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Ap central world history essays

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Cake Inc: Tips for Writing a Business Plan. Favorited Add to Favorites. You#8217;ve baked dozens of world beautiful cakes and cupcakes for friends and family that were met with rave reviews, you#8217;ve saved up a whack of common application essays cash and you#8217;ve been dreaming of taking your love of baking, cake decorating and design to the next level #8212; but how do you dive in? First of all, you#8217;ll definitely want to ap central world history, start by writing a business plan. A business plan is an exercise in helping you work through every last detail of a romance me opening your cake business. It helps you flesh out exactly what your business will be, what it will look like, who your customers will be and what everything will cost. World History? It is also an essential part of applying for write a research, business loans from investors or banks.

Yes, you can bake a mean red velvet cupcake and you#8217;ve got a secret sugar flower up your sleeve, but take precautions and be smart about starting your cake business and you might just see your profits multiplying like mini cupcakes! Before you even think about opening your doors, offer a top quality product. Cake shops are a dime a dozen, yet new businesses are constantly opening all over the world. Essays? The macaron, the doughnut, the cronut, the cronut hole #8212; nothing has been able to touch the and contrast cupcake empire#8217;s blob-like sprawl of ap central history shops worldwide. I think it#8217;s because no other pastry says party time quite like an a thesis, individual pink-frosted mini cake with rainbow sprinkles. Since there are oodles of cupcake bakeries out there, this makes it crucial to start with one thing: an world history essays, exceptional product. If you#8217;re just trying to make a quick buck by tossing together some cake mixes and premade icing, you may lure in one customer but you won#8217;t create a loyal following that will keep coming back. Pride yourself on resume becoming the best baker you can be, and truly stand behind your product as delicious. If you have a good product, that#8217;s half the battle. Once you have a great product you can stand behind, write your business plan. Here#8217;s an ap central essays, overview what your business plan should include: 1. What exactly are you offering?

What is thesis please hate your product? Your product is your business. Knowing your product will help answer the subsequent question of what does your business look like. Describe what you are going to ap central world, offer your clients and how it is how to a research project unique. Include adjectives or descriptions for what you want your business to world history essays, be. For example, perhaps you want to be a modern, chic cake business catering to a high-end clientele, or you want to write and contrast, start a cottage industry cake business from ap central world history your home and a thesis for compare offer rustic homemade cakes for birthday parties.

Write it all out! This will help distill your vision and strengthen your eventual brand. Photo via Coco Cake Land. Chances are there are several if not dozens of bakeries in ap central world history, your hometown. For Manager? Do some research on their pricing, customer base, cake flavors, look, feel and design of their businesses #8212; not to copy them, but to ap central world, see what#8217;s out there. Who will your target market be? Try creating a marketing survey that can help answer your questions. Send your survey out to how to project, friends, family and ask them to pass it along to world history, their network, as well. You will want to include all of this information in thesis please me, your business plan. It will also help you figure out history essays, who you want your clientele to be. By knowing your market, you#8217;ll be able to figure out what your customers want and phd dissertation blog how you#8217;re able to give it to world history essays, them.

4. Resume For Manager? Be realistic about ap central your budget and figure out your costs. What will you need to open a bakery or cake business? Create a budget for your business. Be realistic with your numbers. You#8217;re doing yourself the best favor by being detailed with your expenses and realistic with your revenue. Resume For Manager? Anticipate all the details/roadblocks before you run into them. Don#8217;t simply go to the most popular cupcake chain and think, #8220;oh, they are charging this and history essays making this much a month #8212; I#8217;ll be doing the same.#8221; Remember you are just starting. Think about what a realistic amount of money you can make in a month. What#8217;s your best-case scenario? What#8217;s your worst-case scenario? What#8217;s your contingency plan (extra money squirreled away if things get rough)?

If your budget and numbers work and you can be profitable in common application essays 2012-13, your worst-case scenario, it#8217;s a good indication that you#8217;ll be able to be successful. Think about what you will need down to every detail. Things you will likely need: a commercial space to lease; commercial oven; refrigerators; countertops; workspaces; lighting; flooring; seating; etc. You may need to hire contractors and people to help install equipment, plumbing, and world history essays lighting. You#8217;ll need a logo for your business, signage for write a thesis for compare, your shop, you#8217;ll need a cake web site and you may need to hire staff. You#8217;ll need cake boxes, cupcake liners, cake boards and all the perishable supplies needed to create cakes such as butter, cream, and eggs. Before you sign the lease, figure out what your monthly costs will be and ensure you#8217;ll be able to make all of that back! 5. History Essays? Have a good plan for phd research proposal on entrepreneurship, marketing and promotion. Ap Central World Essays? Don#8217;t underestimate the need for getting your name out there. Put some time and money toward marketing yourself!

If a tree falls in the woods and nobody hears it#8230; Like any successful business, you#8217;ll need to work your butt off for a good long while to achieve success. Put your nose to the mixer beaters and get ready for carpal tunnel piping wrist syndrome — you#8217;re about to jump in to what can be a very exciting, exhausting (but fun!) ride. Don#8217;t forget about the importance of 2012-13 your social media presence, either a successful online presence can translate to a successful cake business. Thanks for essays, mentioning this valuable insight! I#8217;m in the process of starting my own bakery catering business as well and these are all valid points that I#8217;ve encountered along the way. I especially vouch for researching your market segments to develop a solid focus on who you want to target. Additionally, establishing a comprehensive financial plan is a must. From personal experience, a good portion of my expenses went to how to write a research project report, catering equipment suppliers, so conducting research in this area is very critical. I#8217;ve found a reliable supplier to help me fulfill my equipment needs from: http://www.akro.co.uk/

Delores, I am so happy that the article was of world history use to you, and that you took the time to comment! Wishing you all the best in your bakery catering business! Take care. Be aware, it could be a sign of how to progress stress, boredom or bad socializing when they were a kitten. It. always click here provide the best possible way. If not, consider whether or not the electrician is licensed and insured, choose someone else. And if you are buying from world is reliable and. Please Me? efficient 24/7 electrician ### plumber can also be adjusted as per history, your needs.

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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is essays tough, and it takes time. And the resume for manager, worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out ap central world essays, how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the thesis please hate, process that I am about to share with you step-by-step.

And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to ap central world write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Thesis Please Hate Me! Quick but little-known tips to world essays follow to get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to thesis me all of your questions about how to make the best resume for history essays, a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. A Thesis And Contrast! A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume.

Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the history, way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to a thesis for compare follow the ap central world essays, advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs.

CV. What's the phd dissertation blog, difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and ap central world essays, skills so that you can apply for common essays, a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV?

Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and essays, is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. Phd Dissertation Blog! It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to world history write a CV. Write Project Progress Report! If you need to world history know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the a romance hate, Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the ap central essays, right format. How to for compare and contrast Choose a Professional Resume Format.

What does a resume look like? There are three types of ap central world history, professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in application, the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters.

Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to ap central history recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of how to project progress report, experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section:

Adding your address is optional. It is ap central world history essays no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. A Research Project! Plus, it might be better to world history essays exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from for compare and contrast, when you were in ap central world, high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for application, an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to ap central your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for blog, unprofessional content.

When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the best impression. History! Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to write for compare and contrast attract employers? Read our guide: How to essays Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to phd research make a resume? The short answer is ap central world yes, it does matter.

That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of on entrepreneurship, your resume. And the ap central, best way to start any killer resume is phd dissertation with an introduction to world history yourself. Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the on entrepreneurship, penthouse - the ap central essays, most important piece of real estate on the document. But why?

The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and a thesis and contrast, deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and history essays, skill set. Proposal! It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire.

Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to ap central world leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Write A Research Progress! Has an MA in hand holding and a license to ap central history essays cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the phd dissertation, same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of world history essays, experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at common application the right time.

Want to ap central history apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to a romance please hate focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for ap central essays, a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions.

You can also choose to phd research proposal write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of ap central world history essays, summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in how to report, the body of an ap central history essays, excellent resume is the resume, section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the ap central, experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience.

In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to please hate me write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of ap central world essays, your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to phd dissertation include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona.

Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for ap central world history, brand strategy.

Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of how to a research report, job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to history each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to phd research tamper with dates, leaving only the ap central world, years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months.

But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and on entrepreneurship, any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. Ap Central Essays! But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative.

For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is phd research proposal another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out history essays, our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out proposal on entrepreneurship, , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to ap central world history have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description. Resume For Manager! This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. World History Essays! More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume:

You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume.

Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the a romance thesis please hate, traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for ap central history essays, publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and how to report, projects. Whatever you decide to world history essays add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to blog fit onto one page if possible.

No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and ap central essays, gives the on entrepreneurship, hiring manager a fuller image of ap central history essays, you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume.

Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Please! Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only world, one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and common 2012-13, information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments.

When you sit down to ap central history write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and phd research, choose material from your master resume to world history match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the a romance thesis please hate me, content to the job description, you're going to world history add keywords that you find in a romance thesis, the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on world essays several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to a romance thesis hate tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to ap central world essays add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. Common Application Essays! For example: Work on several campaigns at ap central history once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the blog, keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter.

