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Answer This Job Interview Question: What's Your Greatest Strength? What's your greatest strength? is an often-used job interview question and umi dissertation database, is frequently paired with the greatest-weakness question. This question is also an invitation to explain why you are the best-qualified candidate for essay revolution, this job. Umi Dissertation Database? If you are typically a modest person or not accustomed to bragging about yourself, get over it, at least for essay, your job interviews. If you don't tell employers what your strengths are, they will never know. Employers ask this question for a couple of umi dissertation abstract, reasons: They are interested in best research what you think your strengths are because that gives them an insight into your personality. This is the quickest way to gain insight into umi dissertation abstract database, your strengths. Yes, if they spend 30 minutes studying your LinkedIn Profile and your LinkedIn Group activities, they'll get an poetry thesis idea of your strengths, but reality is few employers want to abstract database spend that time because they might not find the answer or they might reach the to buy research wrong conclusion.
Don't simply pick any random strength you've been told you have (a great cook, good with kids, able to leap tall buildings in a single bound, etc.). The strengths you describe must be relevant to the job, or they really don't matter to abstract the employer. Being a good cook isn't relevant to most office jobs, unless the job is writing or editing a cook book or cooking instruction videos. Look to address the real concern behind the greatest-strength question, which is Are you a good candidate for this job? Will you be able to do this job well?
Will you fit in with the other employees? They are thinking: What is this person really like? Can this person communicate well? Is this person self-aware and shows, confident? Prepare for Job Interview Success: What IS Your Greatest Strength? Hopefully, you are reading this article because you understand the importance of preparing for a job interview. Walking into an interview expecting to succeed without preparing is abstract database a waste of time.
1. Develop a List of Your Strengths. Since the same strength won't necessarily work for poetry thesis, every job opportunity, even in the same company, develop a list of umi dissertation abstract, three to five (hopefully, more) strengths that you can use as appropriate to that opportunity. Some of your strengths are based on essay comparing your education and experience -- skills you have developed, like using a particular tool required for your profession. Perhaps you speak more than one language, or are very skilled at keeping unhappy customers from umi dissertation, getting more upset. Some of your strengths are personal characteristics. Political Essay? These are the soft skills that make you a good team member and a productive employee. [See the lists of possible strengths below.] Choose strengths that are relevant to the job you are interviewing for, and be sure to have at umi dissertation abstract, least two examples of accomplishments that prove those you have those strengths. What Do You Think Your Strengths Are? Think about the aspects of your work that make you feel the most successful, and write them down: What part of your work do you enjoy doing the essay comparing and contrasting and american most?
What part of your work is the easiest part for you to do (particularly the parts that seem to be more difficult for others)? What accomplishments are you proudest of umi dissertation abstract, (even if no one else seemed to notice)? What have you been recognized for by an employer -- either in define a performance review, a salary increase, or a bonus? What other internal reward or recognition have you received -- like employee of the umi dissertation database month? What external reward or recognition have you received? Which of the characteristics employers value (above) are reflected in your accomplishments? Connect your accomplishments to those highly valued characteristics. These strengths can be a simple as never missing a day of work or never being late for work (reliable).
What Do Others Think Your Strengths Are? Often, we are not the best to buy papers best judges of our strengths. We think we are, but a view from the outside is often more reflective of reality. Database? So, after you have developed your list of strengths, ask a friend or former co-worker (more than one, if possible) if those are the strengths they would choose to describe you. Their answers could surprise you, and, probably, will be very helpful. Ask for comparing and contrasting the french and american, examples of when you demonstrated that strength. Then, put together a very short narrative of why something is a strength for abstract, you. Have additional proof available. Choosing Your Best, Most Appropriate Strengths for Each Opportunity. Before each interview, pick the strengths that are directly relevant to the positions you are seeking. Help the interviewer understand how your qualifications match their requirements.
Which of your strengths fits this job and this organization the photo tattoos best? If the description is so short or vague that the requirements are hard to figure out, scan the lists of umi dissertation, Characteristics Employers Value and Skills Employers Need (below) to define big bang find the ones that seem most appropriate for you and the specific opportunity. 2. Demonstrate Your Strengths with Your Relevant Accomplishments. Abstract Database? Make a list of the to buy research times when you demonstrated a strength on your list: Issues you recognized and addressed? Problems you solved? Processes you improved? Expenses reduced as a result of your actions or ideas? Profits that were generated as a result of your ideas? Other improvements that resulted from umi dissertation abstract database, your ideas or actions? When you have a list of of reality shows essay, 3 or more examples of a strength, think about exactly what happened -- what was the umi dissertation abstract reason you did the best research papers action, how did you do it, and what was the benefit of your work. Apply the principles of the structured C.A.R. (Challenge - Action - Result) or S.T.A.R. (Situation - Task - Action - Result) method to describe your accomplishments.
Be prepared to abstract describe your strength and the accomplishments that prove you have that strength. Poetry Thesis? Also, be sure that both the abstract strength you choose and the accomplishments that illustrate it are relevant to to buy papers the job you are interviewing for. Your CAR/STAR descriptions will help you with your resume and LinkedIn profile as well as with your job interviews. Possible Strengths: Skills Employers Need. Don't forget your skills that apply specifically to this opportunity , based on your experience or education/training in: A type of customer A type of umi dissertation abstract, business An aspect of business (marketing, finance, law, customer service, and so on) A skill (writing great blog posts, selling a specific product, writing great proposals, designing excellent products, etc.) A technology (OS10, Bluetooth, AWS, CISSP, and so on) A job-specific tool like an EKG machine, an infusion pump, a backhoe, a drone, an immersion blender, an HV Gen 2 battery pack, etc.
Don't limit yourself to the skills you have developed only in school or in a job. Poetry Thesis? You may have also developed skills in any volunteering you may have done, too. Abstract Database? Possible Strengths: Characteristics Employers Value. Look at essay, this list, below, of characteristics that employers prefer for umi dissertation, their employees. Relate the characteristic you choose to the requirements of the job, with examples of how you have demonstrated it in poetry thesis the past: Honest/trustworthy Dependable Punctual Intelligent Reliable Likeable Positive Independent (vs. needing close management) Problem-solver Detail-oriented Hard-working Team player Quick learner Good communicator Creative Passionate about doing a good job Organized Flexible Determined (you never give up until the job is done and done right) Leader (particularly important for jobs managing people and/or projects) When you have accomplishments that can be verified through public media (LinkedIn or other media) or through discussions with your references, choose strengths that include those accomplishments. Like good answers to the greatest weakness question, the answers to the greatest strength question also have two parts: 2. Proof of the strength. Share examples of the strength that demonstrate your qualifications for the job you are interviewing for. Abstract? Be sure to present strengths in terms of how they impact the political narrative essay employer. Examples: Greatest Strength Answers. Remember that this isn't a date or a session with your best friend: Keep your answers short. Umi Dissertation Database? Don't talk for longer than 10 to 20 seconds.
The interviewer isn't interested in your life story. Poetry Thesis? Respect your current and previous employers' confidential information. You will be demonstrating your loyalty and umi dissertation abstract database, ethics, which a new employer should appreciate. Political Essay? Focus on strengths relevant to the job and employer. Don't choose irrelevant strengths, like your skill with knitting or dancing -- unless those strengths are related to skills needed for the job. Don't share too much information, particularly personal information about your family and your health. These are only examples.
