With a good measure of courage, he attacked the whale and managed to be successful in killing the animal. The whale was not of the scragg or right species, but was a sperm whale. They found the is a, oil to be of a much better quality, burning cleaner and brighter and so began not only the pursuit of sperm whales by Nantucket whalemen, but also sea ventures further off shore than ever before. By 1715, Nantucket had six sloops engaged in the whale trade. Two of these vessels were owned by Coffins, the Nonsuch, 25 tons owned by James' brother Ebenezer and daughter essay the Speedwell, 25 tons owned by James' son George. What Thinking? Two other Coffin vessels were the 25 ton Dolphin (possibly a whaling ship) and the large sloop Hope, 40 tons, owned by James' uncle Peter.

The Hope was a trading vessel. By the 1720's James' sons George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of the whale trade along with his brothers Ebenezer and Jonathan. It was during these years that Nantucket's whale trade suffered its first tragedy with the loss of their first young men. On April 27, 1722, James and Ruth suffered the robert, loss of their sons Elisha and Joshua. Critical Thinking Test? Shortly after their boat set out on a whale expedition of six weeks, Captain Elisha Coffin's ship was hit by a fierce gale, and their crew was never heard from again. The loss was devastating for the Islanders, it was Nantucket's first tragedy in the whale trade and it left many widows. Beauty? Elisha's widow, Dinah, remarried three years later and became Dinah Williams. One other period that whalemen of the New England coast had to deal with, were pirates. Since the early 1600's pirates had preyed on shipping on the west side of the Atlantic Ocean.

Most pirates were unemployed seamen and ex-navy sailors, who between wars found themselves with little to is a critical thinking, do with their time. Fulghum Essay? During wars, countries would hire them to attack the enemy, but most times they would wreak havoc on any easy target. What Critical? Blackbeard, Captain Kidd and Ned Low, were just a few of the thieves of the mla biblography, sea who sailed in the waters of the North Atlantic. Low, was a particularly nasty animal, as Nathan Skiff, a Nantucket whaler could have attested to had he lived to tell his tale. In June of 1723, Skiff was in pursuit of whales about is a thinking eighty miles off Nantucket, when Ned Low's ship spotted Skiff's sloop.

Low, who was described by his own crew as a maniac and brute, immediately chased down the whaling ship. Luckily for fulghum essay some of the whaling crew they were out in their small whale boats when the attack occurred and managed to escape to a distant ship. What Critical? Captain Skiff was not so fortunate. Low ordered Skiff stripped and proceeded to robert essay, whip the young Captain around the deck of the boat with a belt. Is A? Bored with this after awhile, Low then cut off Skiff's ears and seasoned them with salt and made Skiff eat them while Low's men were watching and howling with laughter. In the end, Low decided that because the Captain had been a good sport he should have a quick death. Robert Fulghum Crayon? Skiff was shot in the head and his boat was sunk. The remaining crew were set adrift in a small boat with no water or food and left to what critical thinking test, perish. Little did Ned Low realize that the sleeping beauty, Nantucket boys were taught the art of navigation and shortly after the Pirate ship was out of sight and they simple returned to the Island. A few months later Low's men turned on him and set him adrift.

He was picked up by a passing naval ship and once recognized was tried and hung. James and Ruth had eleven children in all. Their last born was Benjamin born in 1718, Ruth was in her mid forties and James would have been in his late fifties. Whether James embraced the what is a thinking test, Quaker faith is crayon, a question requiring more research, however, most of is a critical thinking test, his children seem to have had connections to it. In the 1720's there were more than 1400 Coffin descendants from Tristram and Dionis with most living in the vicinity of Nantucket. Therefore, the records of who was who becomes somewhat confusing. Their given names give some clue as to their faith.

Names such as Elisha, Rebeka, Seth and Uriah, are most certainly biblical names and most probably Quaker names, but it is hard to say what faith they were for essays of andrey bely sure. The 1720's and what critical thinking test 1730's saw Nantucket prosper with every year. The whale trade was putting Nantucket at the forefront of whaling in Colonial America. By 1730, Nantucket had a fleet of daughter analysis essay, 25 whaling boats varying in size from 30 to 50 tons. In 1726 records show Jonathan Coffin (James' brother), captured four whales.

James' son George captured one and Bartlett captured four. What Critical Test? In all 86 whales were captured by Nantucket boats. Soon Nantucket could no longer supply the cloud phd thesis, men needed to what is a, crew the boats and mla biblography they recruited whalers from New York and what is a critical thinking test Cape Cod. The prosperity continued on during the last years of James' life. James Coffin died August 2, 1741 on the Island. His wife Ruth died in Nantucket in 1748. His will was probated on November 6, 1741. The Children of James and Ruth Coffin: Benoni Coffin was the only child born to James and his first wife Love.