If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is ap central make things quantifiable. Wherever possible. Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the resume, readability of the text, and draws the world history essays, eye of the write for compare, recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well.

Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of ap central world history essays, how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on a romance please hate Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in history, sales by 15% and an increase in and contrast, revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for ap central world history, in your experience section?

More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and phd dissertation blog, after resume examples:

Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to history sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to blog Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to ap central history essays build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the resume for manager, marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to ap central world history show a steady progression into a management position.

Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for a romance please hate, the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and world, recommend solutions. Proposal! Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Ap Central Essays! Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information.

Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on write for compare and contrast how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to ap central world Create a Resume That Draws Attention to write a thesis for compare and contrast Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Ap Central History Essays! Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and how to a research project report, master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the world history, same organization?

You don’t have to mention the name of the common essays 2012-13, same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and world history, achievements.

Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to a thesis for compare make a resume easy for world essays, a recruiter to a thesis and contrast read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and world essays, font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of common essays, your resume will consist of ap central world, bullet points. Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Write Project! Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and world history essays, easier to read.

They also save you time and energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort.

Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is a romance me 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to essays Save Your Resume.

When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is project report no chance that the world, formatting will glitch and how to write a research project progress report, get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in world history, mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics.

Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to application essays search for world history essays, that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and phd dissertation blog, cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two?

Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to ap central history keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and how to progress report, that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to ap central world go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for proposal on entrepreneurship, You.

One of the worst things you can do is send out ap central world, a basic resume that is full of grammar and for compare, spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an world history, objective opinion about phd dissertation blog, how you’ve presented yourself.

Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of ap central world history essays, recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and phd research proposal on entrepreneurship, you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to world see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go.

If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of a romance thesis me, your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the ap central essays, information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to a thesis for compare and contrast contact the world, webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the phd dissertation blog, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is ap central still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer.

Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is resume for manager where you can expand upon world history things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon phd dissertation blog request. Okay, so you need a cover letter.

But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like jobs@company.com , your resume is entering a swamp of ap central world history, identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in resume, every case. You will need to ap central essays decide if a hiring manager will see the thesis please, gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers.

Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and ap central world history essays, read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to proposal job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the history essays, time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to tailor it to blog the job description. Ap Central World History! If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview.

Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position?

Add a comment. Phd Dissertation! I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at history essays Uptowork. She loves writing about phd dissertation, resumes and world, eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Ap central world history essay

The 31 Best LinkedIn Profile Tips for Job Seekers. The Muse Editor. When you’re not looking for a job, it can be easy to ignore your LinkedIn profile. Sure, you add people you meet at networking events as contacts and accept requests as they come in, but everything else? Eh, you’ll get to it when you need to. While we definitely don’t recommend this approach (hey, the recruiter from your dream company finding you and world offering you a job?

It could happen), we get that there are times you need a total LinkedIn profile overhaul. And for those times? We’ve got you covered! Here, we’ve compiled everything you need to know about tricking out your LinkedIn profile—from crafting a stunning summary to selling your accomplishments, projects, and common application skills—in one place. Read on world history, for expert-backed ways to common application essays 2012-13, make your profile seriously shine—and start getting noticed by history recruiters. 1. Put in the Time to Make it Awesome. Simply put, the more complete your profile, the how to a research project report, better the history essays, odds that recruiters will find you in the first place. How To Write A Research Project? So, completeness is important from essays, that standpoint. It’s also important after a recruiter has found you and decided to phd research on entrepreneurship, click on your profile: He or she wants to know what your skills are, where you’ve worked, and what people think of you. So, don’t get lazy—fill out every single section of your profile. The good news?

LinkedIn will actually measure the “completeness” of your profile as you work and offer suggestions on how to ap central, make it stronger. It’s much easier to publicize your profile with a customized URL (ideally linkedin.com/yourname), rather than the how to a research project progress report, clunky combination of numbers that LinkedIn automatically assigns when you sign up. Ap Central History Essays? How to get one? On the Edit Profile screen, at the bottom of the phd research on entrepreneurship, gray window that shows your basic information, you’ll see a Public Profile URL. Click “Edit” next to the URL, and specify what you’d like your address to be. When you’re finished, click Set Custom URL. Choose a clear, friendly, and appropriately professional image, and world pop that baby up there. Not sure what “appropriately professional” means? Take a look around at application essays 2012-13, what the ap central history essays, people in your target company, industry sector, or business level are wearing.

Match that. (Pro tip: “If you can show yourself in action, do it,” says a blogger who experimented with multiple LinkedIn photos to phd research proposal, see which garnered the most attention.) “A photo can go a long way to convey passion, energy, charisma, empathy, and other soft skills that are hard to write about.” Your headline doesn’t have to ap central, be your job title and company—in fact, especially if you’re looking for jobs, it shouldn’t be. Instead, use that space to succinctly showcase your specialty, value proposition, or your “so what?” The more specific you can be about what sets you apart from the write for compare, competition, the better. 5. Use Your Target Job Descriptions to Your Advantage. Take a look at the job descriptions of the positions you’re after, and dump them into a word cloud tool like Wordle. See those words that stand out? They’re likely what recruiters are searching for when they’re looking for ap central world history people like you. Make sure those words and phrases are sprinkled throughout your summary and experience. “Ideally, your summary should be around 3–5 short paragraphs long, preferably with a bulleted section in application 2012-13, the middle.

It should walk the world essays, reader through your work passions, key skills, unique qualifications, and resume for manager a list of the various industries you’ve had exposure to over the years.” Career Horizons. “Much like the rest of your resume, you’ll want to history essays, highlight past results in write project progress, your summary. When possible, include numbers and ap central world history essays case studies that prove success. Social media consultant and write a thesis and contrast speaker Wayne Breitbarth, for example, quickly establishes credibility with his audience by stating in ap central world essays, his summary’s second sentence: ‘I have helped more than 40,000 businesspeople—from entry level to CEO—understand how to effectively use LinkedIn.’ Never underestimate the power of a few key stats to impress a reader.” American Express OPEN Forum. “The summary section is phd dissertation blog, your primo opportunity to showcase the history essays, good stuff about you, with your target audience in mind. Give ’em a little chance to get to know you.

So what do you think the first impression is going to be if you craft your summary like some long, pompous speech? Or worse, craft it in write, the third person? They’re going to think you’re pretentious. And it’s going to be hard for that reviewer to get a feel for your personality and style. Be you here. Keep the history, brand message in line with all of your other professional marketing materials, but realize that LinkedIn is common application 2012-13, a platform designed for interaction.” JobJenny. 9. Ap Central? Avoid Buzzwords Like the Plague. What do the words responsible, creative, effective, analytical, strategic, patient, expert, organizational, driven, and please innovative have in common? They’re the most overused buzzwords on ap central world, all of LinkedIn.

Come on—we know you can be more creative! 10. Treat Your Profile Like Your Resume. Your resume isn’t just a list of job duties (or, at least, it shouldn’t be)—it’s a place to highlight your best accomplishments. Same goes for your LinkedIn profile: Make sure your experience section is fleshed out with bullet points that describe what you did, how well you did it, and who it impacted. You shouldn’t use the write, first person on your resume, but it’s actually fine to do so on LinkedIn (think “I’m a passionate development officer who raised $400,000 for cancer charities last year,” not (“Jackie Stevens is a passionate development officer. ”). “Your profile is not a resume or CV. Write as if you are having a conversation with someone. Inject your personality.

Let people know your values and passions. In your summary, discuss what you do outside of work. You want people to want to know you.” Forbes. Recruiters spend countless hours scouring LinkedIn in search of the high performers. And when they find them, they contact said high performers. Knowing this, you’ll serve yourself well to world history, market yourself as a high performer in your summary and thesis hate me experience section (think action words, accomplishments, talking about history essays times you’ve been promoted or hand-picked for a romance projects).

14. Include a Current Job Entry, Even When Unemployed. “If you've only listed the past positions you’ve held in the experience section but show nothing current, you’ll probably get missed in ap central world history essays, most searches. For Manager? Why? Because most recruiting professionals exclusively use the current title box to search for candidates; otherwise they’d have to sort through thousands of ap central world, candidates who held a certain role (for example, graphic designer) as far back as 20 or more years ago. The simple workaround, if you’re unemployed, is to create a dummy job listing in the current section that includes the job title(s) you're targeting—‘Full-Time Student/Financial Analyst in Training’—followed by a phrase like ‘In Transition’ or ‘Seeking New Opportunity’ in the Company Name box. A Romance Please? University of Washington. HOW STRONG IS YOUR LINKEDIN PROFILE?

If you're not sure it's where it should be. 15. Add Multimedia to ap central history essays, Your Summary. “A picture truly is worth a 1,000 words, especially when it comes to showcasing your work. LinkedIn lets you add photos, videos, and slideshow presentations to a romance thesis hate me, your profile summary. So instead of just talking about your work, you can show examples.

Or show yourself in action. Ap Central World? Or share a presentation. Click ‘Edit profile,’ scroll down to your summary, then click on the box symbol, then ‘add file.’” Business Insider. You can do the same thing for each of your work experiences. So, use this to your advantage: Add your company websites, projects you’ve worked on, articles you’ve drafted, or anything else that can provide a more multimedia look at resume, your work. 17.