Use these as guides to help you develop your own answers. Particularly for umi dissertation abstract, customer service and other customer-facing jobs, this one is a strength that employers love. (Strength) I enjoy interacting with people and photo essay, helping them solve problems, both on the phone and also via email or electronic chatting/messaging. Umi Dissertation Database? (Proof) I've been an online customer service representative for over 5 years, and I really enjoy interacting with people across the globe. My employer has a high standard for customer satisfaction, and I've been trained to defuse really angry people so they can be helped and, in fact, satisfied with our services. Poetry Thesis? We are measured both on how satisfied people are after they've spoken with us, and also if they purchase additional products and services as a result of umi dissertation abstract, our interactions. I'm proud to disadvantages of reality shows say that I am usually among the leaders in our group, and umi dissertation abstract, have received at least one service rep of the month award every year. Hopefully, your actions before, during, and after the interview demonstrate this strength. This strength is best papers obviously very important for management jobs and project/team leadership positions. (Strength) I pride myself on my leadership skills, something I was taught in abstract my 3 years as a non-commissioned officer in the United States Marine Corps. (Proof) Leadership is necessary to keep project teams moving forward in disadvantages of reality the right direction. While nothing is as challenging as leading troops in battle, leading a 6- to database 12-member project team is not easy.
Bringing projects in on-time, on-budget, and meeting both technical and business requirements takes substantial planning and management skills, particularly when typically half of the team members did not directly report to narrative essay me. I've been an IT project manager for abstract database, 5 years, managing 10 major projects in that time frame. All of those projects completed on schedule, met their specifications, and were considered successes. In addition, I was able to train 4 team members so they were promoted to project management positions. Remember: This is not the time for political essay, modesty! Choose your strengths carefully, matching them to the requirements of the job, and then offer proof that you have those strengths. Know what works NOW for umi dissertation abstract database, your job search! Online job search expert Susan P. Disadvantages Of Reality? Joyce has been observing the online job search world and teaching online job search skills since 1995. A veteran of the United States Marine Corps and a recent Visiting Scholar at umi dissertation abstract, the MIT Sloan School of Management, Susan is a two-time layoff “graduate” who has worked in human resources at nucleosynthesis, Harvard University and in umi dissertation abstract database a compensation consulting firm. Narrative? Since 1998, Susan has been editor and publisher of Job-Hunt.org.
Follow Susan on Twitter at @jobhuntorg and on umi dissertation abstract database Facebook, LinkedIn, and Google+. Poetry Thesis? Guide to the Most Common Interview Questions (with Answers) How to Answer the Common Job Interview Questions Smart Answers to 15 Common Job Interview Questions from the Guide to umi dissertation abstract database Working With Recruiters Guide to Writing Thank You Notes After a Job Interview including Sample Thank You Notes (and Emails) How to Leverage Body Language in Interviews from the Guide to Job Interviews. The Most Common Job Interview Questions. Handling Special Situations in Job Interviews. More Information About Job Interviews: Job-Hunt's Guide to Successful Job Interviews - the information you need to narrative essay succeed Smart Answers to Job Interview Questions - from a recruiter's perspective Free eBook - Successful Job Interviews (new browser window) Job-Hunt's Company Research Guide. Umi Dissertation Database? Real employers who value your experience are looking for political narrative essay, you here. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database? Jobs across the state - not available elsewhere on the Web. Only here. Copyright NETability, Inc.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to database modern theories of limited, liberal government. Best Websites To Buy! He was also influential in database the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and define big bang, its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is umi dissertation, then able to examine, compare, and the french and american, combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.
In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of umi dissertation abstract, limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in political narrative essay favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England.
His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in umi dissertation abstract database the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667.
Although he had little appreciation for define nucleosynthesis, the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of umi dissertation, his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and poetry thesis, energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of poetry thesis, education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of umi dissertation database, Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in to buy research papers medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age.
He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and abstract, became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Revolution! Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in umi dissertation Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671.
He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in disadvantages of reality France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to abstract database be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and poetry thesis, Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the umi dissertation abstract database, Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the to buy papers, Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and umi dissertation database, proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution.
While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in tattoos England, France, and abstract database, the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory.
Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. Best To Buy Papers! But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of abstract database, Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to define being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. Abstract Database! His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in political narrative essay 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of umi dissertation abstract, Christianity. Closer to the time of political narrative essay, his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously.
A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from umi dissertation abstract database, health problems for most of best to buy research papers, his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to umi dissertation abstract London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in websites to buy research 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on umi dissertation abstract, 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the best websites papers, Essay came to umi dissertation abstract him while debating an photo unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties.
Locke realized that to umi dissertation database make progress on this topic it was first necessary to essay examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to abstract deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to poetry thesis it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. Database! We also need to know which areas of essay comparing the french and american revolution, inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle.
We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of umi dissertation abstract database, humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into essay, the world. This may have been what Locke had in abstract mind when he claimed that part of essay, his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience.
In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and umi dissertation, the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Political Essay! Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and umi dissertation, that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the comparing and contrasting revolution, Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on umi dissertation abstract database, them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators.
One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the best websites research papers, Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is umi dissertation, less than helpful insofar as it contains an narrative essay ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple.
So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the of reality shows essay, Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the umi dissertation abstract, doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience.
It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in photo tattoos this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of umi dissertation abstract database, Cherbury and poetry thesis, other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the abstract, Cambridge Platonists, and narrative, a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is umi dissertation abstract, motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. Photo! This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. Umi Dissertation Database! The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at poetry thesis the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out database, that none of the define big bang, mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for umi dissertation abstract, example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to political narrative essay point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism.
The misunderstanding is, in umi dissertation abstract part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is poetry thesis, like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is database, nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is essay comparing and contrasting the french and american revolution, much more nuanced. Abstract Database! He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and poetry thesis, inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. Umi Dissertation Abstract! His anti-nativist point is to buy research, just that none of abstract, these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of big bang, how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion.
Locke’s claim is umi dissertation abstract database, that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and websites, from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about umi dissertation abstract database, external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of essay tattoos, our Minds, perceived and umi dissertation database, reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the political narrative, material of thinking . These two are the database, Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the photo essay, above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Abstract Database! Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Of Reality Shows! Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated.
Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. Umi Dissertation! For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Political Narrative Essay! Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of abstract database, reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is define, “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and umi dissertation database, is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. Define! And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to umi dissertation abstract database understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible.
Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by to buy, offering an abstract database account of political narrative essay, how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the abstract, simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into comparing the french revolution, three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of umi dissertation abstract database, individual buildings might be considered a town. Big Bang! And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. Database! In addition to to buy describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of?
We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. Umi Dissertation Database! It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for poetry thesis, things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165).
Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Umi Dissertation Database! Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of poetry thesis, simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to abstract database explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance.
My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is poetry thesis, keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of abstract, her as having a certain relationship of and contrasting the french revolution, sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Umi Dissertation Abstract! Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the poetry thesis, role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity.
Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is umi dissertation abstract database, keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the essay and contrasting and american revolution, success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of umi dissertation database, dispute. On some occasions the essay comparing and contrasting the french revolution, analysis he gives of umi dissertation abstract database, how a very complex idea could be constructed using only narrative essay simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the umi dissertation, simple ideas of essay tattoos, power and umi dissertation abstract, unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Political Narrative Essay! Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the umi dissertation abstract database, individuation of ideas.
Ideas are distinct when there is best websites papers, only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to database that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and essay and contrasting revolution, our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Umi Dissertation Database! Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the define nucleosynthesis, mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is umi dissertation, structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines.
In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to to buy this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world.
As such, it is database, easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to photo essay tattoos these objects is database, limited in disadvantages of reality shows essay a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to umi dissertation database be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is define big bang nucleosynthesis, something of a digression.
He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of umi dissertation abstract database, language. But a major portion of of reality shows, Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is umi dissertation abstract, one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and essay, clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by abstract, language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is define nucleosynthesis, a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for abstract, nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. Poetry Thesis! When she utters the abstract, word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention.
Although the narrative essay, primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to umi dissertation the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is photo essay, that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world.
When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to websites to buy research more than just her idea, she also wants to abstract database refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. Best Websites Research! He thinks the database, latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and of reality shows essay, reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and database, words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to poetry thesis an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of umi dissertation database, a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the of reality shows, word “is” does something different. That word is abstract database, a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for essay, a number of abstract database, reasons.
The signification of words is websites to buy research papers, arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to umi dissertation abstract database acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by narrative, the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! Locke provides a number of political, examples of abstract, language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and essay tattoos, “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an abstract database idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to poetry thesis implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to umi dissertation abstract database terms are as complete as possible. Of Reality Shows! We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to abstract database signify one and best websites, the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of umi dissertation database, words to photo essay others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief.
A good place to umi dissertation abstract database start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. Best Websites To Buy Research! The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help.
Bring to umi dissertation abstract mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of big bang, agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. Umi Dissertation! For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to and contrasting the french revolution the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is abstract, a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing.
If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of poetry thesis, ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and abstract, recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to essay and american consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge.
An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. Umi Dissertation Abstract! This is the define big bang, best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the umi dissertation abstract database, Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the big bang nucleosynthesis, intervention of abstract database, any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the to buy research, three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by umi dissertation, means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge.
Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the essay and contrasting the french and american, agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and abstract, confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is define nucleosynthesis, unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the umi dissertation abstract database, only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the to buy research, Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and umi dissertation abstract database, yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the comparing and contrasting and american revolution, relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an umi dissertation database orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is poetry thesis, responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. Umi Dissertation Abstract! There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world.
Locke spends a fair amount of time in best websites to buy Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is abstract, fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for essay, an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to abstract step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is essay, that “nearly every youthful student of umi dissertation database, philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one.
Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and best research, a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the umi dissertation abstract database, many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Of Reality Essay! While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is umi dissertation abstract, that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge.
Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for poetry thesis, our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the umi dissertation abstract database, bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against narrative essay running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Umi Dissertation Database! Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.
Our knowledge of narrative essay, morality, in particular, is very good. Abstract! Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to big bang Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is umi dissertation database, possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of disadvantages shows, substances do. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry.
We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to shows focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in umi dissertation database a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. Political Narrative Essay! I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and umi dissertation, my idea of the poetry thesis, Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.
After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and database, offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and best papers, an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and umi dissertation abstract, contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of define big bang, these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Umi Dissertation! It can sometimes be difficult to disadvantages of reality tell whether Locke takes himself to abstract be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to best websites to buy give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of database, personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to big bang nucleosynthesis the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an umi dissertation abstract extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and political, was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the umi dissertation abstract, related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on best websites to buy research papers, the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. Database! There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of poetry thesis, brown, something in abstract the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in essay us.
The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. Umi Dissertation Database! All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into define big bang, nerves in my nose, the motion in database the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is poetry thesis, some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. Comparing The French Revolution! These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by umi dissertation abstract, contrast, are not really had by bodies.
They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the essay, idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the umi dissertation, Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Best Research! Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and abstract, taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the websites to buy, time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world.
The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and database, motion). Locke was exposed to shows the mechanical philosophy while at umi dissertation abstract database Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. Disadvantages Shows! On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to abstract the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.
What is of reality shows essay, peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and umi dissertation abstract database, speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. Disadvantages Of Reality Shows! First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by abstract, positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the photo tattoos, sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the umi dissertation abstract, smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to nucleosynthesis explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and umi dissertation abstract database, that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to essay theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Umi Dissertation Abstract! Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of poetry thesis, marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer.
Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. Umi Dissertation Abstract! When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is political essay, guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to abstract database make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to narrative choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something.
2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the umi dissertation database, will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. Websites Research! For example, if I wish to jump into umi dissertation abstract database, a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the essay comparing the french, water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free.
When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to umi dissertation abstract database speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in essay and contrasting revolution the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is umi dissertation abstract, caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing.
Suppose I choose to eat a slice of define big bang, pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to abstract database choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the nucleosynthesis, most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is umi dissertation, evident in Experience, a power to suspend the political essay, execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and umi dissertation abstract, weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for define nucleosynthesis, pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to abstract keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of to buy papers, course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the abstract, suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire.
On this point Locke is somewhat vague. Narrative! While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and umi dissertation abstract, argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and best websites research, Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in umi dissertation database the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in define big bang Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile.
In Locke’s time, the abstract database, topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in define heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the umi dissertation abstract, one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body.
So it was important to get the essay, issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to abstract me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Shows Essay! Locke suggests here that part of umi dissertation, what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is photo essay tattoos, my realization that I share in his consciousness.
Put differently, my access to his lived experience at database Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to essay the french and american revolution cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and umi dissertation database, did not remain with the poetry thesis, soul.
Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from umi dissertation, some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an poetry thesis account which would be acceptable to individuals from abstract database, a number of photo essay tattoos, different theological backgrounds. Umi Dissertation Database! Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on big bang nucleosynthesis, the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in umi dissertation abstract Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the comparing and contrasting and american, real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and database, investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to political essay refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442).
For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the umi dissertation database, number and arrangement of the define big bang nucleosynthesis, material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the umi dissertation database, best way we have to best to buy understand individual substances.
Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. Umi Dissertation Abstract! So the nominal essence of nucleosynthesis, a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and umi dissertation database, nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. Photo Essay! The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to abstract the person.
They are hidden behind the casing. Poetry Thesis! He or she can only know about the observable features like the umi dissertation database, clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Photo Tattoos! Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only abstract able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for poetry thesis, his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the abstract database, consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about disadvantages of reality essay, species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the abstract database, various nominal essences we’ve created.
The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of poetry thesis, God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in umi dissertation England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to of reality shows discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is abstract, certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and best websites to buy, comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason.
But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and abstract database, reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to best papers reason in umi dissertation abstract a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to photo essay be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question.
Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of abstract, faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the poetry thesis, Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to umi dissertation abstract faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the french and american, the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.
The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. Umi Dissertation Database! In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in essay favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. Abstract! But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical.
Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. Photo Essay! We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Umi Dissertation Database! Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of disadvantages, government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is abstract, now of primarily historical interest. It takes the disadvantages shows essay, form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer.
Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of umi dissertation abstract, divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to essay comparing and contrasting the french revolution Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the abstract database, nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the essay and contrasting and american revolution, origins of umi dissertation abstract database, government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite.
According to photo essay tattoos him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of umi dissertation database, nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to tattoos attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and umi dissertation database, so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of big bang, physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Umi Dissertation Abstract! Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the essay the french revolution, form of a contract. Umi Dissertation Abstract! In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from essay, physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to umi dissertation abstract database interact and political narrative, cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments.
This has a number of very important consequences. Umi Dissertation Database! On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to research papers the needs and desires of these citizens. Umi Dissertation! Further, in essay comparing and contrasting and american revolution establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over umi dissertation database, all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for political, certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to abstract database adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. Poetry Thesis! As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and umi dissertation abstract, replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. Poetry Thesis! He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.
He could use it to umi dissertation database show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of big bang nucleosynthesis, their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to umi dissertation database revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of best research, private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to umi dissertation abstract database provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. Tattoos! But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Abstract! Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property.
Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on best websites, a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over umi dissertation, them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and poetry thesis, raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is umi dissertation abstract database, what has come to define big bang be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste.
I should not appropriate gallons and database, gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. Essay! If the goods of the Earth were given to us by abstract database, God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the photo essay tattoos, Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and database, as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the essay comparing the french, nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. Umi Dissertation Abstract! So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. Essay! And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and umi dissertation abstract, devoted a great deal of thought to big bang nucleosynthesis the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of umi dissertation, a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in photo essay tattoos 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. Database! The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state.
Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to best to buy research think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from umi dissertation abstract, allowing others to have their own religious beliefs.
Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is poetry thesis, outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for database, the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from photo tattoos, enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of umi dissertation abstract, individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . Disadvantages Of Reality Shows Essay! So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on database, toleration.
He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to essay comparing the french and american the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and umi dissertation abstract database, peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in of reality shows an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in abstract the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to disadvantages of reality shows faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to umi dissertation be a message from God.
Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. Political Essay! The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of database, Christianity is to essay show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Database! Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to political narrative essay show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from abstract, God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of the french, historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God.
Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into umi dissertation, our own. Poetry Thesis! This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the abstract database, types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis! Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and umi dissertation, often only they, had the research, correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Umi Dissertation Abstract! Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Essay! The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of abstract, a growing faction in disadvantages the Church of England.
These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in umi dissertation database attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on define big bang, educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and umi dissertation abstract, offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Essay! The work had its origins in umi dissertation abstract database a series of letters Locke wrote to essay Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system.
Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the database, importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in poetry thesis their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in umi dissertation educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches.
Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the essay, difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. Database! During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.
Related to of reality essay this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and database, lead to important technological advances. Define Big Bang! Lockean philosophy would lay bare the abstract, workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an best to buy papers instrumental role in umi dissertation database shaping this legacy for papers, Locke and worked hard to umi dissertation database publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is define big bang nucleosynthesis, often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in umi dissertation abstract the 18 th and big bang, early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in umi dissertation his footsteps were not unquestioning followers.
George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and narrative essay, others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an umi dissertation database important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. Best To Buy Research Papers! [ed.] 1988. Umi Dissertation Database! Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Disadvantages Shows! Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. Umi Dissertation! This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J.
Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for photo tattoos, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989.
The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for umi dissertation abstract, further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Amway India New Business Plan 2017. Amway India New Business Plan is abstract database announced and is effective from poetry thesis, 1st August 2017. The minor change to the old plan which is effective from September 2015 may influence the new business builders positively. Database! The 12% performance bonus slab is being replaced by political narrative essay new 11% and 13 % slabs. Database! The 12 % slab was present ever since Amway started its operation in India. 500 PV is poetry thesis needed to achieve 9% slab which is the abstract database predecessor to the 12 % . One need to do 1500 PV to achieve 12%.
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essay on dh lawrence Lawrence and Music. In spite of myself, the umi dissertation abstract insidious mastery of song. Betrays me back, till the heart of me weeps to essay the french and american belong. There is no doubt that music played an extremely important role in D.H. Lawrence's life. He was an enthusiastic listener to all kinds of music, but in particular he seemed to have been totally in database, his element throughout his life acting as leader of practical musicmaking with his family and friends. Although he never mastered an photo tattoos instrument he had considerable natural musical ability, and though not possessing a particularly good voice could sing accurately and with great style. He had a prodigious memory for songs, hymns, opera arias and music of an amazing variety, and accounts of his life are full of references to his musical interests and activities. As is usual with Lawrence, he wove these events and interests into his writings. In seeking to umi dissertation abstract database account for Lawrence's musical abilities it is perhaps natural to essay look to his mother.
Although she 'sang sweetly', she does not appear to have been particularly musical and could not play the piano provided for the family by her sister Lettie who had married a German and umi dissertation abstract database, settled in poetry thesis, Nottingham. Abstract? Lawrence's sister Ada was a capable pianist and his sister Emily could play a few hymns. Both were taught by Miss Wright - the music teacher mentioned in The Lost Girl. Mr E.C. Carlin, a boyhood friend of Lawrence's, refers to poetry thesis Miss Wright but coyly avoids using names. 'Well, I shall have to be careful here or I might get into trouble if I mention names, but it is a wonderful book The Lost Girl. I knew this girl and I knew the abstract parents and poetry thesis, also the music teacher that's mentioned in the book.' Although Miss Wright may have taught Lawrence other subjects, he does not appear to have had piano lessons from her. However, Ada records that he shut himself in the front room one day and practised scales and exercises on the piano for half an hour or more. Then his patience gave out and he never attempted to play again. He could already read music well, and it seems that he expected to master the piano technique as effortlessly as he wrote and abstract, painted. Probably using his sister's tutor book, he soon realised that the 'beastly scales' were designed to develop the muscular skills, require hours of patient application and cannot he bypassed - even by tattoos, a genius!
Lawrence's greatgrandfather, John Newton of Sneinton, his mother's grandfather, enjoyed a modest success as a composer of church music. His tune 'Sovereignty' to Samuel Davies's hymn 'Great God of abstract database, Wonders' appeared in the Methodist Hymn Book of 1904. He wrote a number of disadvantages of reality shows essay, hymn tunes and anthems that were published by local subscription but none are now in general use. He should not be confused with John Newton the 18th century writer of abstract, 'Amazing Grace'. In spite of big bang nucleosynthesis, this musical connection on his mother's side it is more likely that Lawrence’s practical musical skills were inherited from his father. Arthur Lawrence is often portrayed as little more than a drunken lout - probably as a result of the abstract database character Lawrence gives to Walter Morel in to buy papers, Sons and Lovers, yet there are many indications he was possessed of some 'style' and a very accomplished singer when he wooed and won Lydia Beardsall at umi dissertation database dances in poetry thesis, Nottingham. As a boy Arthur Lawrence had been a chorister at umi dissertation abstract database Brinsley Parish Church, a squat, grimy little building set back from the road and not far from the define nucleosynthesis colliery. In his 1926 letter to Rolf Gardiner Lawrence seems to mention with some pride that his father sang in the Newstead Abbey Choir. This is umi dissertation abstract, not as grand as it sounds, the Abbey being a ruin. Services would have been held in a small chapel in a substantial residential stately home which incorporates the photo essay ruin and is now part of a public park.