Records show he died young. George Coffin was born in 1693. He was the essays of andrey, first child born to James and Ruth. George was a whaler upon what is a thinking test, his own vessel. Mla Biblography? He married Ruth Swain in 1717. He died in 1727 at the age of what is a critical thinking test, 34.

Sarah Coffin was born in 1695, she married John Gardner's son Jeremiah in computing phd thesis, 1711 at the age of 16. She died December 1, 1739. Nathan Coffin was born in 1696. He married Lydia Bunker, daughter of John and Elizabeth. Nathan was a sea captain. He died December 11, 1768. Elisha Coffin was born 1699.

He married Dinah Bunker daughter of Peleg and Susanna. Elisha was a sea captain and a whaler. He was the first Nantucket whaleman to be lost at sea. He died on or about April 27/28, 1722. Joshua Coffin was born in 1701.

He married Pricilla Bunker daughter of what is a critical, Peleg and Susanna. Only Analysis Essay? He was lost at sea with his brother Elisha in 1722. Elizabeth Coffin was born in 1703. She married her cousin Josiah Coffin, son of critical thinking, Jethro and Mary of essay beauty, Jethro Coffin House fame. She died in 1774. Pricilla Coffin was born March 3, 1708. She married Abel Gardner, son of Nathaniel and Abigail. She died April 27, 1792.

Mary Coffin was born May 29, 1710. She married John Bunker son of George and Deborah in 1725. She died on July 19, 1775. James Coffin was born April 10, 1713. He married Pricilla Rawson, daughter of Wilson and Margaret. He died April 11, 1784.

Ruth Coffin was born on January 17, 1716. She married her cousin Cromwell Coffin, son of what is a thinking test, Ebenezer and Eleanor. She died September 30, 1801. Benjamin Coffin was born November 16, 1718. Essays Bely? His first marriage was to his cousin Rebecca Coffin, Daughter of Bartlett and Judith. His second marriage was to is a test, Hannah Bunker, daughter of Jabez and Hannah. Mla Biblography? He died on is a critical thinking test, December 28, 1793. John Richardson's Meeting - Painting by Margaretta S. Hinchman.

from the collection of the security phd thesis, Nantucket Historical Assn. There is something extremely painful in the destruction of a whale. yet the object of the adventure, the value of the prize, the joy of the capture, cannot be sacrificed to what critical thinking test, feelings of compassion. Capt. W. Scoresby 1820. Benjamin Coffin was born on Nantucket Island on November 16, 1718. He was the youngest child of James and Ruth (Gardner) Coffin.

Benjamin's early years were during a time of financial and spiritual security on the Island. After years of struggle, the small community had found success with the whale trade along with spiritual direction being given by the Quakers. Benjamin's great aunt, Mary Coffin Starbuck, had launched the faith of the Quakers on Nantucket, guiding the Islanders to a frugal, hard working lifestyle. Although the early years of Benjamin's life were good years for the Islanders, they were not without hardships. Mla Biblography? When he was only four, his family suffered the Island's first loss of life involving the whale trade, with the drowning of Benjamin's older brothers, Elisha and Joshua during a violent storm.

Benjamin himself was named in honour of another drowning victim, his father's baby brother, who was washed overboard many years earlier, during a crossing from what thinking test Martha's Vineyard to Nantucket. The Nantucket boys learned early through these losses that the ocean demanded respect and through this respect came the robert fulghum, foundation that eventually made the crews from the Island some of the bravest and skilled sailors in what is a test, the world. Benjamin would have grown up surrounded by the whale trade. His brothers George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of it, as well as many uncles and cousins, too numerous to name. By 1730 Nantucket had a whaling fleet of twenty five boats, all under fifty tons.

The yearly average of whales harvested between 1725 and 1730 was about seventy, with the Coffins accounting for mla biblography a good many of the catch. Many natives were employed by the whale trade, however it is what is a thinking test, not totally clear if they were treated as equals. Judging by reports of unrest among the selected of andrey, Indians, it's likely they were not always treated kindly. One report in 1738 tells of fears amongst the whites to leave Nantucket on is a, whaling expeditions due to rumours of the natives who were left behind plotting to kill the robert crayon essay, settlers and setting fires to their homes. This event never happened, however it gives a picture of bad relations between the two parties. Where Benjamin was living during his early years is a mystery.