Add Projects, Volunteer Experiences, or Languages. Do you speak Mandarin? Have a project management certification? Volunteer for world essays Dress for Success every weekend? Adding these “additional” profile features (listed on the left when you’re editing your profile) is a great way to showcase your unique skills and experiences and stand out for manager from the crowd.

18. Ap Central? Request One LinkedIn Recommendation a Month. When someone says, “You did a great job on resume for manager, that project!” ask him or her to ap central, take a snapshot of that success by writing a recommendation on LinkedIn. And don’t be afraid to common essays 2012-13, specify what you’d like the recommender to history, focus on. Getting generic recommendations that say, “Lea was great to work with” aren’t very helpful—but something specific, like “Lea’s contributions on the project enabled us to phd dissertation, increase forecasted savings by 5% over our original plan” will really showcase your strengths. “Make a strategic plan for world history essays your recommendations,” says Nicole Williams, LinkedIn’s career expert. “Approach different people and suggest particular skills or experiences you would like them to how to write project progress report, highlight.” 20.

Don’t Be Afraid to Cut a Recommendation. “Ever get a recommendation you didn’t ask for? Or one that isn’t something you’d want to world, showcase on your LinkedIn profile? If you get a recommendation that’s poorly written or is unsolicited and don’t feel comfortable reaching out to the writer and asking for blog some revisions, no biggie. You can easily hide the recommendation instead. Select Profile Edit Profile and go to the position with which the recommendation is associated. Click Manage. Ap Central Essays? Uncheck the box next to the recommendation that you want to hide, and click Save Changes.”

Endorsements can be a great way to show off your skills—as long as your profile isn’t overloaded with too many to really send the right message. The secret to making them work for you is keeping your skills updated: As you transition between careers, develop new skills, or take on new responsibilities, drop outdated skills from for manager, your profile and ap central add the ones you really want to be known for. On Entrepreneurship? Now, when connections land on your page, they’ll only see the most relevant skills. Just like on Facebook, you can update your LinkedIn status as often as you wish. So, do! Update it professionally and strategically (share the article you just wrote, not what you ate for lunch today), ideally once a week. Your entire network will see your updates, both in their news feeds and in the weekly LinkedIn network updates emails they receive. LinkedIn’s newest feature? Allowing all users to history essays, write and publish their work on the platform. Share your perspective about what’s going on in your field, weigh in on a recent industry development, or show off your skills as a writer. It’s a great way to phd dissertation blog, get noticed.

“If you have a WordPress blog, we highly recommend feeding your blog into your LinkedIn profile (unless, of course, the content isn’t appropriate for a LinkedIn page.) To enable this setting, Select More in the main nav bar and Select Applications. From there, choose the WordPress application and history enter the link to your feed. The blog will then appear in your profile and will update each time a new post is added.” 12Most. LinkedIn Groups are an incredible resource—and they can do wonders for for manager your job search. By joining groups relevant to your profession or industry, you’ll show that you’re engaged in your field. But more importantly, you’ll instantly be connected to people and essays part of relevant discussions in on entrepreneurship, your field—kind of like an ongoing, online networking event. Having 50 or fewer connections on LinkedIn tells recruiters one of history essays, three things: 1) You are a recluse who knows very few people, 2) You’re paranoid about connecting with others, or 3) Technology and social media are scary to you. Phd Research? None of these are good. We’re certainly not suggesting you need to be one of those weirdos who wears your “abnormally large number of connections” like a badge of honor, but you really should have at least 50-100 people with whom you’re connected as a starting point. 27.

But Don’t Add People You Don’t Know. If enough people reject your request and say they don't know you, LinkedIn can shut down your account. True story. With all the bells and whistles LinkedIn has to offer, and history without being limited by the 8.5x11 confines of how to write report, your resume, it can be tempting to, well, go nuts. And while details are good, there’s certainly a thing as too much.

Step back, take a look at your profile, and see how it looks to an outside person. Ap Central World History? Is it enticing—or overwhelming? Edit accordingly. 29. A Thesis For Compare And Contrast? Keep Your Job Search Under Wraps. “Many people don't realize that LinkedIn does have privacy settings—for a reason. ‘When you're out looking for a new job, and ap central history are actively engaged in your current job, you want to be discreet,” Williams explains. ‘A telltale sign to an employer that you’re leaving is that you overhaul your profile, connect with recruiters, and have an a thesis for compare and contrast influx of new people. Ap Central? You can tailor your settings so that your boss doesn’t see that you’re looking for opportunities.’ The privacy settings are easy to find: Just sign in, and hate me then select ‘settings’ from the drop-down menu, where your name appears in the upper right-hand corner.” LearnVest. Don’t forget to add your email address (or blog, or Twitter handle, or anywhere else you’d like to be found) to ap central history essays, the contact information section of your resume. You’d be surprised how many people leave this off! At the end of the common application essays, day, the world essays, most exciting people to a romance thesis please, hire are the people who are the ap central history, most excited about what they do.

So, make sure your LinkedIn profile shows your enthusiasm. A Romance Please Hate? Join and participate in groups related to your field of expertise. Use your status line to announce stuff you’re doing related to your field. Share interesting articles or news. Connect with the leaders in your industry. Fly your cheerleader flag. Photo of ap central world, job seeker courtesy of Erik Isakson/Getty Images#46;

Hmmm, seems you've already signed up for resume for manager this class. While you're here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Ap central ap world essays

3 Concepts of Multi-Node Patch Orchestration Using OPatchAuto. OPatchAuto is Oracle's strategic tool for binary and configuration patching. For the supported environments (Fusion Middlware and history essays Grid Infrastructure), OPatchAuto sequences and executes all required steps, on all nodes, for comprehensive patch application. Because OPatchAuto can patch full systems in one invocation, it removes the burdens of: The physical effort of going host to host and executing commands. Common Application? The mental effort of remembering the sequence of ap central history essays, commands across the nodes in your system. Your product's patching documentation (Database, Fusion Middleware, Enterprise Manager Cloud Control) explains how to use OPatchAuto to patch your specific product. This book augments those guides, by providing deeper conceptual and reference material for OPatchAuto, in a product independent manner. Applying a patch involves an orchestrated series of common application, steps.

As OPatchAuto's name indicates, the customer does not need to understand these steps. They can just apply the patch. However, the following underlying orchestration concepts are necessary for the customer to learn when the following are true: The patching operation has failed and they need to trouble-shoot. They see advantage to interleaving their own commands into the patching sequence in order to take advantage of ap central world, their production system's downtime window. In this case, understanding phases is required. The conceptual related steps of patching operation is called a phase. Executing all phases leads to a completed patching operation on the target; skipping a phase means the patch is not correctly applied. For example, the phase/sub-phase of how to write, applying the bits to an Oracle Home is essays, called offline:binary-patching in OPatchAuto. Write? Each invocation of opatchauto apply generates a new session, whether you are executing all phases in one go (default) or just a sub-phase (advanced). Phase input to the command is both optional and an advanced feature. However, if the customer wishes to interleave commands between the phases, they will need to invoke OPatchAuto multiple times, specifying the specific phase in the correct sequence so that all phases are executed.

Phases are composed of sub-phases. The user may also invoke the world tool at the sub-phase granularity. The help option lists the available phases and blog sub-phases. Phases are idem-potent; you may execute them repeatedly. However, the tool will not inform you if you do not follow the correct sequence of invocations. Ap Central History? (See ER 21553825.) The high-level phases follow. They can be specified as (a) book-keeping, (b), life-cycle operations, of (c) configuration change operations. Init : Bookeeping operation to resume initialize internal state needed for correction patching. Shutdown : Life-cycle operation that brings down run-time entities to ap central history permit patching.

Offline : Configuration change operation to apply the patch content with the system down. Bits application happens here, for a romance, instance. So the opatch patch will be recorded to the homes OUI inventory in ap central, this phase. Start-up : Life-cycle operation that brings the shutdown entities back up again. Online : Configuration change operation apply patch content that requires that the common application essays 2012-13 systems be up. Ap Central History? If these configuration changes have a system inventory, they will also be recorded to that system's inventory at this point. Finalize : Book-keeping operation to record that patch operation is a thesis, complete. In the history essays product's documentation, you might see sub-phases that include ”prepare” and ”binary/product” variants. Resume? Prepare means ready materials but do not make a configuration change. Binary operations only change Oracle Homes.

Product operations change the world configured system, such as domain configurations or database dictionaries. The specific content of the patch determines precisely what specific Oracle Home and configuration changes occur. Most Fusion Middleware patches, for example, only include offline content changes. But, of course, some include configuration changes as well. In general, the session is an implicit parameter, set internally to a romance hate the last session. It is ap central world history, visible to the user in write project progress report, the logs, communicated as a session ID, but there is no requirement for it to ap central history essays be supplied by the user. As a convenience for a thesis and contrast, specifying the rollback parameters, you can specify the session ID. In this case, OPatchAuto knows to ap central history query that session for the patch you wish to rollback. Patch plans describe, independent of write a thesis for compare, a specific product instance's topology, the history essays sequence of a romance thesis me, steps to execute in order to deploy the patch. Patch plans are life-cycle programs, developed by Oracle life-cycle management experts, specifically for ap central world history essays, the given product being patched. They are optional and advanced inputs.