Services would have been held for the resident family and the estate workers. Abstract? The choir would have been recruited from workers' families in the surrounding area. Essay Comparing And American Revolution? Arthur's acknowledged singing talents would have made him particularly welcome. Walter Morel is described as whistling in a lively and musical way – nearly always hymns and, with a 'beautiful singing voice', having sung solos as a boy in 'Southwell Cathedral'. Southwell Minster was not made a Cathedral Church until 1884, well after Arthur Lawrence would have ceased to umi dissertation abstract be a choirboy, and it is essay, unlikely that he would have sung as a boy in the Minster during the abstract 1850s when it was little more than a 'run down parish church'. As is often the case with Lawrence, fact provides the starting point for political fiction, but in this insight into Walter Morel's character, he is probably acknowledging his own father's skills. 'Peg' Needham confirms that her grandfather was a fine singer but did not take part in the family musicmaking. Database? Ada recollects his mending family shoes and singing at the top of of reality shows, his voice.' Music at School. Lawrence's natural gift for singing in tune would have been greatly enhanced by umi dissertation, the music lessons at the Beauvale Board School where he would almost certainly have been taught the tonic solfa system, a method of music teaching widely used in infant and junior school at that time. This system is tattoos, remarkable in database, its ability to establish a sense of pitch consciousness and would account for Lawrence's amazing ability to teach his family and friends 'parts' in quite complicated music without any aid from a piano or other instrument. J.D.
Music at College. Chambers in his broadcast 'Memories of D.H.Lawrence as a boy’, reports that Lawrence taught the Chambers children to sing parts from tonic solfa. It is likely that Lawrence received little or no music training while he was a pupil at the Nottingham High School, but it is clear that music played quite an important part in his studies for the Teacher's Certificate at the University College of Nottingham. Records show that he gained a grade B in music. Amos Henderson was Professor in Education, and Director of Music for the Training College.
He also presided over the students' hostel at Mapperley Hall and played a major role in Student Association affairs, including the organisation of nucleosynthesis, concerts. There seems little doubt but that this enthusiastic man would have encouraged Lawrence's interest in music. The small music department with a staff of abstract, three, including Henderson, offered a limited range of classes in music. Political? 'Public Lectures' included such subjects as 'Voice Production' and abstract, 'Choral Music', which might well have attracted Lawrence's attention. He would no doubt have been instructed in political, the teaching of umi dissertation abstract database, music during the 'Science of disadvantages of reality shows, Teaching' classes and probably learnt many of the songs which he sang throughout his life, from the songbook A Golden Treasury of Song, which Jessie Chambers reports as being used at the college. Umi Dissertation Database? There were regular Student Association concerts and photo, Lawrence attended them and may have sung in the choir.
The programmes consisted largely of Victorian and Edwardian songs and partsongs. It was to listen to a rehearsal for one of these concerts that Lawrence persuaded one of the Chambers brothers to cycle the umi dissertation abstract 12 miles from Haggs Farm to Nottingham. Music at Chapel. Lawrence's earliest musical experiences would have been at the 'Cong', the Congregational Church at disadvantages shows essay Eastwood. “He used to abstract database go to the Congregational, and he went to Sunday School there. that was in Charles Wesley Butler's day.” All the poetry thesis young Lawrence family belonged to the Band of database, Hope, singing temperance songs such as “There's a serpent in the glass, dash it down!” Lawrence acquired a considerable repertoire of nonconformist hymns and religious songs at this time. In Sunday School they sang the poetry thesis Gospel Songs of the American evangelists Moody and Sankey together with the lively choruses of the Salvation Army. However, it was the umi dissertation “healthy hymns” in poetry thesis, The Bristol Hymn Book that more than any others inspired Lawrence to write his wellknown essay “Hymns in a Man's Life.” Writing towards the end of his life, Lawrence acknowledged the umi dissertation 'deep penetration' of 'wonder' these manifestations of nucleosynthesis, popular religious poetic tradition instilled in him. Although in his later life he often sang, sometimes in a mocking way, evangelical songs and choruses, it was the 'battle cry of a stout soul' bereft of 'personal emotionalism' which he valued in the spirit of those militant hymns which he sang with most enthusiasm in his last years. Music with Sister Ada. At home the young Lawrence spent many hours sitting beside his sister Ada at the piano, encouraging her to database play and to poetry thesis master the difficult passages. He bought her piano music by Chopin, Tchaikowsky and Brahms, and song books and opera selections.
These would have been typical of the music to database be found in any piano stool of the period and would have given Lawrence a sound introduction to 'classical' music. Disadvantages Of Reality Shows Essay? He and Ada often sang duets by Mendelssohn and others, but only for themselves in database, the intimate privacy of the front parlour. Music with the Chambers Family . Lawrence soon began to essay comparing and contrasting revolution take a lead in abstract database, music making among his friends. “ We went Christmas singing one Christmas from narrative their house, with wraps round our beads so no one would recognise us, and Bert was the leader then.” The singing sessions at Haggs Farm with the Chambers family are well documented, and one incident is used in Sons and Lovers where Paul Morel teaches Edgar a new song while the umi dissertation abstract database horses are groomed. Lawrence gives Paul 'a very indifferent baritone voice, but a good ear.' It seems to be generally accepted that Lawrence had a thin, highpitched singing voice which he could use with great musical and dramatic effect. Harry T. Moore suggests that an attack of pneumonia at the age of 16 may have affected Lawrence's vocal chords. Of Reality Shows? The pitch of his voice could not have been affected, as this would have required the vocal chords to have been shortened, which is unlikely.
The more probable outcome of the illness would have been hoarseness of abstract database, voice, but this does not seem to have occurred. Big Bang? Songs at Haggs Farm included 'Friars of Orders Grey', an operaticlike comic song and 'The Larboard Watch', a rousing duet, both included with solfa notation in The Nation's Music, an impressively illustrated Edwardian songbook. They also sang 'Two Grenadiers', a duet probably learnt by Lawrence for a concert given at Nottingham University College by the men students on umi dissertation abstract 29th February 1908. The Chambers family signature tune was 'There is a Tavern in the Town', number 107 in the Oxford Song Book. Lawrence seems to essay and contrasting and american have learnt a considerable number of its 128 titles by heart and umi dissertation, sang them and taught them to the family at home and to essay comparing and contrasting the french and american friends wherever he travelled. Umi Dissertation Database? The majority of numbers are traditional British folk songs such as 'Widdicombe Fair' and 'Richard of Taunton Green' the latter often performed by Lawrence in full Somerset dialect with great style. Another great favourite was the ‘Elephant Battery’, a song full of obscure tongue-twisting references to the Indian Army. Its banalities disappear the faster it is photo essay tattoos, sung and Lawrence performed it at a very great pace. Apart from many musical evenings at umi dissertation abstract database Haggs Farm, with Ada playing the piano 'with its faded green silk front', regular musical evenings took place at the various Lawrence homes in Eastwood, usually 'after chapel'. Sometimes George Neville, who disgusted Lawrence by begetting an illegitimate child after a Methodist Revival meeting, would play the piano.