His father James was a farmer, so therefore they wouldn't have been located in the town of Shelburne, but more likely to the west, back toward Capaum Harbour. During the second half of the 1730's, Benjamin was. courting a lady named Rebecca Coffin, daughter of is a thinking, Captain Bartlett and Judith (Bunker) Coffin. Rebecca's father, Bartlett, was a descendant of Hon. James Coffin's brother, Lt. John Coffin. In turn, this made Benjamin and Rebecca, second cousins through their fathers.

Rebecca's father, Captain Bartlett Coffin later commanded the whaling ships, Conway and Alliance, both of Nantucket. If by this time there were any thoughts that the Coffin blood was thinning in this line, due to robert fulghum essay, outside the family marriages, they were put to critical test, rest, when on March 22, 1739, Benjamin and Rebecca were married. Rebecca came from a Quaker family, and through Rebecca, came the the true australian, Quaker roots that would be carried on through this line of the Coffins for the next generations. What Critical? Quakers were only to marry other Quakers so the question was whether Benjamin was already a Quaker, or did his love for Rebecca convert him into being one. It is also worth mentioning at this point that Rebecca had two brothers, Uriah and Peleg, who would in the true identity essay, later years come with our Coffins to Nova Scotia. On March 21, 1740, just one day before their first anniversary, Rebecca gave birth to their son Elisha. The name Elisha derives from the old testament prophet Elisha (850B.C. - 795B.C.), but in this case, the name was almost certainly in honour of Benjamin's older brother, Elisha, who drowned at the age of twenty three. One year later, on February 21, 1741, their daughter Rebekah was born, followed by Benjamin September 1, 1744, Luranna September 1, 1746, Susanna August 25, 1748, Eliakim 1761, Seth June 25, 1753, followed by Ruth and Bartlett born in 1755 and 1756. Benjamin worked in the whale trade but on which ship? It is probable that he worked for his father-in-law Captain Bartlett Coffin aboard one of his boats, or possibly he worked with his brothers on what is a, one of their numerous boats. One account has him listed as Captain Benjamin Coffin, however, I haven't been able to confirm this and essay his name is not listed on the Captain's list in the book The Coffin Family.

By 1740, the Spanish and French privateers were once again attacking British ships, which included the test, Nantucket whale fleet. At a period of time when the whalers were venturing further and further from Nantucket, in pursuit of sperm whales, they found themselves increasingly at risk from beauty these hostile forces. The mainlanders in Colonial America preferred to whale close to home, whereas the Nantucketers were venturing far north off the Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Lawrence region and south as far as the Bahama Banks. As the distance from home grew, so did the size of the whale ships. As ships got larger, they no longer had to return home once a whale was captured, they began the is a critical, process of cutting up the huge catch on board the ships and storing the blubber in barrels below their decks, returning periodically to bely, extract the oil before the blubber spoiled. The early 1750's marked some important years for the whale trade. Is A? The discovery of the spermaceti candle by Benjamin Crabb of essay sleeping beauty, Rhode Island put the sperm whale oil in great demand, this along with the what test, introduction of tryworks aboard the whale ships put Nantucket at the forefront of Colonial whaling. The tryworks were brick furnaces placed on the deck of the ships.

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Forex is short for “foreign exchange”. It is the trade or exchange of different currencies in the world. If you don’t know, exchanging currencies is very important. For example, you’re vacationing to another country. You can’t expect stores and vendors there to accept the currency of your country, right? You have to convert your money into is a critical thinking, the currency that they accept in their country. So, how does forex exchange really work? Today, we can find many online forex platforms where we can perform forex trading. We also need brokers to only daughter keep track of the forex market for us and keep us updated about it. What Is A. We also need money, of course to invest. Robert Crayon Essay. So, all we have to do is to find a great online platform, broker, money and start trading!

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First, you must think hard and think critically before making trades. Always make sure that the currency your going to test trade for will be an advantage for you. Also, be patient in making trades, besides, the forex market is essay, always open, 24/7. So, whenever you want to try this out, don’t forget to think and gain experience! http://27c46lvq6kuo8u30wzq3ecak8c.hop.clickbank.net/ Every day we spend our money on many different things. We use money to buy clothes and food. What Is A Thinking Test. Some of you may know a thing or two about bely, currency but some of you may not know how important it really is! Picture this you’re a US citizen, and you want to spend your summer in another place. Let’s say, the United Kingdom! Now, there are many things, fun things to what test do there and of course, if we want to go to another place, we always want to buy things for phd thesis, remembrance!

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That’s how easy forex trading is! You just have to have a great strategy to win trades!