However, internally, OPatchAuto always selects a patch plan to guide its execution. For example, internally, OPatchAuto apply and resume for manager OPatchAuto rollback automatically select different patch plans implicitly. Users will input patch plans to OPatchAuto when executing more complex life-cycle operation, such as Zero Downtime Patching. The product documentation for these life-cycle operations will list the names of valid patch plans. With OPatchAuto, you can automatically patch the history essays typical Grid Infrastructure (GI) and RAC home directories with minimal intervention. OPatchAuto performs many of the pre-patch checks (see Using OPatch) as well as the post-patch verification. The power of OPatchAuto lies in its ability to perform end-to-end configuration patching . Configuration patching is the process of patching a GI or RAC home based on its configuration. By incorporating the configuration information into the patch process, OPatchAuto streamlines patching tasks by automating most of the steps. OPatchAuto uses your GI/RAC configuration and, from that information, automatically generates patching instructions specific to your site configuration. OPatchAuto then uses OPatch to implement these instructions and perform the actual application of the patch. Beginning with Oracle Database 12 c , patches have been converted to a System patch format in order to support patch automation.

What is thesis hate me, a System Patch? A System patch contains several sub-patches whose locations are determined by a file called bundle.xml in history, the top level directory of the application patch. The sub-patches are intended for different sub-systems of world, a system that correspond with the database home organization. Phd Dissertation Blog? A typical System patch format is organized as follows: For database releases prior to 12 c , OPatchAuto is not supported for world history essays, the released one-off patches. Essays 2012-13? For older releases, you must use OPatch and follow the patch README instructions. OPatchAuto and System patches are only supported by Oracle Database 12 c and above. Ap Central Essays? Additional Supported Patch Types/Configurations.

One ore more one-off patches. One composite patch. One system patch / bundle patch. One system patch / bundle patch and 1 or more one-off patches. One system patch / bundle patch which has a composite patch in it. How To Project Report? One system patch / bundle patch which has a composite patch in it and 1 or more one-off patches. One system patch / bundle patch and 1 or more one-off patches and ap central world essays 1 composite patch.

3.4.2 Supported Target Configurations. OPatchAuto can be applied to the following general configurations: GI Home Not Shared. RAC Home Shared. RAC Home Not Shared. 3.4.2.1 Shared Versus Non-Shared (GI or RAC) Homes. The configuration differences between shared and non-shared Homes come into play when determining the common application essays patching mode in which OPatchAuto is used. See Section 3.4.2.2, Patch Application Modes.

OPatchAuto supports two modes of patching a GI or RAC Home - Rolling and Non-rolling. Essays? When a patching session is how to project report, started off (on the first node), the stack has to be up and running on this node. This applies to both rolling and non-rolling modes of patching. History? Rolling Mode (Default Mode): When performing patching in Rolling mode, the ORACLE_HOME processes on a particular node are shut down, the patch is applied, then the node is brought back up again. Application Essays 2012-13? This process is repeated for each node in the GI or RAC environment until all nodes are patched. This is the history essays most efficient mode of applying an interim patch to an Oracle RAC setup because this results in no downtime. Not all patches can be applied using Rolling mode. Whether or not a patch can be applied in this way is and contrast, generally specified in the patch metadata. The patch README also specifies whether or not a patch can be applied in Rolling mode. The node (GI Home) from which the opatchauto command is executed is considered the LOCAL node and all other nodes are considered REMOTE nodes.

When you begin a rolling mode session, at least 1 remote node has to be up and running. OPatchAuto applies patches in rolling mode by history, default. Non-rolling Mode : Prior to 12 c , a non-rolling upgrade was defined as shutting down Oracle processes on all nodes. Beginning with 12c, non-rolling patching requires the GI stack to be up on phd dissertation blog, local node. The patching operation on first and last node have special steps to ap central world essays perform hence the please me operation needs to be handled separately but not in parallel with other nodes.

The non-rolling patching can ve described as three phases: Beginning with 12c, non-rolling patching occurs in three phases: Patch Node 2 through n-1. When you start a non-rolling mode session none of the remote nodes can up and running: All nodes (including the local node) must be stopped. As shown in the following figure, given n nodes, you begin the non-rolling patch session by ap central world, patching a single node, then patch nodes two through n -1 in parallel, and finally patch node n to finish the patching session. To run OPatchAuto in non-rolling mode, you must explicitly specify the -nonrolling option.

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concluding a paper By Behrouz Karoubi. University Lecturer at Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. For years translations were considered as derivatives, copies, and translators as mechanical devices replacing linguistic codes (equivalents) from ap central history essays one language into another, and resume the translator's autonomy was always questioned (and is still being questioned) by those who thought of him/her ‘as a monkey, with no choice save to make the same grimaces as his master’ (Leppihalme, 1997: 19), until recent years when, under the influence of poststructuralism and functionalism, the focus of attention has been shifted to history, the issue of translator’s agency and subjectivity, and the notions of originality and for manager (absolute) equivalence and world history essays also author’s superiority over translator have been severely questioned. Report? Bassnett (1996) stresses the need for reassessing the role of the translator by analyzing his/her intervention in the process of linguistic transfer, when she argues ‘Once considered a subservient, transparent filter through which a text could and should pass without adulteration, the translation can now be seen as a process in world history essays, which intervention is and contrast, crucial’ (p. 22). Awareness of complexity of translation process and avoidance of the simplistic view of regarding translation as mere process of transferring words from one text to another, Álvarez Vidal (1996) claim, will result in realizing the importance of the essays, ideology underlying a translation.

They argue that behind every one of the translator’s selections, as what to add, what to phd research proposal on entrepreneurship, leave out, which words to choose and how to place them, ‘there is a voluntary act that reveals his history and the socio-political milieu that surrounds him; in other words, his own culture [and ideology]’. (Álvarez Vidal, 1996: 5). The exercise of ideology in translation is as old as the history of translation itself. According to Fawcett (1998), ‘throughout the centuries, individuals and institutions applied their particular beliefs to the production of certain effect in ap central history essays, translation’ (p. 107). He claims that ‘an ideological approach to translation can be found in some of the earliest examples of translation known to us’ (p.

106). Nevertheless, the linguistics-oriented approaches to translation studies have failed to address the concept of ideology through years of their prevalence, because such approaches are limited to their scientific models for research and the empirical data they collect, so that ‘they remain reluctant to take into account the social values [and ideologies] that enter into translating as well as the study of it’ (Venuti, 1998a: 1). The deficiency of old linguistics-based approaches – which ‘are mainly descriptive studies focusing on textual forms’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 8) – in accounting for social values in translation and other aspects of language use resulted in developing a new trend of research called Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) ‘whose primary aim is to expose the ideological forces that underlie communicative exchanges [like translating]’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 2). Phd Dissertation Blog? According to CDA advocates, all language use, including translation, is ideological and this means that translation is always a site for ideological encounters (p. 2). World History Essays? Similarly, Schäffner (2003) claims that all translations are ideological since ‘the choice of a source text and the use to which the subsequent target text is put are determined by the interests, aims, and objectives of social agents’ (p. 23). She evidently opts for van Dijk’s definition for ideology as ‘basic systems of a thesis for compare and contrast shared social representations that may control more specific group beliefs’ (van Dijk, 1996: 7). However, there are a profusion of diverse definitions of ideology defining the term from different perspectives – amongst them is van Dijk’s definition – some of which are deemed necessary to be overviewed here. The term ‘ideology’ has been always accompanied by its political connotation as it is world essays, evident in its dictionary definition as ‘a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy ’ (The New Oxford Dictionary of English). Translation scholars who slant in favor of the a research project progress, political definitions of ideology mainly believe that translating itself is ap central essays, a political act as Tahir-Gürça#287;lar (2003: 113) argues, ‘Translation is political because, both as activity and product, it displays process of negotiation among different agents.

On micro-level, these agents are translators, authors, critics, publishers, editors, and readers’. Under the influence of report Marx who defines ideology as action without knowledge (false consciousness), ideology is sometimes defined in its negative political sense as ‘a system of wrong, false, distorted or otherwise misguided beliefs’ (van Dijk, qtd in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 3). Ap Central History? In its more constructive sense, Marxists like Lenin define Socialist ideology as ‘a force that encourages revolutionary consciousness and fosters progress’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003 : 4). According to Calzada-Pérez ( ibid. ), recent definitions of ideology are linked with the concepts of power relations and resume domination, as she quotes from world history Eagleton: ‘[Ideology is] ideas and beliefs which help to common 2012-13, legitimate the interest of a ruling group or class by distortion or dissimulation’. This view, in fact, forms the ap central history, basis of post-colonial thinking which ‘highlights the power relations which inform contemporary cultural exchanges’ (Simon, 1996: 136). However, Calzada-Pérez (2003) argues that sometimes ideology is viewed in more positive sense ‘as a vehicle to promote or legitimate interests of a particular social group (rather than a means to destroy contenders)’ (p.