They sang '. just the ordinary music hall songs on those occasions, but Jessie Chambers recounts that they also performed much heavier fare such as 'The Heavens are Telling', '0 Rest in big bang, the Lord' and a Lawrence favourite, the 'Hymn to Music', all requiring quite a good measure of abstract, skill in partsinging. Music at tattoos Eastwood. In his early 20s, while teaching at the British School in Eastwood, Lawrence arranged holidays for the family at the seaside on the Lincolnshire coast and at Shanklin, Isle of Wight. Seaside musical entertainment at that time would have included performances by 'Nigger Minstrels'. The mention of 'Coons' at Mablethorpe, which Miriarn thought 'insufferably stupid' in Sons and Lovers, no doubt refers to 'Chocolate Coloured Coons', another name for the white singing groups with blackened faces who sang sentimental and patronising ditties like 'Massa's in de Cold Cold Ground'. Music at Nottingham. During his time at abstract Nottingham University College, Lawrence attended performances of opera and musical comedy. There were five professional opera companies regularly visiting Nottingham, providing a surprisingly comprehensive range of all the major popular operatic works, including Tanhauser and II Trovatore, both recalled by Jessie Chambers, who went with him. Although they attended the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company performances of Gilbert and Sullivan operas, it is interesting to note that these tuneful and popular operas do not seem to have made a favourable impression on Lawrence, at least judging by their omission from his singing repertoire. Perhaps it is because they occupy an uncommitted, cynically iconoclastic middle ground between the earthy simplicity of the songs and websites to buy research, hymns and the 'art' music of the 'Grand' operas, all so favoured by Lawrence.
His teacher's course at Nottingham completed, Lawrence ruminated on his lack of abstract database, success in essay and contrasting, getting a job. 'My peace is gone, my heart is umi dissertation database, sore' he wrote to Louise Burrows, quoting Schubert's great song 'Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel.' His appointment as a teacher at Davidson Road School, Croydon, brought him new friends and of reality essay, new musical opportunities. In letters to Louise Burrows he gives accounts of umi dissertation abstract database, concerts and mentions with admiration the disadvantages of reality piano playing of Laura McCArtney and Antoinnetta Miller, also visits to the Italian Opera. His opinion of the piano music of Debussy seemed to vary: 'I love Debussy' (17th Dec 1911); 'Damn Debussy and his averted face'. (1st April 1911). Umi Dissertation Database? He disapproved of Wagner '. and his bellowings at essay comparing and american fate and death', but loved Italian Opera '. it's so reckless.' He told of trips to Purley for tea and music. Database? ‘I do love somebody to play the piano well to me’' (6th April 1911). Visiting the Opera in London. One of his new friends, Helen Corke, shared his interest in music. 'Once we went to a performance of Strauss's Electra at the Opera House, and climbed the best endless stairs and sat on the stone parapet of the gallery slopes.
The savagery of the opera filled me with horrified bewilderment, but Lawrence laughed sardonically.' The poem 'After the umi dissertation abstract database Opera` probably relates to this occasion. Political Essay? An interesting insight into abstract, the relationship between Lawrence and Helen Corke is recounted by to buy papers, his brother George: 'I remember going with him to database an organ recital of Goss Custard at St Margaret's, and Helen Corke. Disadvantages Essay? She was a tartar, she was, and she made some caustic remarks about this type of heavenly music. 1 don't profess to understand highclass music, so I turned round to her and said I don't know what you're talking about. I don't understand you, all 1 know is that this music appeals to every emotion in my body and I'm thoroughly enjoying myself. And Bert said There, you bloody little cat, that settles you Organ recitals, which often included 'transcriptions' of popular orchestral works, were very popular. Goss Custard, organist at abstract database Liverpool Cathedral, was one of a group of best to buy research, eminent recitalists who performed on the concert organs in abstract database, public buildings and in the larger churches and chapels throughout the country. Lawrence was interested in church buildings as well as church music. Best To Buy Research? Ada recalled, 'Bert, who liked old buildings, said we must look round the abstract church (Alfreton near Eastwood). I played the research papers organ, and we sang.' And Peg Needham: 'That was my favourite cathedral (Southwell) just because he'd shown it to me all in detail.' St Margaret's Wesminster, the scene of Helen Corke's denouement, is a notable building with a fine organ. Music in Croydon.
Once settled in Croydon, Lawrence was soon involved in songs round the piano. 'Once or twice we were invited to a friend's house for a musical evening. Umi Dissertation? Lawrence enjoyed singing old songs at the piano to our hostesses' accompaniment. During his stay in the London area, Lawrence took every opportunity to tattoos indulge his musical interests, and these experiences were transmuted into his writings, as in the short story ‘Witch A la Mode’ the beginning of which is an impression of just such an evening (musical), [though] the development is quite imaginary.' Music in Cornwall. Illness in 1911 caused Lawrence to give up teaching and to return to Eastwood, where he stayed with his sister Emily at Queen's Square. It was during this time that he met Frieda. She shared his interest in music. Montague Weekley, her son, recalled, 'I do remember that she liked sitting at the piano for hours on umi dissertation database end, singing to her own accompaniment.` For the next few years until Frieda's divorce in 1914, the couple travelled between England, Germany and Italy. They were married in London during 1915, stayed briefly at Greatham, Sussex and Hampstead, then settled in Cornwall at Tregarthern Cottage. There they befriended the Hocking family, who sometimes joined them in essay, their musicmaking. Stanley Hocking recalled that Lawrence said Don't forget to umi dissertation database bring your accordian.
We'll have a little singsong.' Well, sure enough we had this little singsong and we sang all sorts of things and Frieda sang some of disadvantages shows, her German folk songs until we'd practically run out of them you see, and database, Lawrence said, Can she play anything more, Stanley, are they all played that you know? Well, I don't know Mr Lawrence,I said, 1 think I can play one more, so I played the Merry Widow Waltz and at that Lawrence's face fell in a moment, and he said to poetry thesis me quickly, Please don't play that Stanley, I can't stand it! Good heavens, I said, Mr Lawrence, why not?!. Because it reminds me, he said, of days gone by and people gone by and everything that's sad. I always remember him saying that so 1 didn't play the abstract database accordian any more.` Music at Mountain Cottage. At this time the Lawrences were under surveillance for suspected spying and, it being wartime, they were eventually forced to poetry thesis leave the area. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database? “Well,them be spies, and they ought to be kicked out.” And so the story and disadvantages of reality shows, the little tongues wagged and got round you see. Poor Lawrence` They returned briefly to London, then moved to Mountain Cottage in Derbyshire, a small isolated cottage rented for umi dissertation database them by sister Ada. This time is websites to buy research, remembered by Lawrence's niece 'Peg'. 'I do remember singing round the piano. We had the Oxford Song Book, and we used to go right through them. We had our favourite songs of course, and round our Auntie's (Ada) piano at Ripley . my memory is of Ada playing at abstract her house and Frieda at Mountain Cottage.'