5). Scholars in resume, the field of language-related, cultural and translation studies, however, often tend to ap central world, extend the concept of ideology beyond political sphere and please hate me define it in a rather politically neutralized sense as ‘a set of ideas, which organize our lives and help us understand the relation to our environment’ (Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 5). In most parts of the ap central world history essays, current paper, nevertheless, the writer opts for phd dissertation the definition proposed by van Dijk (1996: 7) for ap central world history essays ideology as a framework that is for manager, ‘assumed to specifically organize and monitor one form of socially shared mental representation, in other words, the ap central, organized evaluative beliefstraditionally called 'attitudes'shared by social groups’. The ideology of translation could be traced in both process and product of for compare and contrast translation which are, however, closely interdependent. The ideology of a translation, according to Tymoczko (2003), will be a combination of the content of the source text and the various speech acts represented in the source text relevant to the source context, layered together with the representation of the content, its relevance to the receptor audience, and the various speech acts of the translation itself addressing the world essays, target context, as well as resonance and discrepancies between these two ‘utterances’. However, she further explains that ‘the ideology of how to write a research progress translation resides not simply in the text translated, but in ap central world history essays, the voicing and stance of the how to write project report, translator, and in its relevance to the receiving audience’ (pp. 182–83). Schäffner (2003) explains: Ideological aspect can […] be determined within a text itself, both at the lexical level (reflected, for example, in the deliberate choice or avoidance of world a particular word […]) and the grammatical level (for example, use of passive structures to on entrepreneurship, avoid an expression of agency). Ideological aspects can be more or less obvious in texts, depending on the topic of a text, its genre and communicative purposes. (p. Ap Central World Essays? 23)

Ideological aspects can also be examined in the process of write a thesis for compare text production (translating) and the role of the translator as a target text producer as well as a source text interpreter. These aspects along with two major influencing schools of ap central world essays post-structuralism and functionalism will be further explained in details in the following paragraphs. Ideology and the translator as a reader of the source text: Poststructuralism. According to Venuti (1992: 6), poststructuralist thinkers like Derrida and de Man, mainly under the influence of Benjamin’s works, explode the binary opposition between original and translation which causes translators to be invisible. Before the emergence of poststructuralism, structuralists like Saussure, defined language as the scientifically examinable world of how to symbols constituting the linguistic system and world essays social structure within which the resume for manager, individual is socially shaped. The structuralists believed that ‘language is constructed as a system of signs, each sign being the world essays, result of conventional relation between word and meaning, between a signifier (a sound or sound-image) and a signified (the referent, or concept represented by the signifier)’ (Roman, 2002: 309).

Later, Barthes, an early poststructuralist, claimed that ‘signifiers and singnifieds are not fixed, unchangeable, but, on the contrary, can make the a thesis, sign itself signifying more complex mythical signs as intricate signifiers of the ap central world essays, order of myth’ (Roman, 2002: 310). This shift of idea from proposal structuralism toward poststructuralism resulted in extreme revisions in different domains of language, for example, developing of ‘the death of author’ thinking which later found its way into Translation Studies. From instability of the ap central, signifiers and for compare signifieds, Barthes concludes that reading texts in terms of authorial intention or what we think the author meant by such and such a statement, and referring the source of meaning and authority of a text back to ap central history essays, its author (as the creator of that text) is no more acceptable (Royle, 2003: 7). Barthes argues that ‘since writers only write within a system of phd dissertation blog language in which particularized authors are born and shaped, texts cannot be thought of in terms of their author’s intentions, but only in relationship with other texts: in intertextuality’ (Roman, 2002: 311). In the absence of the world history, author, Barthes explains, the readers (a translator could be one of them) interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of on entrepreneurship known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological; and the meaning of a text becomes what individual readers extract from it, not what a supreme Author put in. World? (Hermans, 1999: 69) ‘ “The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author”, Barthes bravely declares’ ( ibid ). Derrida, another poststructuralist, draws attention from the signifieds to the chain of signifiers, as Roman (2002) explains:

Derrida takes the structure of sign from Saussure, but transforms it into a fluid entity, whereby meaning and writing consist solely in signifiers. Signifiers refer only to each other and meaning becomes unstable since any deferral to yet another signifier implies a difference in an endless chain of for manager signification. World History? This is the meaning of the French term différence (from the French verb différer, with its polysemantics of to differ and to delay), or Différance, a neologism created by Derrida particularly to express the indeterminacy of application meaning. Ap Central? (p. 311) According to phd dissertation blog, Venuti (1992), poststructuralist thinkers believe that the original is itself a translation, an incomplete process of translating a signifying chain into univocal signified, and this process is both displayed and further complicated when it is translated by another signifying chain in ap central world history essays, a different language.

The originality of the foreign text is thus compromised by the poststructuralist concept of textuality. Write Project Report? Neither the foreign nor the translation is an ap central world history original semantic unity; both are derivative, consisting of diverse linguistic and cultural materials, making meaning plural and differential (p. 7). In the same way, neither the author nor the common application essays, translator as a reader of source text possesses the authorial power to definitely determine the meaning; and the ‘authority’ will always remain collective due to ap central, endless circle of signification. Poststructuralist textuality redefines the notion of equivalence in translation by assuming from the outset that the differential plurality in every text precludes a simple correspondence of meaning, and a ratio of loss and gain inextricably occurs during translation process (Venuti, 1992: 7–8). How To A Research Report? Similarly, Carbonell (1996) points out that, since the nature of the context of signification in both the source and target cultures is heterogeneous, meaning changes unavoidably in the process of translation and there will be always possibility of contradiction between the author’s intentions and the translator’s (p. 98). But why have such relativism and perspectivism result not in a state of complete anarchy and unintelligibility? According to ap central essays, Toury (2000), ‘Cognition itself is influenced, probably even modified by socio-cultural factors’ (p.

119). A translator, just like an author, is not simply a ‘person’ but a socially and historically constituted subject. As mentioned earlier, translators interpret texts by setting them against their backdrop of known words and phrases, existing statements, familiar conventions, anterior texts, or, in other words, their general knowledge which is ideological. This knowledge allows them to interpret the text and at the same time limits the range of their interpretation as Robinson aptly notices: Translators […] are those people who let their knowledge govern their behavior. Thesis Please? And that knowledge is world history, ideological. It is controlled by ideological norms.

If you want to become a translator you must submit to for manager, the translator’s submissive role, submit to being possessed by what ideological norms inform you. (qtd. in Calzada-Pérez, 2003: 7) What brings de facto the individual interpretations close together is the likeness of the intertextual and ideological configurations the individuals are located in. Translators are hardly (maybe never) aware of ideological factors governing their process of the source text interpretation. Toury (1999: 18) admits the difficulties of determining the role of socio-cultural factors which unconsciously affect the translator’s behavior: One thing I would not venture to do […] is ap central history essays, tackle the intriguing question of how, and to common essays, what extent, the environment affects the workings of the brain, or how the cognitive is influenced by the socio-cultural, even though this would surely make an invaluable contribution to ap central history, our understanding of translation. Nevertheless, sometimes it becomes extremely difficult for essays a translation scholar to justify whether the ideological discrepancies observed between the source text and the target text are results of the translator’s subconscious ideological interpretation or of his/her intentional ideological intervention which will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

Ideology and the translator as a writer of the target text: Functionalism. While one of the pivotal achievements of the poststructuralist approaches is ap central world essays, dethroning the author and his/her authorial intention by emphasizing the role of the translator as an autonomous reader of the source text, functionalist approaches try to a thesis for compare, dethrone the source text itself by emphasizing the role of the translator as a creator of the target text and giving priority to purpose ( skopos ) of producing target text. According to Schäffner (1996), ‘Functionalist approach is essays, a kind of cover term for the research of scholars who argue that the purpose of the TT is the most important criterion in any translation’ (p. 2). Functionalism is a major shift from ‘linguistic equivalence’ to ‘functional appropriateness’. From the perspective of functional approaches to translation (particularly, under the influence of Holz-Mänttäri’s theory of ‘translational action’), translation is viewed as a communicative act. Proposal On Entrepreneurship? In this view, translation is conceived primarily ‘as a process of intercultural communication, whose end product is a text which is capable of functioning appropriately in specific situations and context of use’ (Schäffner, 1998a: 3). The principles of translational (translatorial) action theory then founded the basis of Vermeer’s Skopos theory. Ap Central World History? ‘ Skopos is a technical term for the aim or purpose of a translation’ (Vermeer, 2000: 221).

Skopostheorists assert that any action has an aim, a purpose. From their standpoint, translation is considered not as a process of phd research proposal transcoding (the position usually adopted by earlier non-functionalist approaches), but as a form of world history essays human action which has its own purpose basically decided on by the translator (Schäffner, 1998b: 235; Hönig, 1998: 9). The skopos of a translation, Vermeer (2000) explains, is the goal or purpose, defined by the commission and common essays if necessary adjusted by the translator. He defines commission as ‘the instruction, given by oneself or by someone else, to carry out a given action [which could be translation]’ (p. 229). A text in skopostheorist approach is regarded as an world history essays offer of information from write project its producer to a recipient.

Translation is then a secondary offer of information about information originally offered in another language within another culture (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). The translator, as an expert in translational action, must interpret ST information ‘by selecting those features which most closely correspond to the requirements of the target situation (Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). From this point of view, the translation process is not (necessarily) determined retrospectively by the source text, its effects on its addressees, or the intention of its author, but prospectively by the skopos of the target text as determined by ap central history, the target recipient’s requirements (which are, however, discerned and decided on by the translator himself/ herself). The translation then is ‘the production of a functionally appropriate target text based on an existing source text [or what Neubert calls ‘source-text induced target-text production’], and the relationship between the two texts is specified according to write a thesis for compare and contrast, the skopos of the translation’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 236). Focusing on the purpose of translation as the most decisive factor in translation action, skopos theory emphasizes the role of the translator as an expert in translational action and regards the source text no longer as the ‘sacred original’ from which the skopos (purpose) of the translation is deduced, but as a mere offer of information whose role in the action is to be decided by the translator, depending on the expectations and needs of the target readers (Hönig, 1998: 9). Schäffner (1998b) explains ‘The translator offers information about certain aspects of the source-text-in-situation, according to ap central essays, the target text skopos specified by the initiator’ (p. How To Write A Research Project Report? 236). Skopos theory and functionalism focus on the translator, giving him/her more freedom and at ap central essays, the same time more responsibility, as Hönig (1998) asserts: [The translator] may be held responsible for the result of his/her translational acts by recipients and clients.

In order to act responsibly, however, translators must be allowed the freedom to decide in phd dissertation, co-operation with their clients what is in their best interests. (p. 10) An awareness of the requirements of the skopos , Vermeer maintains, ‘expands the possibilities of translation, increases the range of possible translation strategies, and releases the translator from the corset of an enforced – and hence often meaningless – literalness’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 156). The translator thus becomes a target-text author freed from the ‘limitations and world essays restrictions imposed by a narrowly defined concept of blog loyalty to the source text alone’ (Schäffner, 1998b: 238). Hönig (1998: 14) usefully contrasts the ap central history essays, characteristics of resume for manager functional approaches vs. non-functional approaches as follows: Must be visible. Should be invisible.

Translation processes should be. Target text oriented. Source text oriented. Aim of translation is. Translation tools taken from. Figure 1: A schematic view of functionalist and non-functionalist approaches.

As it is evident in world, Hönig’s schematic view, ‘ visibility ’ of the translator is a key concept in functional approaches. Common 2012-13? According to Hönig (1998: 12–13), in functionalism the translator inevitably has to be visible, since functional approaches do not establish rules but support decision-making strategies and the translator has to make critical decisions as to how define the translation skopos and which strategies can best meet the target recipient’s requirements; s/he should be visible, making his/her decisions transparent to his/her client and accepting the responsibility of his/her choices. A visible translator has to accept the consequences of his/her translational decisions, as Toury (1999) declares, ‘it is always the translator herself or himself, as an autonomous individual, who decides how to behave, be that decision fully conscious or not. Whatever the degree of awareness, it is s/he who will also have to world history essays, bear the application essays, consequences’ (p. 19). According to Nord (2003), almost any decision in translation is – consciously or unconsciously – guided by ideological criteria (p. Ap Central? 111). Ideological factors are very decisive in defining the translation skopos (target-text intended purpose) and selecting the functionally appropriate strategies by the translator, based on the expectations of the translation clients. These factors which affect and regulate the translator’s behavior are further investigated in the following section under the title of ‘ norms ’.

According to Toury (1999), all human beings have an inherent tendency toward socializing and social acceptability; as a result, under normal conditions, people tend to avoid behaviors which are prohibited or sanctioned as well as to adopt behaviors which are considered as being appropriate within the group they belong to (pp. 15–19). There is application essays 2012-13, a socially shared knowledge between members of every community as to what is considered correct or appropriate as a communicative behavior. Ap Central Essays? This knowledge exists in the form of norms. They serve consciously as a pattern of behavior, and ‘they also regulate expectations concerning both behavior itself and the products of this behavior’ (Schäffner, 1999: 5). And Contrast? Toury (1999) defines norm in terms of ‘the translation of general values or ideas shared by a groupas to history essays, what is phd dissertation blog, conventionally right and wrong, adequate and inadequateinto performance instructions appropriate for ap central world essays and applicable to particular situations’ (p. Report? 14). Taking into consideration the definition of ideology by van Dijk (1996) as ‘the organized evaluative beliefs shared by social groups’, normsas defined by Toury (1999)seem to have much in common with ideology; in other words, norms can be understood as ideological realization of the concept of appropriateness and correctness.

Decision-making is a key concept in world history essays, the discussion of norms. Norms exist ‘only in situations which allow for alternative kind of behavior, involving the need to please hate, select among these, with the additional condition that selection be non-random’ (Toury, 1999: 15). This selection, according to Toury (1999), could be posited between two constraining extremes of world essays ‘relatively absolute rules on one hand, and resume for manager pure idiosyncrasies on the other’ (p. 16). Toury applies the norms concept to translation studies presuming that translating involves playing a social role subject to several types of socio-cultural constraints of varying degree. He, consequently, argues that the acquisition of a set of norms for determining the suitability of translational behavior, and for maneuvering between all factors which may constrain it, is a prerequisite for becoming a translator within a cultural environment (Toury, 2000: 198). Toury (2000) claims that norms govern every level of ap central world history decision-making in the translating process from choice of text to translate to the very final choices of application 2012-13 translation strategies of action.

He, consequently, introduces three kinds of norm: 1) initial norm; 2) preliminary norms; and 3) operational norms. Initial norm governs the translator’s overall decisions to adhere ‘either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product’ (Toury, 2000: 201). Toury (2000), however, denies the necessity of ap central history full conformity between an write a thesis for compare overall decision made and every single decision be made in the lower-levels of translation process; and, consequently, denies the world history, existence of absolute regularity in translational behaviors (p. 201). The options which are made available to write for compare and contrast, the translator by Toury’s initial norm are very similar to those which Venuti (1998b: 240) talks about in his foreignizing and essays domesticating strategies of translation. Preliminary norms govern the decisions to for compare, be made concerning translation policy and directness . According to Toury (2000: 202), ‘ translation policy refers to those factors that govern the choice of text types; or individual texts, to be imported through translation into a particular culture/language at a particular point in world essays, time’. He further explains that ‘considerations concerning directness of translation involve the threshold of tolerance for translating from a romance thesis me languages other than the ultimate source language’ (p. 202). Operational norms direct the actual decisions made during the act of translation and are subdivided into matricial and ap central textual-linguistic norms.

Matricial norms govern the segmentation and distribution of textual materials in the target text. Common Application Essays 2012-13? Textual-linguistic norms ‘govern the selection of material to formulate the world history essays, target text in, or replace the original textual and linguistic material with’ (Toury, 2000: 202–3). It should be noted that, according to Toury (2000), ‘There is no necessary identity between the norms themselves and any formulation of them in language (p. 200). He believes that the observed regularities in translational behaviors are not themselves the norms; they are rather ‘external evidence’ which reflect the existence of norms (Toury, 1999: 15). Toury also does not identify repeated translational strategies as to be identical with norms; but he thinks norms are the idea behind a strategy (qtd. in how to write project progress report, Schäffner, 1999: 84). Ap Central World Essays? Therefore, Baker’s interpretation of norms as ‘regularities of translational behavior within a specific socio-cultural situation’ (Baker, 1998: 163) or ‘strategies of translation which are repeatedly opted for, in preference to other available strategies, in a given culture or textual system’ (qtd. in Shuttleworth Cowie, 1997: 114) seems to be an oversimplification of write a thesis and contrast this concept. Chesterman (1993) looks at the concept of ap central world norms from resume for manager a different perspective. Ap Central World? Whereas Toury does not pay too much heed to the role of the readership and their feedback in resume for manager, norm construction, Chesterman (1993: 8) puts distinction between expectancy norms , which are the expectations of the target readership and world history the client etc., and the professional norms which explain the translator's tendency to observe these expectancy norms.

According to Toury (2000), norms themselves actually are not observable. He declares that what are actually available for observation are rather norm-governed instances of behavior or the products of such behavior (p. Blog? 206). Toury introduces two major sources for reconstruction of translational norms: 1. Textual : the translated text themselves, for all kinds of norms, as well as analytical inventories of translation (i.e., ‘virtual texts’), for various preliminary norms; 2. Extratextual : semi-theoretical or critical formulations, such as perspective ‘theories’ of translation, statements made by translators, editors, publishers, and other persons involved in or connected with the activity, critical appraisals of individual translations, or the activity of a translator or ‘school’ of translators, and so forth. (Toury, 2000: 207) Likewise, Baker (1998) introduces studying of a ‘corpus of authentic translations’ as a means for ap central history essays identifying regular instances of phd dissertation translational behavior which are represented in that corpus by the translator, and, thus, for identifying the translational norms (p. History Essays? 164).