World Travel and Music. With the end of the war in 1918, Lawrence and Frieda commenced on a period of travel embracing Italy, Sicily, Ceylon and Australia. Poetry Thesis? Settling for brief periods, they eventually arrived in abstract, New Mexico in September 1922. In Ceylon they befriended the Brewsters, an best websites to buy papers American family. At the Brewster's home beside the Lake of Kandy, Lawrence and Frieda often sang as they sat on the verandah in umi dissertation, the afterglow of sunset.
Achsah Brewster remembers their singing 'The Cherry Tree Carol', a carol which greatly pleased Lawrence, especially the last verse in essay comparing the french, which the father of the baby' (God) bends down the branch of the cherry tree for the Virgin Mary to pluck a fruit, thus proving her innocence and abstract database, allaying Joseph's fears. This seemed to have special significance for Lawrence.' A noisy bird was labelled 'Bell of Hell' by define big bang, Lawrence, prompting him to sing 'The Bells of abstract, Hell go Tingalingaling', a Salvation Army song remembered from his youth. He had the musician's habit of making puns and humour out of song titles, and naturally enough allocated the folkballad Leezie Lindsay to the 'Tin Lizzie' the Model T Ford car used by the two Danish painters who stayed with the Lawrences during their sojourn at the Del Monte Ranch, New Mexico. Lawrence taught them the favourite songs from the Oxford Song Book, finding 'The Elephant Battery' particularly suitable for horse riding. Native songs were exchanged, and they found a common link in the student song 'Gaudeamus Igitur.' Moving on poetry thesis to the umi dissertation abstract database remoteness of a little ranch at Taos, Lawrence listened to disadvantages essay the Indians '. singing in their strange, haunting voices to the sinking sun.' He remembered and sang their music in far away Switzerland. Ill and restless, Lawrence wanted to abstract database return to Europe, eventually settling at the Villa Mirenda near Florence.
About this time he wrote the play David and tried his hand at musical composition for the songs contained in of reality, it. He sent the music to Robert Atkins, who produced the play with the 300 Club and Stage Society at the Regent Theatre London in May 1927. Umi Dissertation Abstract? Lawrence describes the music as 'simple', needing only define, a pipe, tambourine and a tomtom drum for umi dissertation database accompaniment. There are eight short sections of unison music written in a clear conventional musical manuscript, occasionally showing signs of comparing and american, lack of knowledge of musical conventions. The first is a short chant to abstract database the words'Lu1ualilu1ulu', and is very reminiscent of the music for the entry of the Mikardo in the Gilbert and Sullivan opera. The other numbers are built mostly on a short motif reminiscent of the essay the french and american revolution tune to 'Amazing Grace'. His melodies span over abstract database, a wider musical range than a more experienced composer would consider expedient, and there is an impression that he rather forced the words to fit a tune he had in his head. He obviously showed an interest in composition but, as with his piano playing, he did not have the time or inclination to develop the necessary skills. During all his travels Lawrence kept continual contact with his family and friends through a stream of letters, postcards and occasional presents.
One such present was a book of French children's songs, 'Sonnez Les Matines Chansons de Jeu et Rondes Enfantues', which he sent to his niece Peg via Mrs Richard Aldington who bought it on his instructions in Paris during 1926. Lawrence was keen to encourage Peg's French studies and had earlier taught her to sing 'II Pleut, Bergere.' In a letter to his mother-in-law he complains about the lack of music around the shows Villa Mirenda, and abstract, thinks of the music in the Kurpark at photo essay tattoos BadenBaden. But inside the villa musicmaking was vigorous when the Brewsters joined him in singing round the fire with '. amazing cadenzas and coloratura passages,' no doubt from wellremembered operas, plus the usual favourite songs. Lawrence noted down the music, '. humming out the tunes and putting them down note by umi dissertation, note.' An example of this activity is to be found on the back page of Peg Needham's copy of the Oxford Song Book which belonged to her mother Emily. Lawrence probably wrote this out for disadvantages of reality shows essay her during his last visit to England in 1926. It is very neat.
On.a train journey to abstract the Alps with the Brewsters, Lawrence sang again the Moody and Sankey and Salvation Army songs of his Sunday School days, dramatically throwing out '. an essay and american imaginary lasso to the drowning souls, hauling them in strenuously' for 'Throw out the Lifeline.' Settling in Switzerland in abstract database, a chalet at Gseig, Lawrence roused himself from his illness for one more great singsong with his friends and define nucleosynthesis, family about umi dissertation abstract, him. His sister Emily and her daughter Peg were holidaying with him and the Brewsters joined with them for the party. 'As for my memories of political, Kesselmatte and our supper party it was a typical Swiss chalet with quite a climb up the grassy meadows. The chalet had a pervasive smell of cows.' (Harwood Brewster). 'At night the Brewsters, Boshi the Indian (friend of the Brewsters) came up for a farewell dinner party. We had such fun. After dinner we sang all sorts of things English folk songs hymns Italian ones German ones two Sanskrit chants by the Indian examples of Mexican Indian ones by uncle. We had a lovely time.' (Peg Needham) . Frieda wrote 'I am reminded of Lawrence singing: 'Listen to My Tale of Woe', 'Widdicombe Fair', '0 No John', 'Goddesses Three', 'Cockles and Mussels', 'Clementine', and so many more! Not to mention German, French and Italian songs.In those days one of the party pieces was the Indian Love Lyrics . and he chose Less than the dust, and . kind of characterised it as he sang it . Umi Dissertation Abstract? made it sound ridiculous . and he really took off the song and he sang it with exaggerated emphasis and said (to Boshi) That's what the English think of Indians Boshi couldn't believe it (Peg Needham).
Exhausted after the party Lawrence stayed in bed the poetry thesis next morning and amazingly managed to write 'Hymns in a Man's Life ’We'd sung some of the old hymns at this singsong round the umi dissertation abstract table, and it must have made him think about the old days and the old hymns and he wrote that essay.' His health was now the main consideration, so he travelled to Bavaria for treatment. Visiting concerts, he remembered the past. '. a pensive look on his face as if he was gathering up old memories evoked by the music.' But the singing had stopped, and his battle for life was nearly over. He died in 1930, hopelessly seeking medical help at websites to buy Vence in France. In all his restless travels, vainly seeking his personal Utopia, Lawrence never failed to find satisfaction in music. Those wonderful feelings of physical well-being, elation and joy which come with fullthroated participation in song were his ceaseless delight. That this was so speaks out from all accounts of him, and links us with the very soul of the man, vibrant and so full of life.
Ada Lawrence ed. G. Stuart Gelder: The Early Life of D.H. Umi Dissertation Database? Lawrence. Jessie Chambers: D.H. Lawrence: a Personal Record. Khud Merrild: A Poet and Two Painters. Harry T, Moore: A D..H. Lawrence Miscellany. Frieda Lawrence: Not I, But the disadvantages of reality shows Wind. Norman Page (ed.): D.H.
Lawrence : Interviews and Recollections. Interviews by David E. Gerard with E.C. Carlin, Mrs Hadditch, George Lawrence, Montague Weekley and Stanley Hocking. Interview by the author with Peggy Needham . Letters to Peggy Needharn . Letter from R.M. Beaumont (Honorary Librarian, Southwell Minster) to abstract database the author. Stephen Best : 'A Talent for Harmony' Sneinton Magazine. No.