After so many years of the dominance of the prescriptive approaches over translation teaching, maybe the time has come for a serious revision in translation teaching methods. Translation teaching should no longer be seen as a set of rules and instructions prescribed by phd research on entrepreneurship, translation teachers to the students as to world essays, what strategies will lead to a ‘ good ’ or ‘ correct ’ translation and what to a ‘ wrong ’ and ‘ incorrect ’ one. Understanding the importance of decision-making in translation, the translation teachers should try to describe the actual translational decisions made by actual translators under different socio-cultural and ideological settings in real life and real situations, and explain the perlocutionary consequences resulted from adoption of a research progress such decisions for the students. Ap Central Essays? They should allow the students to select voluntarily between different options they have at hand, reminding them that they will be responsible for the selections they make. Translation teachers should make it clear for the students that every translation has its own aim determined by essays, its translator, and that they could freely choose the options that best serve their intended aim of translation. Álvarez, R. Vidal, M.C. (1996).Translating: A political act. World? In R. Write A Research Project? Álvarez M. C. Ap Central World History? Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 1-9).

Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Baker,M. (1998). Norms. A Research Progress Report? In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 163-165). London: Routledge. Bassnett, S. (1996). The meek or the mighty: Reappraising the role of the world essays, translator.

In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 10-24). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Calzada-Pérez, M. (2003). Common 2012-13? Introduction. In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of world history ideology (pp.

1-22). Manchester: St. Jerome. Carbonell, O. (1996).The exotic space of cultural translation. In R. Álvarez M. C. Vidal (Ed.) Translation, power, subversion (pp. 79-98). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Fawcett, P. (1998).

Ideology and translation. In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 106-111). London: Routledge. Hermans, T. (1999). Translation and normativity.

In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and norms (pp. 50-71). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1985) The Manipulation of Literature: Studies in Literary Translation . London/Sydney: Croom Helm. Hönig, H. G. (1998). Please Hate Me? Positions, power and practice: Functionalist approaches and translation quality assessment. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and quality (pp. 6-34). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.

Leppihalme, R. (1997). Culture bumps: An empirical approach to the translation of world essays allusions. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Nord, C. (2003). Function and loyalty in Bible translation. Phd Dissertation Blog? In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of ideology (pp.

89-112). Manchester: St. Jerome. Roman, D. (2002). Poststructuralism. In V. Taylor C. Winquist (Ed.) Encyclopedia of postmodernism (pp. 308-10). London: Routledge. Royle, N. (2003).

Jacques Derrida . London: Routledge. Schäffner, C. (2003). Third ways and new centres: Ideological unity or difference? In M. History? Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of ideology (pp. 23-42). Blog? Manchester: St. Jerome. __________ (1999). The concept of world history norms in translation studies. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and norms (pp.

1-9). Application 2012-13? Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1998a). Action (Theory of translatorial action). In M. History? Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 3-5). London: Routledge. __________ (1998b). Common Application 2012-13? Skopos theory.

In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 235-38). London: Routledge. __________ (1996).From 'good' to 'functionally appropriate': Assessing translation quality. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and quality (pp. 1-6). Ap Central History Essays? Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Shuttleworth, M. Cowie, M. (1997). Dictionary of phd research proposal on entrepreneurship translation studies . Manchester: St. Jerome.

Tahir-Gürça#287;lar, #350;. (2003). The translation bureau revisited: Translation as symbol. World? In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of ideology (pp. 113-130). Manchester: St. Jerome. Toury, G. (2000). Phd Dissertation Blog? The nature and role of norms in translation. In L. Venuti (Ed.) The translation studies reader (pp.

198-211). London: Routledge. __________ (1999). A handful of paragraphs on 'translation' and 'norms'. In C. Schäffner (Ed.) Translation and norms (pp. 9-31). Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. __________ (1995). Descriptive translation studies and beyond . Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Tymoczko, M. (2003). Ideology and the position of the translator: In what Sense is a translator ‘in between’? In M. Calzada-Pérez (Ed.) Apropos of history ideology (pp. 181-202). Manchester: St. Jerome. van Dijk, T. A. (1996). Discourse, opinions and ideologies.

In C. Schäffner H. Kelly-Holmes (Ed.) Discourse and ideologies (pp. 7-37). Application Essays? Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. Venuti, L. (1998a). The scandals of translation: Towards an ethics of difference. London: Routledge.

__________ (1998b). Strategies of translation. In M. Baker (Ed.) Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies (pp. 240-244). London: Routledge. __________ (1992). World Essays? Introduction. In L. Venuti (Ed.) Rethinking translation: Discourse, subjectivity, ideology (pp. 1-17).

London: Routledge. Vermeer, H. J. (2000). Skopos and commission in translational action (A. Chesterman, Trans.). In L. Venuti (Ed.) The translation studies reader (pp. 221-32). London: Routledge.

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But at this point, it is simply not a good idea to post your resume openly — there are known risks at ap central history essays this point. If you are going to post a resume online, private posting should be the only way you post it. The goal is to avoid having your full legal name, your home address, your phone number, and write a thesis for compare your detailed work history, hobbies, and ap central history perhaps even references floating around online and eventually getting into the wrong hands. This is phd research proposal on entrepreneurship information only ap central, a legitimate employer should receive, and you can help by taking advantage of a romance private posting options job sites usually offer. If you still want to post a resume openly, read Tip #7 about ap central history essays using a P.O.

Box and common application essays 2012-13 a disposable email address and Tip # 8 about what information you may want to leave off of your resume. Truth #2: Not everyone who has access to a resume database should. It’s not just employers that access your resume on resume databases. Criminals and fraudsters posing as recruiters can gain illicit access to resume databases, among others. I was at a large conference listening to a presentation when I saw on the screen that one of the main resources for private investigators and law firms looking for people to subpoena was the resume database of a well-known job site. I had heard this anecdotally for ap central world history many years, but to see it in black and white and discussed openly was another reminder that when you post your resume online, you are taking a risk. Before you put your resume online anywhere, remember that many kinds of write a thesis and contrast people other than people who want to employ you may gain access to world history, resume databases.

Posting your resume privately, with your contact information hidden from view, is a good way to lessen your risk. However, data breaches have occurred at online job sites where thieves have inappropriately accessed databases. Thesis Me? Posting a resume privately will not be adequate protection from a data breach. (See Truth #7). Truth #3: Not every job offer you see is for a real job — some jobs are just scams. After you post your resume, you may hear from a person offering you a job that is a scam. Fake job scams have become a very serious problem in ap central history, online job searching, as detailed in phd dissertation, the World Privacy Forum “Job Fraud” report. There are usually some clear tip-offs that a job may be a scam.

For example: Does the job ask you to ap central, scan your ID or drivers’ license and send it in? Does the write a research report, job ask you to transfer money as part of world your duties? Does the job description mention e-Bay , Pay Pal, or Western Union money transfers? Does the potential employer ask you for bank account numbers, or your Social Security number? If any of the above are true, please understand that you may be looking at a fraudulent job. For Manager? See the WPF detailed consumer tips on ap central history essays, avoiding job fraud http://www.worldprivacyforum.org/2008/07/jobscamtipspayforwarding/ for more information about common job scams and how to avoid them. Truth #4: The more general the ap central world essays, email “job” offer, the phd dissertation, less valid it usually is. So you posted your resume, and now you are getting responses.

Be wise and discerning. Not every offer is worth your time. World Essays? Some job offers are outright scams (see truth #3) and some job offers are just attempts to get you to post your resume on a new job site. Other job offers are simply marketing emails to get you to spend money on “help” finding a job. Private resume posting will cut down on these kinds of emails, but it will not cure the entire problem. Even if you post your resume privately, you will have to be smart about what emails you choose to respond to. Red flags to look out for a romance please include: Any email where someone promises to “help you find your dream job” …. but only after you have paid a fancy fee. Email from history essays, self-help gurus or entrepreneurs who promise to help you “fulfill your potential” ….. but only after you have paid to attend their expensive workshop. Email from a recruiter who “has a great opportunity at how to write a research progress report a major company” …….. but can’t seem to come up with a specific company name or a specific job. Email from anyone claiming that they have a great opportunity for a “responsible financial manager” …… but they only want to interview you by phone before they hire you. Ap Central History? (See truth #3 about a romance thesis please hate me job scams.) Email from a person who wants you to ap central history, “post your resume here” …. Phd Research On Entrepreneurship? but doesn’t tell you that they may be getting paid a small referral fee for getting you to ap central history, do this.

Of course, you can get a legitimate job offer after you post a resume. In the World Privacy Forum year-long Job Search Study, research showed that the write project progress report, best job offers usually came within the first month of the resume being posted. History? After that, the quality of the responses dropped fairly dramatically. If your resume has been posted online for a romance please me several months, it is a good idea to just take it down and start over. Truth #5: Even the most careful, conscientious sites cannot control your resume after someone has downloaded it. After you have posted your resume, it can be downloaded and used in ways you may never have imagined, and may not like. Job sites do not have the ability to control how a recruiter or employer uses your resume after it is ap central history has been downloaded. Most sites watch for write a thesis problems ­ such as rapid resume downloads — and world enforce terms of use agreements with employers and recruiters. But let the job seeker beware.

When it comes to phd dissertation blog, resume databases, the ap central essays, job sites put the responsibility on how to write progress, the job seeker to understand the risks involved in posting a resume online. The bottom line: after you have posted your resume openly, you have almost no control over how it will be used, by whom, or for how long. World? You can ease this problem by posting your resume privately, with your contact information hidden. Truth #6: Unless you are applying to the Federal or State government, never put a Social Security Number on write a thesis for compare, your resume. Please, keep your SSN off of your resume, and be very cautious about emailing it to people who ask for it. You should only give your SSN to an employer after you have fully validated them as a legitimate employer. Beware of fake job offers, especially those for world history “work at blog home” offers. The most common situation is that a fake employer will get your resume, then ask you for your SSN or a scan of ap central history your driver’s license saying that they need a background check before they can hire you. A Thesis? Unless you have physically visited the history, place of phd research proposal employment or have fully validated the world essays, employer by checking with the phd dissertation, Better Business Bureau and other agencies, then do not send your SSN, especially through email.

Remember, most legitimate employers will move slowly in the hiring process and will want to history, interview you one, two, or more times before they officially sign you on on entrepreneurship, as an employee. A fake employer will try to ap central history essays, rush you through the process, so you don’t have time to think through possible consequences. Truth #7: Using a disposable email address and application 2012-13 a P.O. Box can save you from many headaches later on. It is ap central history essays not a good idea to post a resume openly online. But if you decide to post your resume to a site that does not allow you to mask your identity, then mask it yourself. Use an email address that you can cancel if you start getting spam, and don’t give out essays 2012-13 your full name, phone number, or home address. Use a post office box, and do not give your street address to an employer until you have verified them fully. Even if you post your resume privately, it is still a good idea to use “disposable” contact information that does not tie back to world history, your street address or place of residence. If a data breach occurs at an online job site, disposable contact information may help mitigate some of the potential risk, depending on the type of how to a research project progress report breach.

Truth #8: Things to omit from your resumes if you post it online…your references, for world essays sure. Your school name, possibly. When you post a resume online, there are some categories of information you need to phd dissertation blog, think about leaving off. First, references. World Essays? If you put your references’ names and phone numbers on your resume, you are giving their information away without their consent in what can be a very public forum. Phd Research? Omit this information, in particular when you put your resume online in world history, any fashion. Be nice to your references: leave them off of your online resumes. School information is tricky.

Education is common a necessary category on a resume. Ap Central History? The problem is write for compare that anyone can call up your school and get what is world history called “directory information” without your consent. This can include your name, date of birth, home address, and other vital information. If you are a current college student, you can sign what is called a FERPA form to stop your school from giving this information out to just anyone. ( FERPA stands for how to write report Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act .) If you have a FERPA form on ap central history essays, file, only legitimate employers or law enforcement professionals or others with a legitimate interest should be able to access your information. Resume? Usually school records offices will have FERPA information for you, or will know where to world history, send you to find that information. If you attended college many moons ago, you have a couple of options.

Some people simply list their degree and date, and for manager let the employer ask for the name of the ap central essays, college in the interview. But if you graduated from a romance please hate, a big-name school, you may want to brag about it. If so, fine, but understand the ap central essays, risks and mitigate what you can. Write A Thesis For Compare? Make sure the school has a P.O. History? Box address on file for phd dissertation blog you, not your home street address. Special note for high school students and parents : FERPA applies to high school students, too, but for students under 18 who are in high school, parents have to sign the ap central, FERPA forms. It is crucial for parents to a thesis for compare, protect their high schoolers’ home address and directory information during job searches for world essays summer work or part-time work. Truth #9: Some resume databases are better than others. Before posting a resume to any database, take the time to look for and read the privacy policy of that site and query the phd research, site owner with any privacy concerns . Be sure to look for specific privacy policy statements about resumes, registration information, and statements about how that information is used, stored, and shared.

If the world history essays, site does not have a privacy policy posted, that should be a signal that you should be especially cautious about posting a resume there, if at all. And if you cannot delete your resume, don’t post it. One word about job sites: some job sites share resumes between themselves. Don’t be surprised if after posting your resume at one site, if it shows up at another. For Manager? Sometimes, resumes can also be stolen from one site and reposted illegally at another. World History Essays? This has happened to one job seeker who has not been able to get his resume offline after 6 months of phd dissertation blog emails to the secondary sites that posted his resume. Truth #10: Delete does not always mean delete. Make sure the job site or resume site lets you delete your resume whenever you want to.

Also, look for information about how long a site says it will keep or store your resume. This information can usually be found in the privacy policy or terms of use section. Job and resume sites should state that they promise to let you delete your resume whenever you want to, and will only keep your resume for a limited, specific amount of time, such as one to six months, after which the site will delete your resume. Without specific, written statements about how long your resume may be kept, your resume can be archived for years, legally . Most job seekers do not want resumes circulating after they have gotten a job. Before you post a resume, check to make sure you can delete your resume after you have posted it . Look in the job site’s privacy policy for resume deletion instructions.

If you don’t find any such instructions on the site, write an email to the site and ask how or if you can delete your resume. World Essays? If you are not satisfied with the resume for manager, reply, do not post your resume to that site. You must be able to ap central history essays, delete your resume when you want to. After all, it belongs to you. A note about on entrepreneurship resume writing services:

If you plan on using a resume writing service in your job search efforts, get an agreement in ap central world essays, writing that the common application 2012-13, service will not sell or share your resume with any third parties or partners. Unfortunately, this does happen at some resume writing services. Also, ask to ap central world, see the privacy policy of any resume writing services you may use and ask specifically about how the service handles and stores your resume. A Thesis And Contrast? This applies to traditional and online resume writing services. Truth #11: Keeping good records is crucial for online job searching.

Be sure to keep a record of where you have posted your resume online. Sometimes, you will not have an email record because you will have posted your resume into world history essays a form on a Web site. Application Essays 2012-13? Print all of these out when you post your resume, and keep copies. These copies will help you to remember where you have posted, and will allow you to go back and follow up, or delete your resume from the sites where you have posted it after you have finished your job search. And if you run into any problems on a site, the copies will allow you to prove what it is world essays that you posted on the site. Truth #12: Prevention is better than the cure. If you believe your resume or personal job search data, including your email address or your name, has been shared or used in a way inconsistent with a job site’s posted privacy policy, you have little ability if any to fix the write a research project progress, problem after the fact.

This is an unfortunate reality today. Perhaps this will change in the future, but for now, it is ap central history much better to prevent problems than to try and fix them afterward. See Recourse section below for a research progress report tips if you have had a problem. You may file a consumer complaint with the ap central history essays, FTC by calling (1-877-FTC-HELP ) or by using the FTC’s online filing system, located at http://www.ftc.gov/ . Click on “File a Complaint Online.” If you discover that you have been the victim of a job scam, it is crucial that you take immediate action to stop any further payment (or shipping) transfers. There is a chance you may have unwittingly committed a crime, for example, if you have transferred money that is a romance please me stolen, you may have committed wire fraud. Because of this, you will need to take steps to file a police report and make restitution where appropriate. Please see http://www.worldprivacyforum.org/2008/07/jobscamtipspayforwarding/ for ap central world detailed tips on how to deal with the aftermath of a job scam. Some job seekers have had serious legal problems, including arrest and indictment, due to job scams.

If you have identity theft problems resulting from your resume posting, you can find helpful information at phd research on entrepreneurship the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse www.privacyrights.org/identity.htm and the Identity Theft Resource Center www.idtheftcenter.org . There, you will find fact sheets and detailed information about specific steps you need to take. Ap Central History? The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse also has guides on SSNs and other workplace privacy issues. Publication history: Updated 2/ 2009, 7/2008, 8/2007, 2/2006, 7/2005, 7/2004. Originally posted 2/20/2003. Pam Dixon is the for manager, author of seven books, including the award-winning Job Searching Online for Dummies. Pam Dixon and the World Privacy Forum gratefully acknowledge the history, Rose Foundation Consumer Privacy Rights Fund, whose financial support made this research possible . 39th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners, Hong Kong, WPF facilitator, panelist.

FinTech #038; Blockchain Summit, Columbia University Business School, WPF panelist. Privacy Law Scholar’s Conference, WPF Commenter. Medical treatments tailored to please hate, each individual’s physiology and genetic history have long been a dream, but this dream is data-intensive. The most current effort to turn personalized medicine into a reality is the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), which will collect and share biospecimens and health data from over a million volunteers for research -- this report analyzes the privacy protections for this initiative. This analysis is an in-depth look at the January 2017 Executive Order 13768, Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the world, United States, and its interaction with two laws, the Privacy Act of 1974 and the Judicial Redress Act of 2015.

Regardless of the reasons underlying why the order was written, a key question this analysis considers is if the phd dissertation, order damages the history, EU-US Privacy Shield agreement, and what that means. This substance of this analysis is about the new EU-US Privacy Shield, with contextual background and how to an analysis of how this new proposal compares to the old EU-US Safe Harbor agreement. The analysis includes a discussion of winners and losers in Privacy Shield, and discusses its potential future.