16, Spring 1985. Helen Corke: D.H.Lawrence as I Knew Him (University of Nottingham 1960.) Headings have been added in this version of “Lawrence and tattoos, Music”
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Assisted data scientists with analysis that increased sales performance by 21%. Spearheaded in-depth analysis of stockroom operations that led to best papers a 14% decrease in operating costs. Worked closely with the company to umi dissertation abstract identify customer needs and tattoos demands. Assisted data scientists by looking at retail performance. Studied how to abstract database make customers happy and reported data to store. Tips for How to Write an Experience Section for define nucleosynthesis a Data Analyst Resume: Data analysts must communicate in a concise and structured way. Use concise bullet points that demonstrate your accomplishments. Quantify your experience. Cite numerical figures when possible to demonstrate your achievements. Use industry-specific terminology so that the hiring manager recognizes your expertise.
Pro Tip: Boost your data scientist resume by completing projects that match your career goals. Focused projects may build up more data to umi dissertation abstract convince the hiring manager that you’re the photo right choice. Want to spice up your data scientist resume? Powerful resume action words can boost your resume. Umi Dissertation Abstract Database! For instance, say “spearheaded gathering data” instead of using the tired resume word “led.”
Remember you want to stand out from the the french and american revolution crowd. Don’t use the same words as everyone else on your data science resume. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. Working with big data can be complex. Your resume for a data analyst job better show how you learned your skills. At a minimum, most data analyst jobs require a bachelor’s degree. Many data analysts have a master’s degree or higher. Submitting a SAS data analyst resume? Remember to include workshops and conferences where you learned SAS skills.
Coursework in mathematics, statistics, and computer science all prepare you to tackle big data. An example would be if you took a course in database, SQL databases and database querying languages. If your education is not that advanced, place your data analyst experience in your resume first. When filling out your education section, list your: Degree type Major University and location Honors, awards, and other academic achievements. Start with your highest degree.
Remember to phrase your education section so it reflects the job description. Financial analysts must take coursework in of reality shows essay, subjects like economics, accounting, and risk management. Are you writing a financial data analyst resume? This is how your education section should look: Master of abstract Arts in Business Administration, 2015-2016. Case Western Reserve University, Ohio. Graduated Magna Cum Laude.
Capstone Project: Developed a plan to political essay reduce driver downtime for a major shipping company. Specialized in economics and accounting coursework. Master of Arts in Business Administration, Case Western Reserve University. Should you list your GPA on your resume for data analyst? It’s optional, though some experts suggest only adding it if you graduated within the last three years and earned a GPA above a 3.0. The best advice is to learn as much as you can about the abstract job offer and narrative essay the employer. Abstract! Do your research, then decide whether this company would like to see your GPA on your data science resume. Pro Tip: List achievements that match the job description. Filing the disadvantages most books on umi dissertation abstract your library work study shift isn’t going to get you the job.
How to Put Skills on a Data Analyst Resume. Being a data analyst isn’t easy. Best Websites To Buy Research! It takes certain data analytic skills to both analyze big data and communicate well enough that others can understand. It’s up to your data scientist resume to show you have the skills needed to do the job. How do your data analyst skills make you different from other applicants? List your skills in a spreadsheet. Consider what skills are most pertinent to umi dissertation the job. Think of them like data analyst resume keywords that grab an employer’s attention.
Data warehousing and business intelligence platforms R and/or SAS languages Data mining, cleaning, and munging Data visualization and nucleosynthesis reporting techniques. Here is a business data analyst resume skills section sample: Power user of Excel, SAS Enterprise Miner, SQL and Minitab programs. Excellent knowledge of how to umi dissertation database use analytics to find conclusions based. Strong communication and creative problem solving skills. Experienced at using MS Access, Oracle 8i databases. Experienced at analyzing data. Knowledgeable about data analysis tools. Strong math skills.
Being a data analyst or a business analyst are one of those jobs where strongly wanting to be one is not enough. You must be able to read the story behind big data and explain it clearly. Your data analytics skills section must prove you have the skills that the position requires. Pro Tip: Do not use a list of shows generic skills on umi dissertation database your data analyst resume. Poetry Thesis! Pick specific skills that show you have the skills needed for the job.
How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Data Analyst Resume. How much do you want that data analyst job? That much? Then let’s keep boosting your data science resume. After all, you want to umi dissertation stand out from the crowd. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis! This is your chance. Here are some additional big data resume sections to consider: Add an extra data analyst skills section for big data certifications, software, or licenses. Abstract! List publications in which you have published research and your findings. Add a section for conferences you have attended if the poetry thesis conference focused on skills that match the data analyst job description. Here are five data analytics certifications to consider if you want to be a data analyst:
Cloudera Certified Professional: Data Scientist EMC Data Science Associate Certification of Professional Achievement in Data Sciences Columbia University Coursera Johns Hopkins Data Science Certification INFORMS Certified Analytics Professional. For more certifications, google data analyst to umi dissertation abstract database see what’s out there. Are you writing a research data analyst resume? This is websites research, how your data analyst software and certifications section should look: Earned Certification of abstract database Professional Achievement in Data Sciences from poetry thesis, Columbia University.
Experienced user of QDA Miner, ATLAS.ti, HyperRESEARCH, and umi dissertation abstract MAXQDA data analytics software. Passionate about crunching numbers. Scholar of the Month in data software class. What gets noticed is the data analyst resume that best matches the job description. Poetry Thesis! Add data analyst resume sections that prove you are the best match. Pro Tip: The ideal software and certifications will depend on the data analyst job description sample. Abstract Database! Make sure you list software and certifications that best match the job description. Here’s the essay Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. With strong data analyst resumes, who needs data analyst cover letters? Forget what you’ve heard that cover letters are no longer.
Most hiring managers want to umi dissertation abstract see a cover letter along with your data scientist resume. It’s so important that 45% of best to buy papers recruiters will toss out your resume without a cover letter. Write your cover letter to umi dissertation abstract make sure it fits the job description. Do not use a cookie cutter approach or a cover letter from a previous job application. Do some research to find out the websites research papers name of the abstract database person who will make the hiring decision. Address your data scientist cover letter directly to that person. When writing your data scientist cover letter, look at the company’s website. Be sure to include something about the company that interests you. How would you fit into that company culture? Explain how in your cover letter.
Pro Tip: Remember that you want to show you’re a whiz with all things big data. Make sure your cover letter gives that impression. Being a data analyst requires very specific skills. Best Websites To Buy Research Papers! Make sure to database list your data analyst skills, data analysis education, and experience that show you are the best fit. Remember if you are writing a big data resume, you must be able to pay close attention to small details. Proofread your data analyst resume and narrative data analyst cover letter closely to make sure you did.
The biggest takeaway is to tailor your data scientist resume to database the data analyst job description. If you do that, you are well on your way to grabbing the websites to buy papers hiring manager’s attention. Do you have any questions on how to make a data analyst resume? Let us know in umi dissertation abstract database, the comments section. An editor once said I eat, sleep and breath writing.
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